Social Interaction                               Social                  Interaction12/14/12   social interaction/erikchoi...
Social interaction      Refer to the ways in which people respond to one another,      whether face to face or over the t...
 Considering how social interaction shapes the way           we view the world around us, we will focus on…           The...
Herbert Blumer – the distinctive characteristic of social    interaction among people is that “human beings interpret or ...
Defining and Reconstructing Reality.       Sociologist William I. Thomas, an early critic of theories of       racial and...
Negotiation      refers to attempt to reach agreement with others     concerning some objective.     It is through negot...
Negotiated Order refersto a social structure that derives itsexistence from the social interactions throughwhich people d...
Elements of Social Structure:        Statuses        Social Roles        Groups        Social Networks        Social ...
1. Statuses             - refers to any of the full range of socially defined               positions within a large group...
2. Social Roles is a set of expectations for people who  occupy a given social position or status. With each distinctive...
Viewed from a functionalist perspective: roles contribute to a society’s stability by enabling members toanticipate the b...
Role Conflict occurs when incompatible expectations arise from two or more socialpositions held by the same person. fulf...
Role exit developed by sociologist Helen Rose Fuchs Ebaugh to describe the process ofdisengagement from a role that is ce...
Groups A group is any number of people with  similar norms, Values and expectations who  interact with one another on a r...
 New technology has broadened the definition of groups to include those whointeract electronically. Not all the “people” ...
Social Network                               a series of social relationships that                              links a p...
Involvement     in  social   networks                              (networking) is especially valuable in                ...
Texting- is the exchange of wireless                                e-mails over cell phones.                            ...
Well-established  networks    have                              developed to help beginners at                           ...
RU Ready for Texting Lingo?      @ wrk          At work                      AYT    Are you there?           A3    Anytime...
Social Institutions12/14/12        social interaction/erikchoi   21
Mass Media                           Government12/14/12        social interaction/erikchoi           22
Economy                           Family12/14/12     social interaction/erikchoi       23
Health Care System12/14/12        social interaction/erikchoi   24
FUNCTIONALIST VIEW          Replacing personnel          Teaching new recruits          Producing and distributing good...
CONFLICT VIEW VS. FUNCTIONALISM Functionalists believe that society is a social system consisting of  various integrated ...
        Social and economic inequality, in the conflict view,      arises because of the operation of coercive institutio...
Conclusion         Conflict view became popular in the late nineteenth    century with the rise of socialism but we have ...
Social Structure         in Global        Perspective12/14/12   social interaction/erikchoi   29
Durkheim’s Model of     Social Structure           A. Mechanical Solidarity             B. Organic Solidarity12/14/12     ...
 Social structure depends on the division of  labor in a society or on the manner in which  tasks are performed Task/lab...
Mechanical Solidarity minimal division of laborA collective consciousness develops that emphasizes group solidarityImpl...
    Few social rolesBoth social interaction and negotiation are based on close, intimate, face-to-face social contacts12...
 as societies become more advanced technologically, greater division of labor takes place; with increasing specialization...
Organic Solidarity Dependence on others becomes essential for group survival12/14/12        social interaction/erikchoi  ...
Tonnies’s Model of Social          Structure           A.Gemeinschaft           B. Gesellschaft12/14/12        social inte...
Gemeinschaft rural life/close-knit communityA small community in which people have similar backgrounds and life experien...
Consequence: less privacySocial control: (informal) moral persuasion, gossip and even gestureSOCIAL CHANGE is limited12...
Gesellschaft modern urban lifeRelationships are governed by social roles that grow out of immediate tasksSelf-interest ...
 social control: (formal) laws and legally defined punishmentsSOCIAL CHANGE is an important aspect of life12/14/12     s...
Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft• Rural life typifies this            • Urban life typifies this  form                       ...
Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft• People maintain a              • Self-interest  spirit of cooperation            dominates ...
Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft• Informal social control             • Formal social control is  predominates               ...
