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Cess chaninging nature of state

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  • 1. Changing Nature of Indian State and Administration What is State = (i) A state is a political association with effective Sovereignty over a geographical area and representing population; (ii) A State usually includes the set of institutions that claim authority to make rules to govern people of the society in that territory Article 12 of Indian Constitution State includes:- Govt of India; parliament; and other Govt institutions; State Govt; State Legislature; other Govt institutions; local Govt and local agencies , which make rules to govern the territory ( Political association; sovereignty; geographical area/ territory; population; set of institutions; authority to make rules and govern people; Central, State and Local govt institutions) Understanding Nature of State The ideals, goals, policies, structures, roles and foci of a Govt and Society. (Communism- Socialism; Capitalism ) The factors that influence the nature of State/Adm generally are; i) Constitutional goals, structures and performance of structures ; ii) Internal environment- Social, economic, political, cultural and historical factors ; technology; and administrative structures /agencies iii) The external environment--Social, economic, political, cultural factors and technology; and IGOs (interaction among these institutions demine the nature Of State
  • 2. Evolution of Society and State Methods to understand society and state= vedas; written documents; learning from the life experience of forefathers and observing existing society ) Unlike other societies , India has tremendous continuous past –DD kosambi) Layman’s understanding of Society and state • Primitive Society ; (no state ) • Formation of social institutions- Family ; (family performed the role of state) • Animal rearing society; • Agricultural practices= surplus production • Class formation= economic inequalities; Social inequalities (caste, gender , religion • Existence of State to protect the property and life of the people; (Kautilya’s Arthashastra -320BC to 296 BC mention about the existence of state) • Feudal society= concentration of land dominance of certain privileged social groups over the large masses; • Capitalist Society= Competition, free trade and economy • Socialist Society- welfare of the marginalized sections • Communism or state less Society= owning of property by Community; wither away of state • (thus property relations or distribution of resources among the social groups, regions.etc determine the nature of state)
  • 3. Philosophers’ views on the state • State is a complex phenomenon and problematic institution – • No consensus among the thinkers on evolution of State, & its nature, definition, structure, functions • Evolution of civilization - codified certain laws/rules or shared norms, kinship , political system, sovereign authority , divine, ethical and legal notions became reference point for defining state . • The simple terms – the State is defined as a system of relationship in terms of its basic features- territory; population-membership of community; government- institutions & regulation of internal affairs , bureaucracy judiciary and military and sovereignty – of people & other states . • It is also viewed as configuration of organizations and actions that influence the policies for all groups and classes in the society • Monopoly of control over means of violence, territory and sovereignty, constitutionality, impersonal power, public bureaucracy, authority, legitimacy and citizenship
  • 4. Characteristics of State • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • The state is /has : a unique and separate association (other than social institution; Legitimate authority to govern the society ; Control the resources and distribute among the social groups as per the norms; perceptive, omnipotent- all powerful and arbitrary ; Maintain cohesion/solidarity of a class-divided society ; Institutionalized political power; serving the interests of the influential & disorientation for representing general interest ; supporting capital and sustaining its pattern of accumulation; Minimal State; Corporate State; Competitive State ;Capitalist State ; Soft state; Hard State ;Both Soft & Hard State ; Feudal and absolute State ; Modern State; Welfare State ; Global State
  • 5. Conti (Manor) Based on Literature State can be broadly classified; i) Prior to 1950’s = feudal state; Absolute State- Monarch rule ; Laissez-fare State; ii) From 1960’s- 1970’s= Modern / Development State; Welfare State iii) From 1980’s- = peripheral State; Dependency State; Bureaucratic- authoritarian State ; iv) From 1990’s= v) Predator(killer) State; vi) vampire (parasite) State; vii) Receiver State; viii) prostrate (powerless) State; ix) Fictitious (untrue/ pretend )State; x) Show of State; xi) Collapsed State; xii) Rentier (tenant) State ; xiii) Market State= free trade; xiv) End of Nation State ; ( borderless State ) xv) End of ideology ( democracy solved all problems= the problems are technical adjustments)
