1. The planet VenusVenus is the second planet from the Sun and is known asthe jewel of the sky. It is the sixth largest planet and has anorbit more circular than any other planet. The eccentricity ismeasured to be less than 1%. The orbit extends to108,200,000 kilometers (0.72 AU) from the Sun and has adiameter of 12,103.6 kilometers. It has a mass of 4.869 x1024 kilograms.Venus was thought to be two separate bodies, Eosphorus(the morning star) and Hesperus (the evening star). It isnamed after the goddess of love and beauty probablybecause it is the brightest planet seen in the ancient times. 1. The second planet from the sun?
2. Who Discovered Venus • Galileo Galilee and Nicolas Copernicus (the one who first saw the planets through a telescope and the one who hypothesized that the planets revolve around the Sun, respectively). • Among the first correct Venus observations was that of Pythagoras’, the Greek philosopher credited for the Pythagorean Theorem (a mathematical—specifically a geometrical— concept). Pythagoras observed that the so-called morning and evening stars were in fact the same.2. The one who discoveredVenus?
3. When Was Venus DiscoveredThe Babylonians provide the earliest record ofobserving this planet at around 1581 BC; thePersians in 1032 made a record of the Transit ofVenus. Given the designation of the “morningstar” & “evening star”, the Greeks had initiallythought that these were two separate starswhen in fact it was only one.
4. Internal structure of Venus Q3-4 Give at least two structure of planet Venus.
5. Some Pictures of VenusVenus full size Venus topography
7. Venus Profile Q5: Average distance from the sun?Mass (kg): 4.87 x 1024Diameter (km) : 12104Mean density (kg/m3) : 5250Escape velocity (m/s) : 10400Average distance from Sun : (108,208,930 km)Rotation period (length of day in Earth days) : 243.02(retrograde)Revolution period (length of year in Earth days) : 224.7Obliquity (tilt of axis degrees) : 178Orbit inclination (degrees) : 3.39
8. Orbit eccentricity (deviation from circular) : 0.007Mean surface temperature (K) : 726Visual geometric albedo (reflectivity) : 0.59Highest point on surface : Maxwell Montes (17 kmabove mean planetary radius)Atmospheric components : 96% carbon dioxide, 3%nitrogen, 0.1% water vaporSurface materials : basaltic rock and alteredmaterials
9. What is Venus Made Of? The atmosphere of Venus is composed mainly of carbon dioxide (96%), 3.5% nitrogen, and less than 1% is made up of carbon monoxide, argon, sulfu r dioxide, and water vapor.
10. Distance from the sunThe planet Venus is the second closest planet to the Sun (distance 108million km ) and our nearest planetary neighbor. It takes about 225 daysto orbit the Sun. Its retrograde rotation of 243 days means that the planetspins from east to west, rather than west to east, as the Earth does. So onVenus the Sun (though invisible through the clouds) rises in the west andsets in the east. This slow retrograde rotation results in Venus solar daylasting 117 terrestrial days. Like Mercury, Venus has no known naturalmoon, so we can only measure its mass accurately when a spacecraftpasses or orbits it. Venus mass turns out to be about 0.82 times that ofthe Earth or 4.9 x 10 24 kg.
11. Venus goes in a clockwise retrograde rotation. Thecurrent rotation period of Venus is a state of equilibriumbetween the gravitational tides locking made by the Sun.This lessens the rotation rate as well as an atmospherictide made by the heating of Venus’ atmosphere.Venus takes 242 earth days to rotate on its axis, so aday on Venus is about 242 Earth days. This is the slowestrate of a planet in our Solar System. 243 earth days inVenus takes longer than a Venusians year which is 224.7earth days. The sun also rises in the west and sets on theeast in Venus.
12. Venus has no moonOne theory suggests that Venus experienced an impact similar to Earth.However, the gravity of Venus was not able to hold on to the fragmented piecethat drifted into space. A similar theory suggests that Venus did have a moononce but it escaped the gravity pull of the planet.Since Venus is close to the Sun, it is possible that the gravity of the Sun affectedits satellite, causing it to escape Venus’s influence.David Stevenson, a Caltech professor, and Alex Elemi, a Caltechstudent, proposed that an object collided with Venus many years ago, whichcreated a moon. However, another impact event caused the change in Venus’srotation that also explains the inverse rotation of the planet. Due to the slow andinverted rotation of the planet, it caused a moon linked to Venus, it startedmoving towards the planet. This then resulted to Venus reabsorbing its naturalsatellite.
13. MASS AND DENSITY The diameter of Venus is 7,521 miles or 12, 104 kilometers. This is close to the 7,926 miles or 12,756 km diameter of the Earth. Venus’ mass is roughly 80 percent that of Earth’s. 95% of Earth’s density is the density of Venus. Its mass is 4.868 5 × 1024 kg and its total volume is 9.38 × 1011 km3 . Contrary to popular belief, the size of a planet does not play any role in determiningQ6: how many mass percent the density of the planet.does the planet Venus have?
14. Q8: Average surface temperature of earth. Earth VenusDiameter 12,742 km 12,100 kmMass 5.9736×1024kg 4.868 x1024 kgSurface Gravity 9.78 m/s2 8.87m/s2Surface Area 510,072,000 km2 460,000,000 km2Volume 1.08321×1012km3 9.38×1011km3 1 Day 243 Earth days 23h 56m 1 Year 224.7 Earth days 365.25 daysSurface Atmospheric Pressure 92 times that of EarthAverage Surface Temperature 14 degrees Celsius 462 degrees Celsius
15. WATERThe apparent lack of water on Venus is more puzzling than its thick atmosphere ofcarbon dioxide. Obviously missing are features produced by the circulation of waterthrough the atmosphere and on the surface of Venus. River valleys, oceans,groundwater, glaciers, and ice caps---all important elements of change on Earth andMars---are not apparent in radar images of Venus. At least three explanations for theabsence of water-related features need to be considered.1. The bulk of Venus is inherently water-poor, but not carbon-poor.2. Venus contained water that outgases. However, the water never condensed toform a liquid, because of the high atmospheric temperatures.3. Water vapor outgases, condensed to a liquid, and flowed across and shaped thelandscape, but then disappeared and all ancient landscapes were subsequentlydestroyed. Q.7 Give at least one explanation for the absence of water-related to be considered.
16. Venus compared with the Earth The surface of Venus is shown in orange as radar images while the atmosphere isreproduced on near true colors as it would be seen by the human eye. The upperclouds are brightest in the blue and ultraviolet wavelengths making Venus awhite-blue color planet. Both planets have almost the same size and density andVenus is only a 30% closer to the Sun than Earth. Both share an interestinggeological evolution with old volcanoes in Venus and some of them could still beactive. One of the biggest miseries of Venus is why its surface is so young ongeological time-scales. It is interesting to remark that there is almost no water onVenus atmosphere.
17. Q.9-10 What are the two large highlands found in Venus?A shaded relief map of Venus was constructed from radar altimeter data collected by theMagellan orbiter. Two large highlands named Ishtar and Aphrodite rise above vast expanses ofrolling lowlands.These maps revealed that most of the surface of Venus consists of relatively smoothlowlands with local relief of less than 1000 meters. Two continent-sized highlands andseveral smaller ones rise above the uplands. These plateau like highlands arecomplexly deformed by tectonic processes and have few volcanoes. Large lithosphericdomes with abundant volcanic features makeup the uplands with elevations betweenthose of the lowlands and the highlands.