Stages of Sociocultural Evolution  Societal Type           First Appearance                  Characteristics  Hunting-and-...
 Lenski’s Sociocultural Evolution Approach Sociologist Gerhard Lenski sees human society as  undergoing a process of cha...
Preindustrial Societies            Hunting-and-gathering society            Horticultural society            Agrarian s...
 Hunting-and-gathering society – people simply rely  on their environment for their survival Horticultural society – peo...
 Industrial society – is a society that depends in  mechanization to produce its goods and services  but it had distincti...
Agencies of Socialization1.   Family2.   Peer groups3.   Media4.   School5.   Workplace6.   Church7.   neighborhood12/14/1...
…end…finally…12/14/12      social interaction/erikchoi   50
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  1. 1. Social Interaction Social Interaction12/14/12 social interaction/erikchoi 1
  2. 2. Social interaction Refer to the ways in which people respond to one another, whether face to face or over the telephone or on the computer. Social Structure refers to the way in which a society is organized into predictable relationships. The closely linked concepts of social interaction and social structure are central to sociological study. - Sociologists scrutinize patterns of behavior to understand and accurately describe the social interactions of a community or society and the social structure in which they take place.12/14/12 social interaction/erikchoi 2
  3. 3.  Considering how social interaction shapes the way we view the world around us, we will focus on… The Five Elements of Social Structure: Statuses Social Roles Groups Social Networks Social Institutions12/14/12 social interaction/erikchoi 3
  4. 4. Herbert Blumer – the distinctive characteristic of social interaction among people is that “human beings interpret or ‘define’ each other’s actions instead of merely reacting to each other’s actions. In other words, our response to someone’s behavior is based on the meaning we attach to his or her actions. Reality is shaped by our perceptions, evaluation, and definitions. The meaning that we attach to people’s behavior are shaped by our interactions with them and with the larger society.12/14/12 social interaction/erikchoi 4
  5. 5. Defining and Reconstructing Reality. Sociologist William I. Thomas, an early critic of theories of racial and gender differences, recognized that the “definition of the situation” could mold the thinking and personality of the individual. Thomas observed that people respond not only to the objective features of a person or situation but also to the meaning that the person or situation has for them. Erving Goffman – “presentation of the self” – all of us have an image of how we want to be seen by others. Negotiation…12/14/12 social interaction/erikchoi 5
  6. 6. Negotiation  refers to attempt to reach agreement with others concerning some objective. It is through negotiation that society creates its social structure. Examples of situations where negotiation takes place: Family-to-family bargaining College financial aid programs12/14/12 social interaction/erikchoi 6
  7. 7. Negotiated Order refersto a social structure that derives itsexistence from the social interactions throughwhich people define and redefine its character.12/14/12 social interaction/erikchoi 7
  8. 8. Elements of Social Structure:  Statuses  Social Roles  Groups  Social Networks  Social Institutions12/14/12 social interaction/erikchoi 8
  9. 9. 1. Statuses - refers to any of the full range of socially defined positions within a large group or society.  Ascribed status is assigned to a person by society without regard for the persons unique talents or characteristics. This takes place at birth such as age, gender, racial background and other biological characteristics. Ascribed status does not necessarily have the same social meaning in every society.  Achieved status comes largely through efforts. Examples are statuses such as “bank president”, “lawyer” and other professions. Our ascribed status frequently influences our achieved status.  Master status is a status that dominates others and thereby determines a persons general position in society. It only shows that an individual can hold different and conflicting statuses in his/her lifetime.12/14/12 social interaction/erikchoi 9
  10. 10. 2. Social Roles is a set of expectations for people who occupy a given social position or status. With each distinctive social status – whether ascribed or achieved, come particular role expectations. The actual performance of social roles varies from individual to individual. roles are a significant component of social12/14/12 social interaction/erikchoi 10
