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  • EDC-UNIT2 Question&answer GRIET-ECE G.Surekha Page 1 UNIT – II RECTIFIERS & FILTERS 1. Explain about Regulated DC power supply. For the operation of most of the electronics devices and circuits, a d.c. source is required. So it is advantageous to convert domestic a.c. supply into d.c.voltages. The process of converting a.c. voltage into d.c. voltage is called as rectification. This is achieved with i) Step-down Transformer, ii) Rectifier, iii) Filter and iv) Voltage regulator circuits. These elements constitute d.c. regulated power supply shown in the figure below. Fig. Block diagram of Regulated D.C. Power Supply Transformer – steps down 230V AC mains to low voltage AC. Rectifier – converts AC to DC, but the DC output is varying. Smoothing – smooth the DC from varying greatly to a small ripple. Regulator – eliminates ripple by setting DC output to a fixed voltage. The block diagram of a regulated D.C. power supply consists of step-down transformer, rectifier, filter, voltage regulator and load.An ideal regulated power supply is an electronics circuit designed to provide a predetermined d.c. voltage Vo which is independent of the load current and variations in the input voltage ad temperature. If the output of a regulator circuit is a AC voltage then it is termed as voltage stabilizer, whereas if the output is a DC voltage then it is termed as voltage regulator.The elements of the regulated DC power supply are discussed as follows: TRANSFORMER: A transformer is a static device which transfers the energy from primary winding to secondary winding through the mutual induction principle, without changing the frequency. The transformer winding to which the supply source is connected is called the primary, while the winding connected to the load is called secondary. If N1,N2 are the number of turns of the primary and secondary of the transformer then 2 1 N N is called the turns ratio of the transformer. The different types of the transformers are 1) Step-Up Transformer 2) Step-Down Transformer 3) Centre-tapped Transformer The voltage, current and impedance transformation rations are related to the turns ratio of the transformer by the following expressions. www.jntuworld.com www.jntuworld.com
  • EDC-UNIT2 Question&answer GRIET-ECE G.Surekha Page 2 Voltage transformation ratio : 2 2 1 1 V N V N Current transformation ratio : 2 2 1 1 I N I N Impedance transformation ratio : 2 2 1 L in Z N Z N 2. Explain Rectifier Characteristics. RECTIFIER: Any electrical device which offers a low resistance to the current in one direction but a high resistance to the current in the opposite direction is called rectifier. Such a device is capable of converting a sinusoidal input waveform, whose average value is zero, into a unidirectional waveform, with a non-zero average component. A rectifier is a device which converts a.c. voltage (bi-directional) to pulsating d.c. voltage (Uni-directional). Characteristics of a Rectifier Circuit: 1. Load currents: They are two types of output current. They are average or d.c. current and RMS currents. i) Average or DC current: The average current of a periodic function is defined as the area of one cycle of the curve divided by the base. It is expressed mathematically as 2 0 1 ( ) 2dcI id t ; where mI sini t ii) Effective (or) R.M.S. current: The effective (or) R.M.S. current squared of a periodic function of time is given by the area of one cycle of the curve which represents the square of the function divided by the base. It is expressed mathematically as 1 2 2 2 0 1 ( ) 2rmsI i d t 2. Load Voltages: There are two types of output voltages. They are average or D.C. voltage and R.M.S. voltage. i) Average or DC Voltage: The average voltage of a periodic function is defined as the areas of one cycle of the curve divided by the base. It is expressed mathematically as www.jntuworld.com www.jntuworld.com
