Modal verbs

490 views
197 views

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
490
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
36
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
7
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Modal verbs

  1. 1. Variation in the Verb Phrase
  2. 2. SUMMARY  NINE MODAL VERBS  Will – would  Shall – should  Can – could  May – might  Must  SEMI – MODAL VERBS (had) better, be able to, be allowed to, have to, (have) got to, ought to, be supposed to, be going to, used to, need, needn’t
  3. 3. CHARACTERISTICS  No inflection: “he can study”  Act as auxiliaries: “Can you come here?”  Always followed by bare infinitive.  Never two modal verbs together
  4. 4. ABILITY  CAN “I can swim”  COULD “I couldn’t walk until I was 1 year old”  BE ABLE TO “I was able to run the marathon”
  5. 5. POSSIBILITY  CAN “He can be your friend”  COULD “It could be the most important reason”  MAY “You may say I’m a dreamer”  MIGHT “You might find it there”
  6. 6. PERMISSION  CAN “Can I go to the toilet?  BE ALLOWED TO “I wasn’t allowed to go”  MAY “May I stay with you?  “You may sit here” (usually produced by parents and teachers talking to children)
  7. 7. OBLIGATION and NECESSITY  MUST “You must be here before eight” / “You must go to the doctor.”  HAVE TO “I have to do it right away”  SHOULD “You should be here on time” (less imperative)
  8. 8. PROHIBITION  CAN’T “You can’t park here” (It’s against the rules)  MUSTN’T “You mustn’t park here” (The obligation comes from the speaker)
  9. 9. ADVICE and SUGGESTION  SHOULD “You should visit him more often”.  WOULD “If I were you, I would study engineering”  SHALL “We shall go together.” “Shall we do it now?”
  10. 10. PREDICTION and VOLITION  WILL for prediction  “You will marry her in two years time.”  BE GOING TO for prediction /intention  “He is going to laugh about this”. / “I’m going to study harder.”  WOULD for volition / intention  “I would go with him if he allowed me to”  “What would you take to a desert island?”
  11. 11. PAST HABIT  WOULD “When I was a kid, I would come here every day”  USED TO “He used to tell me everything”.
  12. 12. LACK OF NECESSITY  NEEDN’T “You needn’t go there”  DON’T HAVE TO “You don’t have to go there”
  13. 13. MODALS COMBINED WITH ASPECT OR VOICE Modals cannot combine with tense, but they can combine with ASPECT or VOICE.  With Perfect Aspect (modal + have + participle)  With Progressive Aspect (modal + be + ing)  With Passive Voice (modal + be + participle)
  14. 14. PERFECT MODAL VERBS  REPROACH: “You should have come earlier.”  POSSIBILITY IN THE PAST: “I could have visited you, but I didn’t feel like.”  UNCERTAINTY ABOUT THE PAST: “He may have done it, but I don’t know”.  DEDUCTION: “He must have arrived. He is always on time”

×