The Current State of Wearable Computing (2010)
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The Current State of Wearable Computing (2010)



The Current State of Wearable Computing as of 2010

The Current State of Wearable Computing as of 2010



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  • Interesting area, intersects a lot of areas within ubicompWell known to us
  • Please break in with any comments
  • Face of HCIMicroOptical display – embedded ina pair of eye glasses. – Virtual retinal displayThe actual display is an earpiece -> opitcal path deflects the image through the lens to a mirror that relfects into users eyeThad Starner is founder and director of the Contextual Computing Group at Georgia Institute of Technology's College of ComputingThad has worn his custom wearable computer in such a manner since 1993, arguably the longest such experience. Thad is a co-founder of the IEEE International Symposium on Wearable Computers (ISWC) and co-founder and first member of the MIT Wearable Computing Project. Starner has consulted for Fortune 500 companies, has authored over 50 peer-reviewed scientific papers and book chapters, and is always looking for a good game of table tennis.
  • Characteristcs
  • The IDEAL visionMake models of context explicit and observable such that the user can tutor the systemSituation: filter this information based on the user’s current needs and preferences. adapts to the services provided by the electronics in the environment e.g., blind user of an automated teller machine, the wearable can provide an audio version of the interface.
  • Wearcomp is very familiar to us,Many examplesCellular device / Smart Phone / PDAs
  • Wristwatch
  • Microphones
  • iPod –
  • Wheelchair?
  • Steven Haking ChairHearing System for the def
  • Extrernally PROGAMMABLE pace maker?
  • Roy Want, in 2008 - International Symposium on Wearable Computing 2008cellular phones are becoming more like wearable comp. - Thad StarnerMostly commercial development has enabled thisMany ubicomp characteristics - Context Awareness: iphone hides the screen when talking - Input – shake, touch, speak - Games & Entertainment - Augmented Reality – andoird apps
  • BodyMedia, Inc. Headquarters4 Smithfield Street
11th Floor
Pittsburgh, PA 15222 USA
  • Zypad Wearable Computers by Eurotech GroupZypad WL 1000: any time, any place hands-free solutions for all your computing needs.
  • Zypad Ring scanner a wearable hands-free barcode scannerWindows OS, bluetooth, wifi, accelermoterbuiltinContext: turns off when you put your arm down
  • The Fossil Wrist PDA is a Personal Digital Assistant designed to take the place of a wristwatch.
  • Steve Mann - tenured professor at the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of TorontoCyborg: Digital DestinyStarner as well,augmenting but not supplanting the intelligence already there. This field of "Intelligence Amplification"
  • A lot of research comes out of hereWe could talkabout a lot of them
  • It was developed by Pranav Mistry, a PhD student in the Fluid Interfaces Group at the MIT Media Lab.
  • pocket projector, a mirror and a camera.