  • EDC-UNIT2 Question&answer GRIET-ECE G.Surekha Page 3 2 0 1 ( ) 2dcV Vd t ; where m sinV V t (or) Ldc dc V I R ii) Effective (or) R.M.S Voltage: The effective (or) R.M.S voltage squared of a periodic function of time is given by the area of one cycle of the curve which represents the square of the function divided by the base. 1 2 2 2 0 1 ( ) 2rmsV V d t (or) rms rms LV I R 3. Ripple Factor ( ) : It is defined as ration of R.M.S. value of a.c. component to the d.c. component in the output is known as “Ripple Factor”. ' rms dc V V Where 2 2' rms dcrmsV V V 2 1rms dc V V 4. Efficiency ( ): It is the ratio of d.c output power to the a.c. input power. It signifies, how efficiently the rectifier circuit converts a.c. power into d.c. power. It is given by dc ac P P  5. Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV):It is defined as the maximum reverse voltage that a diode can withstand without destroying the junction. 6. Regulation: The variation of the d.c. output voltage as a function of d.c. load current is called regulation. The percentage regulation is defined as www.jntuworld.com www.jntuworld.com
  • EDC-UNIT2 Question&answer GRIET-ECE G.Surekha Page 4 % Regulation = 100%no load full load full load V V V For an ideal power supply, % Regulation is zero. Using one or more diodes in the circuit, following rectifier circuits can be designed. 1. Half - Wave Rectifier 2. Full – Wave Rectifier 3. Bridge Rectifier 3. Explain Half-wave Rectifier and derive all parameters. Half-Wave Rectifier: A Half – wave rectifier is one which converts a.c. voltage into a pulsating voltage using only one half cycle of the applied a.c. voltage. Fig. a Basic structure of Half-Wave Rectifier The half-wave rectifier circuit shown in above figure consists of a resistive load, a rectifying element i.e., p-n junction diode and the source of a.c. voltage, all connected is series. The a.c. voltage is applied to the rectifier circuit using step-down transformer. Fig.b Input and output waveforms of a Half wave rectifier The input to the rectifier circuit, m sinV V t Where Vm is the peak value of secondary a.c. voltage. Operation: For the positive half-cycle of input a.c. voltage, the diode D is forward biased and hence it conducts. Now a current flows in the circuit and there is a voltage drop across RL. The waveform of the diode current (or) load current is shown in figure. www.jntuworld.com www.jntuworld.com
  • EDC-UNIT2 Question&answer GRIET-ECE G.Surekha Page 5 For the negative half-cycle of input, the diode D is reverse biased and hence it does not conduct. Now no current flows in the circuit i.e., i=0 and Vo=0. Thus for the negative half- cycle no power is delivered to the load. Analysis: In the analysis of a HWR, the following parameters are to be analyzed. i) DC output current ii) DC Output voltage iii) R.M.S. Current iv) R.M.S. voltage v) Rectifier Efficiency ( ) vi) Ripple factor ( ) vii) Regulation viii) Transformer Utilization Factor (TUF) ix) Peak Factor (P) Let a sinusoidal voltage Vi be applied to the input of the rectifier. Then m sinV V t Where Vm is the maximum value of the secondary voltage. Let the diode be idealized to piece-wise linear approximation with resistance Rf in the forward direction i.e., in the ON state and Rr(=∞) in the reverse direction i.e., in the OFF state. Now the current „i‟ in the diode (or) in the load resistance RL is given by mI sini t for 0 t i=0 for 2t where mI m Lf V R R i) Average (or) DC Output Current (Iav or Idc): The average dc current Idc is given by dc I 2 0 1 ( ) 2 id t m 2 0 sin ( ) 1 0 ( ) 2 I td t d t m 0 1 I ( cos ) 2 t m 1 I ( 1 ( 1) 2 www.jntuworld.com www.jntuworld.com
  • EDC-UNIT2 Question&answer GRIET-ECE G.Surekha Page 6 mI (or) 0.318 mI Substituting the value of mI , we get I Lf m dc R R V If RL>>Rf then I m dc L V R = 0.318 m L V R ii) Average (or) DC Output Voltage (Vav or Vdc): The average dc voltage is given by Ldc dcV I R = mI LR = Lf m L R R V R Lf m L dc R R V R V If RL>>Rf then m dc V V = 0.318 mI m dc V V iii) R.M.S. Output Current (Irms): The value of the R.M.S. current is given by rmsI 2 1 2 2 0 1 ( ) 2 i d t 1 2 22 2 0 sin ( ) 1 0 ( ) 2 1I 2 .m t d t d t 1 22 0 1 cos ( ) 2 I 2 m t d t 1 22 0 I 1( ) sin 4 2 m t t www.jntuworld.com www.jntuworld.com