  11. 11. Viewed from a functionalist perspective: roles contribute to a society’s stability by enabling members toanticipate the behavior of others and to pattern their own actionsaccordingly. yet social roles can also be dysfunctional if they restrict people’sinteractions and relationships.12/14/12 social interaction/erikchoi 11
  12. 12. Role Conflict occurs when incompatible expectations arise from two or more socialpositions held by the same person. fulfillment of the roles associated with one status may directly violate the roleslinked to a second status calls for important ethical choices. another type of role conflict occurs when individuals move into occupationsthat are common among people with their ascribed status.Role Strain describes the difficulty that arises when the same social position imposesconflicting demands and expectations. 12/14/12 social interaction/erikchoi 12
  13. 13. Role exit developed by sociologist Helen Rose Fuchs Ebaugh to describe the process ofdisengagement from a role that is central to one’s self-identity and establishment of a newrole and identity.Ebaugh has offered a four-stage model of role exit.1. The first stage begins with doubt,- the person experiences frustration, burnout, or simply unhappiness with an accustomedstatus and the roles associated with the social position.2. The second stage involves a search for alternatives.- a person who is unhappy with his or her career may take a leave of absence.3. The third stage or role exit is the action stage or departure.-a turning point that made the person leave their job, end their marriage.4. The last stage of role exit involves the creation of a new identity. 12/14/12 social interaction/erikchoi 13
  14. 14. Groups A group is any number of people with similar norms, Values and expectations who interact with one another on a regular basis. Every society is composed of many groups in which daily social Interaction takes place. We seek out groups to establish friendships, to accomplish certain goals, And to fulfill the social roles we have acquired. Groups play a vital role in a society’s social structure. Much of our social interaction takes place within groups and is influenced by their norms and sanctions. 12/14/12 social interaction/erikchoi 14
  15. 15.  New technology has broadened the definition of groups to include those whointeract electronically. Not all the “people” with whom we converse online arereal. At some websites, chatterbots – fictitious correspondents created byartificial intelligence programs – respond to questions as if a human werereplying.Ultimately, such conversations may develop into a chat group that includesother online correspondents, both real and artificial. New groups organizedaround interests, such as antique collection or bowling, have already arisen fromthis type of virtual reality. 12/14/12 social interaction/erikchoi 15
  16. 16. Social Network  a series of social relationships that links a person directly to others, and through them indirectly to still more people. Social Networks  may constrain people by limiting and the range of their interactions, yet networks may also empower Technology people by making available to them vast resources (Lin 1999).12/14/12 social interaction/erikchoi 16
  17. 17. Involvement in social networks (networking) is especially valuable in finding employment. According to Manuel Castells, these Social emerging electronic social networks are fundamental to new organizations and Networks the growth of existing businesses and and associations. One such network, in Technology particular, is changing the way people interact.12/14/12 social interaction/erikchoi 17
  18. 18. Texting- is the exchange of wireless e-mails over cell phones.  began first in Asia in 2000 and has now taken off North America and Europe.  popular among young users, who sent shorthand messages such as Social “WRU” and “CU2NYT”. Networks and  Sociologists caution that devices such as cell phones may create a Technology workday that never ends, and that increasingly people are busy checking their digital devices rather than actually conversing with those around them (Rosen 2001).12/14/12 social interaction/erikchoi 18
  19. 19. Well-established networks have developed to help beginners at electronic communication to connect to the Internet. Social In 2003, when the U.S. troops were sent to the Middle East, many people Networks relied on e-mail. Today, digital photos, and and sound files accompany e-mail Technology messages between soldiers and their family and friends.12/14/12 social interaction/erikchoi 19
  20. 20. RU Ready for Texting Lingo? @ wrk At work AYT Are you there? A3 Anytime, anywhere, CU2NYT See you tonight anyplace Abt 2 About to Grr I’m angry AFAIR As far as I RUF2T Are you free to remember talk? AML All my love RUMF Are you male or female? A/S Age/Sex? UOK Are you OK? AWCIGO And where can WRU Where are you? I get one?12/14/12 social interaction/erikchoi 20