  • 145320: take a picture gesture5:10
  • Schiele, Jebara, Oliver (2001)Serves as a personal guide in a museum Head-mounted camera to record & analyze the visual environment Computer vision system recognizes objects user is looking at: “Robustly discrimating between dozes of paintings or 3D objects” Computer vision algorithms continuously search the video images for object w/ associated information about particular art piece System computes duration of each gaze - > metric of ser preferences, USER GAZE PATERNS ***Museum visitors and tourists will discover information about arti-facts simply by staring at them,Presnets multimedia information
  • What does tit look like
  • SciFi has told me it looks like this
  • What does tit look like
  • Social App:Sunglasses at nightStarner:“real World Wide Web”augmented-reality extension of the Web
  • Babak A. Parviz : university of wshingtonA new generation of contact lenses built with very small circuits and LEDs promises bionic eyesightProblems: display must also be semitransparent,Space constraints: How many pixels per spaceputting a display on the eye is keeping it from moving around relative to the pupil.powered by suitable sourcepotentially harmful components that we’ve just assembled are completely safe and comfortable to wear
  • Every time an pre-specified object is recognized, the PRA plays an associated audiovisual sequence.E.g., How to program the VCRUser records desired footage forming a clip. User selects the object that should trigger the clips playback.Adds everything to DBDevice runs continuously in background, constantly trying to recognize and playback associationsBorn from the MIT Media Lab
  • augments human memoryMann: visual memory prosthetic’ was foundl to assist in the task of remembering faces,
  • Corinne Mattmann, Oliver Amft, Holger Harms, Gerhard Tröster, and Frank ClemensDetect nightly sleep periods with simple motion and posture sensors, and to detect within these segments what basic sleeping postures the user assumesMann: smart Underwear worn at night
  • MIT Wearables groupArmy rangers and soldiers in difficult environmentsShivering key indicator for hypothermiaNon-invasive accelerometer sensorsdistributed mobile system that can be deployed for a variety of proactive health applications proven accessible architecture that combines inexpensive commodity hardware, a flexible sensor/peripheral interconnection bus, and a powerful light-weight distributed sensing, classification, and inter-process communications software layer to facilitate the development of distributed real-time multimodal and context-aware applications. LiveNet also opens up the door for practical long-term continuous monitoring applications to identify physiological and behavioral trends that vary slowly with time. The system can also allow people to receive real-time feedback from their continuously monitored and analyzed health state, as well as communicate health information with care-givers and other members of an individual's social network for support and interaction.
  • Paul Lukowicz, UrsAnliker, Jamie Ward and Gerhard Tröster – in switzerlandMann: The natural place for our medical records is right in our clothing. Having a patient wear his or her entire medical history would solve much of the medical records privacy problems we face today.
  • - Problem: must manually label training data- “Off the shelf” activity recongition: doesn’t require individuals to go through training dataSnowboarding: automatically supervise posture & motion
  • Piezoelectric force sensors transmit signals wirelesslyEnabled judges to accuratley measure different amounts of power delivered to the body.Applications: train soldiers in correct punching techniques
  • Haptic Radar: infrared
  • What is the impact on physiology/bilogy with with constant ouputSomatosensorycoretex , parts of the body mappedHow does consitency and constancyShoulder – more real estate in the brain
  • the physical shape of wearables and their active relationship with the human form
  • Power efficiency is one of the most fundamental challenges wearable com- puter’s functionality is spread among subsys- tems distributed over the body, power distribution becomes complicated.rechargeable batteries require that the user remember to maintain them, which can be a problem.What are the actions of recharging?Jordan“Could they survive in a commercial market if you had to wear battery pack”
  • Can we use natural movementsthe computer might cool the batteries or components during times of low ambient temperature.
  • hardware needed to access more than one wireless ser- vice burdens the user with extra equipment.developers must address standardization, security, quality of ser- vice, and synchronization. Privacy: do employers spy on you?Mann:The boundaries between seeing and viewing, and between remembering and recording will crumble.reverse the normal design process for computers; with wearables, developers might first decide on a form factor and then determine functionality and associated electronics.***Man: User attention is the scarcest resource for wearable computing. authenticity—or the realness of relationshipsClass: Affordability? Health Concerns?, will it make us lazy?
  • hardware needed to access more than one wireless ser- vice burdens the user with extra equipment.developers must address standardization, security, quality of ser- vice, and synchronization. Privacy: do employers spy on you?Mann:The boundaries between seeing and viewing, and between remembering and recording will crumble.reverse the normal design process for computers; with wearables, developers might first decide on a form factor and then determine functionality and associated electronics.***Man: User attention is the scarcest resource for wearable computing. authenticity—or the realness of relationshipsClass: Affordability? Health Concerns?, will it make us lazy?