  • EDC-UNIT2 Question&answer GRIET-ECE G.Surekha Page 7 1 2 2 sin0 I sin20 4 2 m 1 2 2I 4 m mI 2 mI 2rmsI (or) 2 Lf m rms R R VI iv) R.M.S. Output Voltage (Vrms): R.M.S. voltage across the load is given by rms rms LV I R = 2 Lf m L R R V R = 2 1 f L m R R V If RL >> Rf then 2 m rms V V v) Rectifier efficiency ( ) : The rectifier efficiency is defined as the ration of d.c. output power to the a.c. input power i.e., dc ac P P 2 2 2 m L Ldcdc I R I RP 2 2 4rms m L Lf fac I I R R R RP 2 2 22 4 4m m L L L fL f dc ac R R R RR R P I P I www.jntuworld.com www.jntuworld.com
  • EDC-UNIT2 Question&answer GRIET-ECE G.Surekha Page 8 2 1 0.406 11 4 ff LL RR RR % 40.6 1 f L R R Theoretically the maximum value of rectifier efficiency of a half-wave rectifier is 40.6% when f L R R = 0. vi) Ripple Factor ( ) : The ripple factor is given by 2 1rms dc I I (or) 2 1rms dc V V 2 2 / / 1m m I I = 2 1 2 = 1.21 1.21 vii) Regulation: The variation of d.c. output voltage as a function of d.c. load current is called regulation. The variation of Vdc with Idc for a half-wave rectifier is obtained as follows: mI /I m dc Lf V R R But Ldc dcV I R dc V m L Lf RV R R 1 fm Lf RV R R www.jntuworld.com www.jntuworld.com
  • EDC-UNIT2 Question&answer GRIET-ECE G.Surekha Page 9 dc f m RV I dc dc f mV RV I This result shows that Vdc equals mV at no load and that the dc voltage decreases linearly with an increase in dc output current. The larger the magnitude of the diode forward resistance, the greater is this decrease for a given current change. viii) Transformer Utilization Factor (UTF): The d.c. power to be delivered to the load in a rectifier circuit decides the rating of the transformer used in the circuit. So, transformer utilization factor is defined as ( ) dc ac rated P TUF P The factor which indicates how much is the utilization of the transformer in the circuit is called Transformer Utilization Factor (TUF). The a.c. power rating of transformer = Vrms Irms The secondary voltage is purely sinusoidal hence its rms value is 1 2 times maximum while the current is half sinusoidal hence its rms value is 1 2 of the maximum. ( )ac rated P mI 22 mV mI 2 2 mV The d.c. power delivered to the load 2 dc LI R m 2 I LR ( ) dc ac rated P TUF P m 2 I LR m 2 2 ImV www.jntuworld.com www.jntuworld.com
  • EDC-UNIT2 Question&answer GRIET-ECE G.Surekha Page 10 2 2 2 2 2I I m m L L R R mIm LV R = 0.287 TUF 0.287 The value of TUF is low which shows that in half-wave circuit, the transformer is not fully utilized. If the transformer rating is 1 KVA (1000VA) then the half-wave rectifier can deliver 1000 X 0.287 = 287 watts to resistance load. ix) Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV): It is defined as the maximum reverse voltage that a diode can withstand without destroying the junction. The peak inverse voltage across a diode is the peak of the negative half- cycle. For half-wave rectifier, PIV is Vm. x) Form factor (F): The Form Factor F is defined as F = rms value / average value Im/ 2 Im/ F 0.5Im 0.318Im 1.57F F=1.57 xi) Peak Factor (P): The peak factor P is defined as P= Peak Value / rms value / 2 m m V V = 2 P = 2 Disadvantages of Half-Wave Rectifier: 1. The ripple factor is high. 2. The efficiency is low. 3. The Transformer Utilization factor is low. www.jntuworld.com www.jntuworld.com
  • EDC-UNIT2 Question&answer GRIET-ECE G.Surekha Page 11 Because of all these disadvantages, the half-wave rectifier circuit is normally not used as a power rectifier circuit. 4.Explain Full Wave Rectifier and derive all the parameters. Full – Wave Rectifier: A full-wave rectifier converts an ac voltage into a pulsating dc voltage using both half cycles of the applied ac voltage. In order to rectify both the half cycles of ac input, two diodes are used in this circuit. The diodes feed a common load RL with the help of a center-tap transformer. A center-tap transformer is the one which produces two sinusoidal waveforms of same magnitude and frequency but out of phase with respect to the ground in the secondary winding of the transformer. The full wave rectifier is shown in the figure below. Fig. Full-Wave Rectifier. Fig. wave forms of the input voltage, the o/p voltage across the load Resistor Operation: During positive half of the input signal, anode of diode D1 becomes positive and at the same time the anode of diode D2 becomes negative. Hence D1 conducts and D2 does not www.jntuworld.com www.jntuworld.com