  21. 21. Social Institutions12/14/12 social interaction/erikchoi 21
  22. 22. Mass Media Government12/14/12 social interaction/erikchoi 22
  23. 23. Economy Family12/14/12 social interaction/erikchoi 23
  24. 24. Health Care System12/14/12 social interaction/erikchoi 24
  25. 25. FUNCTIONALIST VIEW  Replacing personnel  Teaching new recruits  Producing and distributing goods and services  Preserving order  Providing and maintaining sense of purpose CONFLICT VIEW  Major Institutions – -education – -religion INTERACTIONIST VIEW “Social Institutions affect our everyday behavior, whether we are driving down the street or waiting in a long shopping line.” -Sociologist Mitchell Duneier “The Network Center” Interactionist theorists emphasize that our social behavior is conditioned by the roles we accept, the grounds, the groups to which we belong, and the institutions within which we function.12/14/12 social interaction/erikchoi 25
  26. 26. CONFLICT VIEW VS. FUNCTIONALISM Functionalists believe that society is a social system consisting of various integrated parts. Each of these parts fulfills a specific role that contributes to the overall functioning of society. The conflict view of life regards all social interactions as a struggle for authority and privilege. Each person in society and every group is seen as being in competition for scarce and valued resources.Comparison and Contrast. Functionalists view society as a social system with a variety of needs of its own which have to be met if the requirements and needs of its members are to be met. Conflict theorists view society as the setting within which they strive over wealth and power. The functionalist regards the principal bodies of every society as value neutral entities within which various struggles occur. Functionalists argue that coercion plays only an insignificant role and that disparity arises as a necessary result of the fact that there is a compromise within the society on its most important values and jobs and differential rewards are essential to a society’s effective functioning.12/14/12 social interaction/erikchoi 26
  27. 27.  Social and economic inequality, in the conflict view, arises because of the operation of coercive institutions, which put a great emphasis on power, deception, and inheritance as the main avenues for obtaining rights and privileges. Functionalists have stressed such things as hard work, inborn talent, and selection by others as the way by which economic advantages can be obtained by some and not by others.  Functionalists see class categories as mere objects or categories. Conflict theorists see classes as social groups with distinguishing interests, which inescapably bring them into conflict with other groups with opposed interests.12/14/12 social interaction/erikchoi 27
  28. 28. Conclusion Conflict view became popular in the late nineteenth century with the rise of socialism but we have seen its failure in all the failed governments of socialist republics. Functionalism on the other hand has been the most successful as seen by us in the US Government and democratic setup. The above discussion concludes that the Functionalist view provides a better explanation for the democratic process and an understanding of the reasons contributing to social inequality.12/14/12 social interaction/erikchoi 28
  29. 29. Social Structure in Global Perspective12/14/12 social interaction/erikchoi 29
  30. 30. Durkheim’s Model of Social Structure A. Mechanical Solidarity B. Organic Solidarity12/14/12 social interaction/erikchoi 30
  31. 31.  Social structure depends on the division of labor in a society or on the manner in which tasks are performed Task/labor in societies can be carried out by an individual or can be divided among many people12/14/12 social interaction/erikchoi 31
  32. 32. Mechanical Solidarity minimal division of laborA collective consciousness develops that emphasizes group solidarityImplies that all individual perform the same tasksThere is a little concern for individual needs12/14/12 social interaction/erikchoi 32
  33. 33.  Few social rolesBoth social interaction and negotiation are based on close, intimate, face-to-face social contacts12/14/12 social interaction/erikchoi 33
  34. 34.  as societies become more advanced technologically, greater division of labor takes place; with increasing specialization, many different task must be performed by many different individualsSocial interactions become less personal in societies12/14/12 social interaction/erikchoi 34
  35. 35. Organic Solidarity Dependence on others becomes essential for group survival12/14/12 social interaction/erikchoi 35
  36. 36. Tonnies’s Model of Social Structure A.Gemeinschaft B. Gesellschaft12/14/12 social interaction/erikchoi 36