  • How do you make thing people want to wear experiential aspects might also need careful considerationencourages the notion that we can deliberately and systematically develop experi-ences
  • It takes all kinds however
  • Medical trainees practice spinal anesthesia**LOOKUP**
  • Circuit training: method of physical conditioningCircuit trainging: Each exercise is performed for a specified number of repetitions or for a prescribed time period before moving on to the next exercise. System to prompt multiple users through a circuit training exerciseBetter manage equipmant usage.Motivate and keep trainees on track while working out.Instructing the Trainee’s through their workout.Keeping the Trainee’s workout routines random.
  • System to prompt multiple users through a circuit training exerciseBetter manage equipmant usage.
  • Generating maps using wearable video camerasSLAM: Technique originally designed for robotsContribution: Mulitple mapping capabaility2) Camera capable of pan and tilt3) Intertial measurement unit
  • Power efficiency is one of the most fundamental challenges**LOOK UP POWER PACK SYSYEM**-keystroke-Level Energy Model: Psychological theory of human cognitive and motor capabilities that can predict execution time for a skilled user

The Current State of Wearable Computing (2010) Presentation Transcript

  • 1. wearable computing Jesse Venticinque – Ubiquitous Computing Jesse Venticinque | Wearable Computing
  • 2. Wearable computing (wearcomp) Vision & characteristics Everyday wearcomp Commercial applications Current research Challenges Research directions Wearcomp design Jesse Venticinque | Wearable Computing
  • 3. Wearable computing (wearcomp)
  • 4. Wearable computing (wearcomp)  small,light, portable computer designed to be worn on the body integrated into the user's clothing or attached to the body like a wristband or pocket  integrated into everyday objects that are constantly worn on the body, like a cell phone or watch  uncommon intersection of science, engineering, design, psychology&fashion Jesse Venticinque | Wearable Computing
  • 5. Wearcomp Vision Consistency: always on; Constancy: always there - persistent access to information - everyday continuous use, interact at any give time Situational Awareness: - sense and model context: environment, physical, mental - aware of wearer’s situation and preferences - outputs are appropriate, desirable, and socially graceful Augment & mediate interactions with users environment - with information from the physical and virtual realms Jesse Venticinque | Wearable Computing
  • 6. Wearcomp Vision Anticipation & availability: - make relevant information available before wearer asks for it Perceive the world from the first-person perspective - seeing what you see and hearing what you hear Jesse Venticinque | Wearable Computing
  • 7. Everyday Wearcomp Jesse Venticinque | Wearable Computing
  • 8. Everyday Wearcomp Jesse Venticinque | Wearable Computing
  • 9. Everyday Wearcomp Jesse Venticinque | Wearable Computing
  • 10. Everyday Wearcomp Jesse Venticinque | Wearable Computing
  • 11. Everyday Wearcomp Jesse Venticinque | Wearable Computing
  • 12. Everyday Wearcomp Jesse Venticinque | Wearable Computing
  • 13. Everyday Wearcomp Jesse Venticinque | Wearable Computing
  • 14. Everyday Wearcomp Jesse Venticinque | Wearable Computing
  • 15. Mobile Phones “Most successful wearable computer to date” – Want (2008) - Determine Transportation Modes on Mobile Phones * Reddy et al., 2009 (UCLA) * classified stationary, walking, running, biking, & motorized travel with greater than 98% accuracy * GPS & accelerometers - Output: auditory, visual, tactile - Location Tracking - Context Awareness - Input / Output - Games & Entertainment - Augmented Reality Jesse Venticinque | Wearable Computing
  • 16. Commercial Wearcomp - BodyMedia Jesse Venticinque | Wearable Computing
  • 17. Jesse Venticinque | Wearable Computing
  • 18. Commercial Wearcomp - ZyPad
  • 19. Commercial Wearcomp - Fossil
  • 20. Wearcomp in academia Augmented Reality Capture & Access Gesture Recognition Posture Recognition Activity Sensing Context Awareness Healthcare & Assistive Technologies Jesse Venticinque | Wearable Computing