  • 6. Perspectives on the Nature of the State (Liberal, Marxist & Neo-Liberal) The study/analysis on State focus on individuals, egalitarianism and universalism Different perspectives= Liberal = Marxist =Neo-Liberal • Liberal perspective (Thomas Hobes ;John Locke; Rousseau; David Hume; Adam Smith; James Mill; Bentham Their view is individuals surrender all their powers through a contract to a third party-the state  State is rational and maintain universal standards of human nature and justice;  Support rule of law; equality, freedom and democracy (19th century liberals)  Protect the individual freedom to pursue their private life and accumulate wealth and property;  Participatory Democracy and right to vote ( Rousseau);  Liberty and equality with concern for social justice ( Max Weber in 20th century)  Free market ;&Lesser role to State (V Pareto, ; Max Weber , Locke  Bentham- greatest happiness for greatest number of people;  Happiness of the people is the end of the state ; bureaucratization of public services; legislation; accommodating change and diversity;  Hegal- extreme poverty is due to private property ; strong institutional structures are necessary to correct the distortions  Adam Smith = Laissez-fare and state minimalism  John Stuart Mill =deviated from Laissez-fare and advocated optional areas of State interference for promotion of citizens virtues/qualities;
  • 7. Marxist Perspectives on the Nature of the State  The State/ government always serves the economic interest of the ruling Class;  The state reconcile the differences of interests within the ruling class and promote capitalist production ;  The State maintain social order for promoting the interests of capitalist society;  The state and bureaucratic institutions constitute source of power & work under the control of dominant class;  The state and bureaucracy are class instruments to coordinate the divided society to protect the interests of ruling;  The State prevent the development of revolutionary forces / influence;  But in an unequal social and economic system the contradictions are inevitable  The state instead resolving the contradictions and work for the welfare of poor/depressed class, it support the ruling class
  • 8. Neo-Liberal Perspective on the Nature of the State • Neo-Liberal or New-Right is : Most prominent in contemporary globalized economy; • a strong advocate of the retreat of the State- Minimal state; • Based on public Choice theory-(Vincent Ostorm ); • States Can do no right; all distortions are due to state interventions; • Pro-market- support competitive market and private property; • Limits to the discretionary of politicians; • Curtailing powers and functions of government agencies and bureaucracy; • closing the public organizations • World is one nation and boundaries of a State do not act as hurdles for free trade , goods and services; • State is passive vehicle in globalized economy; • The best states can do is get out the way;
  • 9. Conti=Neo-Liberal Perspective Washington Consensus (1989- propagated by John William, WB & IMF) became guiding force for the States; • Fiscal discipline. • Redirect spending priorities from things like indiscriminate subsidies to basic health and education. • Lower marginal tax rates and broaden the tax base. • Interest rate liberalization. • A competitive exchange rate. • Trade liberalization. • Liberalization of FDI inflows. • Privatization. • Deregulation, in the sense of abolishing barriers to entry and exit. • Secure property rights. • In nut shell the neo-liberal perspective view the state as State is the ‘predator/killer’; ‘necessary evil’ , ‘facilitator ‘ , catalyst’ ‘ roll back of state • But in a country where poverty and inequalities exists , state is necessary for undertaking welfare functions
  • 10. Bringing back the State Back in: the contemporary debate • Globalization- free trade, disinvestment, corporatization etc , further accentuated poverty and inequalities , especially in developing countries • Policies , capital, technology, resources, services, institutions are globalized ; • Advantages= net working among the societies ; Capital inflow-FDI; infrastructural development; availability of consumer goods; technological innovation s; • Disadvantages= Washington Consensus (1989- propagated by John William, WB & IMF ; • Change in Nation State concept ; • disadvantaged sections are not benefited; • Joe Stiglitz argues that the Washington Consensus is not useful to the poor; • Pursuing economic growth, the objectives should include "sustainable development, egalitarian development, and democratic development" • it is necessary to pursue "sound financial regulation, competition policy, and policies to facilitate the transfer of technology and transparency" in order to make markets work in a way that will support development.
  • 11. Changes in Nature of State • Now the western scholars also acknowledged the positive aspects of the state ; (2008 economic Crises through out world) • In Corporate or Competitive State there is no place for citizens involvement; • What is needed is combination of State, Market and Civil Society • Anthony work= Third Way is Renewal of Social Democracy- social equality and justice; • State /Governance is necessary to regulate the markets ; • Effective legal, judicial and regulatory mechanism • World Bank propagated Inclusive Growth as a model of development • The rolling back of State is global compulsion ( failure of policies to solve the problems) • The State must give priority to territory. Population, Sovereignty of the country; • At the same time prepare to meet global challenges; • Now Glocalization
  • 12. Conclusion Issue and Challenges are: • The studies on state are mostly pro-establishment or proauthority; • The studies on state are Western biased and ahistorical, especially New Liberal or New right School; • How to ensure Nation State ; • How to ensure autonomy/ sovereignty to State; • How to ensure proper utilization of resources; • How to ensure socio-economic Justice to the people • Probably glocalization= application of both global and local resources, technology, knowledge to address the problems of the society
  • 13. Thank You