  • EDC-UNIT2 Question&answer GRIET-ECE G.Surekha Page 12 conduct. The load current flows through D1 and the voltage drop across RL will be equal to the input voltage. During the negative half cycle of the input, the anode of D1 becomes negative and the anode of D2 becomes positive. Hence, D1 does not conduct and D2 conducts. The load current flows through D2 and the voltage drop across RL will be equal to the input voltage. It is noted that the load current flows in the both the half cycles of ac voltage and in the same direction through the load resistance. Analysis: Let a sinusoidal voltage Vi be applied to the input of a rectifier. It is given by Vi=Vm sinωt The current i1 though D1 and load resistor RL is given by I sinm1 i t for 0 t 0 1 i for 2t Where Im Vm R R Lf Similarly, the current i2 through diode D2 and load resistor RL is given by 2 0i for 0 t I sinm2 i t for 2t Therefore, the total current flowing through RL is the sum of the two currents i1 and i2. i.e., iL = i1 + i2. 1. Average Value: 2. R.M.S load Current Ir.m.s www.jntuworld.com www.jntuworld.com
  • EDC-UNIT2 Question&answer GRIET-ECE G.Surekha Page 13 3. DC output voltage Vdc 4.Ripple Factor 5. Regulation: The variation of d.c. output voltage as a function of d.c. load current is called regulation. %Regulation= 100 V V no load full load V full load 6.Rectification Efficiency: www.jntuworld.com www.jntuworld.com
  • EDC-UNIT2 Question&answer GRIET-ECE G.Surekha Page 14 7. TRANSFORMER UTILIZATION FACTOR (TUF) 8. PIV = 2 Vm 9. Advantages 1) Ripple factor = 0.482 (against 1.21 for HWR) 2) Rectification efficiency is 0.812 (against 0.405 for HWR) 3) Better TUF (secondary) is 0.574 (0.287 for HWR) 4) No core saturation problem Disadvantages: 1) Requires center tapped transformer. 3. Explain about Bridge rectifier using neat diagram. A bridge rectifier makes use of four diodes in a bridge arrangement to achieve full-wave rectification. This is a widely used configuration, both with individual diodes wired as shown and with single component bridges where the diode bridge is wired internally. www.jntuworld.com www.jntuworld.com
  • EDC-UNIT2 Question&answer GRIET-ECE G.Surekha Page 15 Current flow in the bridge rectifier For both positive and negative swings of the transformer, there is a forward path through the diode bridge. Both conduction paths cause current to flow in the same direction through the load resistor, accomplishing full-wave rectification. While one set of diodes is forward biased, the other set is reverse biased and effectively eliminated from the circuit. 4. Compare HWR,FWR,Bridge rectifier. www.jntuworld.com www.jntuworld.com
  • EDC-UNIT2 Question&answer GRIET-ECE G.Surekha Page 16 5.Explain about all Filters. CAPACITOR FILTER WITH HWR CAPACITOR FILTER WITH FWR. Inductor Filter with Half Wave Rectifier www.jntuworld.com www.jntuworld.com
  • EDC-UNIT2 Question&answer GRIET-ECE G.Surekha Page 17 Inductor Filter with Full Wave Rectifier COMPARISON OF FILTERS: - 1) A capacitor filter provides Vm volts at less load current. But regulation is poor. 2) An Inductor filter gives high ripple voltage for low load currents. It is used for high load currents 3) L – Section filter gives a ripple factor independent of load current. Voltage regulation can be improved by use of bleeder resistance 4) Multiple L – Section filter or filters give much less ripple than the single L – Section Filter. Problems from previous external question papers: 1. A diode whose internal resistance is 20Ω is to supply power to a 100Ω load from 110V(rms) source pf supply. Calculate (a) peak load current (b) the dc load current (c) the ac load current (d) the percentage regulation from no load to full load. Solution: Given a half-wave rectifier circuit Rf=20Ω, RL=100Ω Given an ac source with rms voltage of 110V, therefore the maximum amplitude of sinusoidal input is given by Vm = 2 Vrms = 2 x 110 = 155.56V. (a) Peak load current : Im Vm R R Lf www.jntuworld.com www.jntuworld.com