  • 21. What's a Wearable? A person's computer should be worn, much as eyeglasses or clothing are worn, and interact with the user based on the context of the situation. With heads-up displays, unobtrusive input devices, personal wireless local area networks, and a host of other context sensing and communication tools, the wearable computer can act as an intelligent assistant, whether it be through a Remembrance Agent, augmented reality, or intellectual collectives. Jesse Venticinque | Wearable Computing
  • 22. Jesse Venticinque | Wearable Computing
  • 23. MIT media lab sixthsense– a wearable gestural interface that augments the physical world around us with digital information and lets us use natural hand gestures to interact with that information. nse/ Jesse Venticinque | Wearable Computing
  • 24. Augmented Reality Sensory-Augmented Computing: Wearing the Museum’s Guide (Schiele, 2001) Jesse Venticinque | Wearable Computing
  • 25. Augmented Reality Direct Retinal Displays - University of Washington HIT lab Set of 3 colored lasers scan image directly onto retinal surface - Scary but it works - Very high contrast, all in focus, - Potential for very very high resolution - Has to be head mounted - Large field of view, greater than 120 degrees - Very low power consumption Commercial applications of the Virtual Retinal Display are being developed at Microvision Inc. Jesse Venticinque | Wearable Computing
  • 26. Jesse Venticinque | Wearable Computing
  • 27. Jesse Venticinque | Wearable Computing
  • 28. Jesse Venticinque | Wearable Computing
  • 29. Jesse Venticinque | Wearable Computing
  • 30. Jesse Venticinque | Wearable Computing
  • 31. Jesse Venticinque | Wearable Computing
  • 32. Augmented Reality Contact Lens Displays; Bionic Eyesight - Babak A. Parviz - worn daily by more than a hundred million - - build into the lens a display based on an array of LED pixels - - use passive pixels that modulate incoming light rather than producing their own. - -construct an image by changing their color and transparency in reaction to a light source Jesse Venticinque | Wearable Computing
  • 33. Capture & Access Perceptual Rembrance Agent: Audio visual associative memory system Jesse Venticinque | Wearable Computing
  • 34. Capture & Access Recollection of past events - e.g., associating a video or audio clip of the communication with a business card - remembering day-to-day information, visual & audio snapshots - augments human memory Jesse Venticinque | Wearable Computing
  • 35. Gesture Recognition Hambone (Deyle, Palinko, Poole, ThadStarner) - sound generated by hand and ankle movements travel to device via bone conduction -Gesture Watch: controls play & pause commands on mobile media players Pointing (Oakley, Sunwoo, Cho) - Investigate pointing performance (via fitts law) Jesse Venticinque | Wearable Computing
  • 36. Gesture Recognition Enabling Always-Available Input with Muscle-Computer Interfaces T. Scott Saponas, Desney Tan, Dan Morris, RavinBalakrishnan, Jim Turner, James Landay - UIST '09 - Proceedings of the 22nd annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology file:///Users/jessev/Documents/MCHI/SAUI/UIST%20Proceedings/proceedin gs/videos/file215.wmv Jesse Venticinque | Wearable Computing
  • 37. Gesture Recognition Abracadabra: Wireless, High-Precision, and Unpowered Finger Input for Very Small Mobile Devices -Chris Harrison, Scott Hudson - UIST '09 - Proceedings of the 22nd annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology file:///Users/jessev/Documents/MCHI/S AUI/UIST%20Proceedings/proceeding s/videos/ Jesse Venticinque | Wearable Computing
  • 38. Gesture Recognition Real-Time American Sign Language Recognition Jesse Venticinque | Wearable Computing
  • 39. Posture Recognition Elastomer strain sensors - measures strain in clothing “Sustained Logging and Discrimination of sleep postures with low-level wristworn sensors” - sleep Postures using wrist-worn sensors - detect nightly sleep periods & postures - Mattmann et al. Jesse Venticinque | Wearable Computing
