The nations most affluent families generally inherit wealth and status while many members of racial and ethnic minorities inherit disadvantaged status.
Areas of potential social inequality include voting rights, freedom of speech and assembly, the extent of property rights and access to education, health care and other social goods.
inequality still exiss among them m terms of division of labor
Class, status, and power – are dimensions of social stratification.
Class - those who own a large portion of society's wealth, i.e., tools and capital vital in the production of wealth, and those who exercise control over other people who have less in life.* Modern social scientists refer to money, goods, and services as property* an individual occupying a higher position has access to scarce resources, compared to an individual in a lower position
– is a social ranking based primarily on economic position in which achieved characteristics can influence social mobility.The boundaries between classes are imprecisely defined..one can move from one stratum to another.Marked by unequal distribution of wealth & power
occupations in the Philippines which accord honor and prestige to the holders. For instance, teaching is regarded as an honorable profession, in spite of the fact that teaching is the lowest paid occupation in the Philippines. This is compensated by the title accorded to teachers, such as Professor or Doctor, depending upon their educational attainment. Filipinos are status-conscious. For instance, an engineeringgraduate is invariably addressed as Engineer so-and-so. To the Filipinos, the acquired status is given more recognition than the ascribed one.* In addition, residence in exclusive villages affordable to the affluent, enrollment in elite schools, membership in exclusive clubs, and even the types of vehicles owned determine status.
From Weber's point of view power implies political rather than economic superiority.Social power can also be exercised without the consent of society, as in the case of organized crimes. In effect, social power can be both legitimate and illegitimate, predicated on whether or not consent of the members of society is sought.
*example of this is the caste system found in India. Members of particular castes perform specific services. Both religion and tradition prohibit members of one caste from interacting with members belonging to other castes.* no amount of education can help a member of the lowest caste, the so-called untouchables, to improve their socio-economic condition.
Associated with Hinduism in India.It is an ascribed status (at birth, children automatically assume the same position as their parents)
required peasants to work land leased to them by nobles in exchange for military protection & other services.Peasant - is an agricultural worker who generally owns or rents only a small plot of ground.
The open society is frequently found in industrial society where people have several options to improve their socio-economic status.
There are limitations to this approach: in urban communities it ispossible that not everyone knows the other members, nor is oneknown by all of them.
While this is considered by the Americans as the bestI ndicator of social class, this may not be true for Philippine society.There are certain occupations classified as prestigious, but havevery low monetary rewards, as in the case of the teaching profession.
Lec 13 social_strat
SOCIALSTRATIFICATIONCULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY Second Semester 12/13/2012 1
SOCIAL STRATIFICATIONRefers tothe hierarchical arrangement ofindividuals into divisions of powerand wealth within a society. 12/13/2012 2
STRATIFICATION“the society is divided into numbersof strata or layers”• In complex societies, inequality is viewed in terms of the distribution of scarce goods. 12/13/2012 3
STRATIFICATION– is the structured ranking of entire groups of people that perpetuates unequal economic rewards and power in a society. 12/13/2012 4
SOCIAL STRATIFICATION• Ascribed Status – a social position that is assigned to a person by society without regard for the person’s unique talents or characteristics.• Achieved Status – is a social position attained by a person largely through his or her own efforts. 12/13/2012 5
SOCIOLOGIST’S VIEW ONSTRATIFICATION• Social inequality - refers to a situation in which individuals in a society do not have equal social status.• Point to differences in advantages based on sex, age, or ability. 12/13/2012 6
ANTHROPOLOGIST’S VIEW ONSTRATIFICATION• what is universal is human inequality but not social stratification• all social groups in a particular age-sex level in the society have equal access to economic resources and equal opportunities to obtain prestige. 12/13/2012 7
STRATIFICATIONIn stratification, People are ranked according to:• Wealth – how much of the resources of society are owned by certain individuals. - includes income and properties - it is an element of social stratification• 6.Prestige – degree of honor one’s position evokes. - is an element of status• Power – the degree to which one directs, manages, or dominates others 12/13/2012 8
VIEWS ON SOCIAL STRATIFICATION• Conservative View: ** it maintains the position that inequality is deeply rooted in the law of nature. By nature, human beings are perceived to be selfish and greedy.• Liberal View: ** society is to blame for the selfishness and greediness of people because it allowed them to struggle and compete with others for scarce resources. 12/13/2012 10
ELEMENTS OF SOCIAL STRATIFICATION•Class•Status•Power 12/13/2012 11
ELEMENTS OF SOCIAL STRATIFICATION• CLASS – division of people in society by their relationship to the means of production. (Carl Marx) - class referred to a group of people exhibiting the same lifestyles because of similar economic positions in society, i.e., by the goods they possess and the chances available to them to improve their income. (Max Weber) 12/13/2012 12
CLASS• social class refers to a group of people who are similarly situated in terms of property owned, occupation held, income acquired, educational degrees attained, and lifestyles exhibited, and are therefore differentiated from others. 12/13/2012 13
ELEMENTS OF SOCIALSTRATIFICATION• 9.Status - refers to the social position that an individual occupies in society. 12/13/2012 14
ELEMENTS OF SOCIALSTRATIFICATION• Power - refers to the ability of an individual to get other people to do "what he wants them to do with or without their consent“.• Weber divided power into personal and social. Personal power - refers to the individuals freedom to direct his own life as he chooses. Social power - is the ability of an individual to make decisions that can affect the entire community. 12/13/2012 15
KINDS OF STRATIFICATIONSYSTEM• Closed Society – individual is born into a specific stratum and therefore ones occupation is determined by the family affiliation. An individual has no opportunity therefore for socio- economic mobility. 12/13/2012 16
CLOSED SOCIETY• Castes - a hereditary rank, usually religiously dictated, that tends to be fixed and immovable.• E.g. Dons – the one working in cremating bodies. 12/13/2012 17
KINDS OF STRATIFICATIONSYSTEM• Estate System – members are allowed to certain degree of mobility. - social positions are ranked according to their functions. * Nobility * Clergy (millitary) * Peasants 12/13/2012 18
KINDS OF STRATIFICATIONSYSTEM• Open SocietyCharacteristics: * Though classes exist, they are not institutionalized, as in the case of the caste and estate systems. * Though class boundaries are unclear and people do not show excessive class consciousness, inequality due class divisions is apparent. 12/13/2012 19
OPEN SOCIETY * Though status is usually achieved, their evidence, however, that status tends to be ascribed to the lowest and highest social classes. * Social mobility if possible and frequently occurs. 12/13/2012 20
APPROACHES IN THE STUDY OF SOCIALSTRATIFICATION• Lifestyle Approach – the focus of the study is to determine the lifestyle of various classes and therefore addresses the following points: * recreational activities * material possessions * organizational affiliations * schools attended 12/13/2012 21
APPROACHES IN THE STUDY OF SOCIALSTRATIFICATION• Reputational Approach – this addresses the following points: * people they know in the community * residence type of the respondents 12/13/2012 22
APPROACHES IN THE STUDY OF SOCIALSTRATIFICATION• Subjective Approach - it is basically concerned with ranking oneself. It is possible that respondent do not have any idea of social stratification.• Objective Approach - The interviewer provides categories, like income, occupation, and educational attainment of the respondents. 12/13/2012 23
APPROACHES IN THE STUDY OF SOCIALSTRATIFICATION• Occupation Prestige Approach - The focus is on occupation that brings prestige and honor to a person. 12/13/2012 24
THANK YOU…Prepare for a quiz next meeting… 12/13/2012 25