  • EDC-UNIT2 Question&answer GRIET-ECE G.Surekha Page 18 155.56 120 Im = 1.29A (b) The dc load current : I Im dc = 0.41A (c) The ac load current : I 2 Im rms = 0.645A (d) Vno-load = Vm = 155.56 = 49.51 V Vfull-load = Vm I R dc f = 41.26 V % Regulation= 100 V V no load full load V full load = 19.97% 2. A diode has an internal resistance of 20Ω and 1000Ω load from 110V(rms) source pf supply. Calculate (a) the efficiency of rectification (b) the percentage regulation from no load to full load. Solution: Given a half-wave rectifier circuit Rf=20Ω, RL=1000Ω Given an ac source with rms voltage of 110V, therefore the maximum amplitude of sinusoidal input is given by Vm = 2 Vrms = 2 x 110 = 155.56V. (a) % Efficiency ( ) = 40.6 20 1 100 = 1.02 40.6 = 39.8%. (b) Peak load current : Im Vm R R Lf = 155.56 1020 = 0.1525 A = 152.5 mA The dc load current : I Im dc = 48.54 mA www.jntuworld.com www.jntuworld.com
  • EDC-UNIT2 Question&answer GRIET-ECE G.Surekha Page 19 Vno-load = Vm = 155.56 = 49.51 V Vfull-load = Vm I R dc f = 49.51 – (48.54 x10-3 x 20) = 49.51 – 0.97 = 48.54 V % Regulation= 100 V V no load full load V full load = 49.51 48.54 100 48.54 = 1.94 % 3. An a.c. supply of 230V is applied to a half-wave rectifier circuit through transformer of turns ration 5:1. Assume the diode is an ideal one. The load resistance is 300Ω. Find (a) dc output voltage (b) PIV (c) maximum, and (d) average values of power delivered to the load. Solution: (a) The transformer secondary voltage = 230/5 = 46V. Maximum value of secondary voltage, Vm = 2 x 46 = 65V. Therefore, dc output voltage, 65VmV dc = 20.7 V (b) PIV of a diode : Vm = 65V (c) Maximum value of load current, Im Vm R L = 65 300 = 0.217 A Therefore, maximum value of power delivered to the load, Pm = Im 2 x RL = (0.217)2 x 300 = 14.1W (d) The average value of load current, www.jntuworld.com www.jntuworld.com
  • EDC-UNIT2 Question&answer GRIET-ECE G.Surekha Page 20 20.7 I = 300 V dc dc R L = 0.069A Therefore, average value of power delivered to the load, Pdc = Idc 2 x RL = (0.069)2 x 300 = 1.43W 4 . A 230V, 60 Hz voltage is applied to the primary of 5:1 step down center tapped transformer used in a FWR having a load of 900 . If the diode resistance and secondary coil resistance together has a resistance of 100 , determine: a) DC voltage across the load b) DC current flowing through the load c) DC power delivered to the load d) PIV across each diode e) Ripple voltage and frequency. Given: AC input – 230V, 60 Hz RL = 900 RS + Rf = 100 (a) DC voltage across load = ? Voltage secondary of transformer = 230/5 = 46 V. Each of half = 23 volts,(rms); Vrms=23V; Vm = ? Vrms = Vmax (0.707) (b) DC current IDC = Imax (0.636) = 32.53 (0.636) = 20.69 mA. VRL = IDC.RL = 20.69 x 10-3 x 900 = 18.62 volts (c) DC power Pdc = Vdc. Idc = 18.62 x 20.69 x 10-3 = 3.85 m.w. (d) PIV across each diode = Vmax x 2 = 32.53 x 2 = 65.06 volts (e) Ripple voltage = ? Ripple factor =Ripple Voltage/Load Voltage V = .VRL = 0.483 x 18.62 = 8.99 volts Ripple frequency = 2 x Input source frequency =2 x 60=120 Hz 5. Draw the circuit diagram of a FWR using center tapped transformer to obtain an output DC voltage of 18V at 200 mA and VDC no load equals 20V. Find the transformer ratings. www.jntuworld.com www.jntuworld.com
  • EDC-UNIT2 Question&answer GRIET-ECE G.Surekha Page 21 Solution: VDC = 18V VDCNL = 20V. Idc = 200 mA VDCNL – VDCFL = IDC (RS + Rf) 20 – 18 = 200 x 10-3 (RS+Rf) or RS + Rf = 2 / 200 x 10-3 = 10 Transformer rating is Input 220 V Ac. Output 22 – 0 – 22V (RMS) DC current 200 mA. www.jntuworld.com www.jntuworld.com