  • 40. Healthcare applications MiThrilLiveNet: wearable real-time shiver monitor for soldiers - continuous accelerometer sensing - shivering correlates with core body temperature - ultimate application: real-time wearable hypothermia classification system Jesse Venticinque | Wearable Computing
  • 41. Healthcare applications AMON: A Wearable computer for High Risk Patients - wrist worn medical monitor -free’s patients from stationary monitoring equipment - continuously monitors and logs pulse, blood, oxygen saturation and temperature - Lukowicz et al. (2002) Jesse Venticinque | Wearable Computing
  • 42. Activity Recognition Recognize an activity, adaptinterface and information - jogging / audio notification vs. - sitting / text notification Often uses machine learning algorithms - trade off between training effort & recognition rate - differing accuracy for users who weren’t in the training set and those who were - “off the shelf” activity recognition Spelmezan, Schanowski, &Borchers: Snowboard training Jesse Venticinque | Wearable Computing
  • 43. Activity Recognition Wireless Force Sensing Body Protectors for Martial Arts - accurately measure amounts of power delivered to the body - objective: support judges scoring - Chi, Song, Corbin : PARC & Stanford Jesse Venticinque | Wearable Computing
  • 44. Activity Recognition SwimMaster: A Wearable Assistant for Swimmer - improve swimmers technique - accelerometer sensors mounted on swimmer’s back - actuator devices: visual, acoustic &haptic feedback during swimming - measure Time, swimming velocity, # of strokes, distance per stroke Limitations: Participants: 12 intermediates, no experts Is this comfortable? Does the wearable affect swimming technique? Do users become better swimmers? Can’t correct / teach while swimming Jesse Venticinque | Wearable Computing
  • 45. Input Augmenting Spatial Awareness with Haptic Radar - head-mounted device; - alerts to user about nearby objects - proximity sensors mounted on headband w/ mobile phone vibrator motors. - stronger vibrations for closer by objects - experimenter smack blindfolded participant with foam ball - most participants moved in response; more than half totally avoided it - Cassinelli, Reynolfs, Ishikawa Jesse Venticinque | Wearable Computing
  • 46. Output Tactual Displays &Haptic Interfaces: - Tan &Pentland, MIT (1997) - when audio/visual channels are heavily loaded - use existing tactile information conveyances: * tap on the shoulder Jesse Venticinque | Wearable Computing
  • 47. Wearcomp Challenges Jesse Venticinque | Wearable Computing
  • 48. Wearcomp Challenges: Wearability How well the human body can support a device Assessing the Wearability of Wearable Computers - impact on energy expenditure, biomechanical effects on posture, movement, comfort - Knight et al. (2007) Electronic Textiles – “Smart Cloths”, eTextiles - Leah Buechley - MIT Media Lab - combines fabric with electronics - perception of clothing not computers * greater acceptability for consumer applications Dynamic wearability extends that definition to include the human body in motion. Jesse Venticinque | Wearable Computing
  • 49. Wearcomp Challenges: Power Considerations Perhaps the most limiting factor in mobile technology (Starner) Massoften determined more by power source than underlying electronics How to spread power among clothing? Rechargeablebatteries? Plug yourself in? Charge while moving? While acting? - act of placing shoes / jacket in closet establish wired or wireless connections - leverage natural human movement - energy expended in pressing buttons on a one-handed keyboard power the keyboard Jesse Venticinque | Wearable Computing
  • 50. Wearcomp Challenges: Heat Dissipation Problem with high end laptops Use the the arm’s pendulum like movement to dissipate heat while walking? Dissipate heat directly to user – a greatly appreciated situation in the winter Write applications for wearable computers with heat dissipation in mind - Delay computing processes until it senses a cooler environment Active cooling technology Phase-change materials – resistant to heat Jesse Venticinque | Wearable Computing