  37. 37. Gemeinschaft rural life/close-knit communityA small community in which people have similar backgrounds and life experiencesSocial interactions are intimate and familiarThere is a commitment to the larger social group and a sense of togetherness among members12/14/12 social interaction/erikchoi 37
  38. 38. Consequence: less privacySocial control: (informal) moral persuasion, gossip and even gestureSOCIAL CHANGE is limited12/14/12 social interaction/erikchoi 38
  39. 39. Gesellschaft modern urban lifeRelationships are governed by social roles that grow out of immediate tasksSelf-interest dominates and there is a little consensus concerning values or commitment to the group12/14/12 social interaction/erikchoi 39
  40. 40.  social control: (formal) laws and legally defined punishmentsSOCIAL CHANGE is an important aspect of life12/14/12 social interaction/erikchoi 40
  41. 41. Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft• Rural life typifies this • Urban life typifies this form form• People share a feeling • People have a little of community that sense of commonality. results from their similar Their differences backgrounds and appear more striking experiences than their similarities • Social interactions are• social interactions are impersonal and task- intimate and familiar specific12/14/12 social interaction/erikchoi 41
  42. 42. Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft• People maintain a • Self-interest spirit of cooperation dominates and unity of will • The task being• Task and personal performed is relationships cannot paramount; be separated relationships are subordinate• People place little • Privacy is valued emphasis on individual privacy12/14/12 social interaction/erikchoi 42
  43. 43. Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft• Informal social control • Formal social control is predominates evident• people are not very • People are more tolerant of deviance tolerant of deviance• Emphasis is on ascribed • more emphasis is put statuses on achieved statusses • Social change is very• Social change is evident, even within a relatively limited generation12/14/12 social interaction/erikchoi 43
  44. 44. Stages of Sociocultural Evolution Societal Type First Appearance Characteristics Hunting-and-gathering Beginning of human life Nomadic reliance on readily available food and fibers Horticultural About 10, 0000 to 12, 000 years More settled; development of ago agriculture and limited technology. Agrarian About 5,000 years ago Larger, more stable settlements: improved technology, increased crop yields and specialization of labor Industrial 1760-1850 Reliance on mechanical power and new sources of energy; centralized workplaces; economic interdependence; formal education Postindustrial 1960’s Reliance in services, especially the processing and control of information; expanded middle class Postmodern Latter 1970’s High technology; high consumption goods and media images; cross culture of integration.12/14/12 social interaction/erikchoi 44
  45. 45.  Lenski’s Sociocultural Evolution Approach Sociologist Gerhard Lenski sees human society as undergoing a process of change according to a dominant pattern, known as Sociocultural Evolution. Sociocultural Revolution – process of change and development in human societies that results from cumulative growth in their stories of cultural information. Technology – information about the ways in which the material resources of the environment may be used to satisfy human needs and desires.12/14/12 social interaction/erikchoi 45
  46. 46. Preindustrial Societies  Hunting-and-gathering society  Horticultural society  Agrarian society12/14/12 social interaction/erikchoi 46
  47. 47.  Hunting-and-gathering society – people simply rely on their environment for their survival Horticultural society – people place greater emphasis on the production of tools and households objects. Agrarian society – introduced new technological innovations but still continues to rely on physical power of humans and animals.12/14/12 social interaction/erikchoi 47
  48. 48.  Industrial society – is a society that depends in mechanization to produce its goods and services but it had distinctive social consequences. Postindustrial society – is a society wherein Economic system is engaged in primarily in the processing and control of information. The main output of a Postindustrial society is services rather than manufactured goods.  Postmodern society - is a technologically sophisticated society that is preoccupied with consumer goods and media images.12/14/12 social interaction/erikchoi 48
  49. 49. Agencies of Socialization1. Family2. Peer groups3. Media4. School5. Workplace6. Church7. neighborhood12/14/12 social interaction/erikchoi 49
  50. 50. …end…finally…12/14/12 social interaction/erikchoi 50
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