  • 51. Other Challenges Interoperability: communication standards & protocols - wireless communication from mobile devices to a fixed infrastructure Privacy: intimate experience, very-personal information - time spent on long coffee breaks? In the bathroom? - are others/strangers constantly wearing video cameras and microphones? Interface Design: - evaluative methods? - size & body placement, form factor - portability and usability - user attention - fashion, Aesthetics? Jesse Venticinque | Wearable Computing
  • 52. Other Challenges From you: Affordability? Health Concerns?, Will it make us lazy? Toomuch data to sort through Too many “devices” & moving parts? Readability? Fragility? Authenticity—or the realness of relationships Better way to present the same information? Bulkiness? Network Coverage & Infrastructure? Too intrusive? Latency? Lack of visual displays If life evolves with an emphasis on always being better, faster, smarter, there ever a way to reach peace with who we are? Is there something to say for aspiration over attainment? …unless its approaching the coolness factor of sci-fi movies, these gadgets will not be adopted into the mainstream… Jesse Venticinque | Wearable Computing
  • 53. Future Research Directions 10th Annual IEEE Computer Society International Symposium on Wearable Computers: - Evaluation: testing wearable computing ideas under realistic conditions and solving problems both theoretically and practically - Context: Not just about form factor and computational capabilities, but about sensing where we are and what we’re doing with them - Usability: User interfaces &Wearability. Jesse Venticinque | Wearable Computing
  • 54. Wearcomp: the role of design What’s the preferred future state? Rich Interaction – Aesthetics of interaction The Design Process: Experience Prototyping Experience Simulation How should design contributions be evaluated? Cultural gaps? Important design issues for wearable computing? Jesse Venticinque | Wearable Computing
  • 55. The role of design MIT: Seamless. Computational Couture a fashion event featuring innovative and experimental works in computational apparel design, interactive clothing, and technology-based fashion. Jesse Venticinque | Wearable Computing
  • 56. “the resulting partnership will think as no human brain has ever thought.” - Starner Jesse Venticinque | Wearable Computing
  • 57. Invisibility Cloak The Gadget Show - The Critical List: Wearable Tech Japanese Wearable Computing Systems Advances in Wearable Computing and Computer Vision. Jesse Venticinque | Wearable Computing
  • 58. Healthcare applications Wearable medical training equipment (Lövquist&Kulcsár, 2007) - Interactive multimodal learning environment using haptics - Experience of haptic perceptions, intuitive interaction Jesse Venticinque | Wearable Computing
  • 59. Healthcare applications Electronic Multiuser Randomized Circuit Training (EMURCT) - Audible and visually prompts trainee to begin and end an exercise - Instructing the Trainee’s through their workout. - Motivate and keep trainees on track while working out. - Graves et al. Jesse Venticinque | Wearable Computing
  • 60. Wearcomp Gaming “Unmaksing Mister X” : - Combines physical & virtual environments - Multiplayer, pplayers must find Mister X - Each player equipped with a sensing device & head mounted display - Sensor values (movement &phsyicalenviroment) for Mr. X displayed in each players display - Unmask Mr. X by checking if sensor values match physical enviroment and movement of another player -Mr. X: act in a way that avoids detection, attention Jesse Venticinque | Wearable Computing
  • 61. Augmented Reality Video-Rate Localization in Multiple Maps for Wearable Augmented Reality - SLAM: Simultaneous Location and Mapping - Decouples tracking from mapping - Uses multiple maps is more scalable; disconnected maps of the world can cover a larger total than a single map could - Best paper at 2008 International Symposium on Wearable Computing at CMU - Castle, Georg Klein, David W Murray Jesse Venticinque | Wearable Computing
  • 62. Wearcomp Challenges: Power Considerations Keystroke-Level Energy Model - Lu Luo& Daniel Siewiorek (2007) - predicts the user-time and system-energy consumption it will take to perform an interactive task PowerPack System - Backpack based system with wireless power distribution Jesse Venticinque | Wearable Computing