Balutan KRS

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  • 1. PERTOLONGAN CEMASPERTOLONGAN CEMAS (FIRST AID)(FIRST AID)
  • 2. First Aid UnitFirst Aid Unit
  • 3. ??PERTOLONGANPERTOLONGAN CEMASCEMAS Professionally coordinates by:Professionally coordinates by:
  • 4. (1)(1) PENGENALANPENGENALAN PERTOLONGAN CEMASPERTOLONGAN CEMAS  Rawatan sementara waktu yangRawatan sementara waktu yang diberikan kepada mangsa; sebelumdiberikan kepada mangsa; sebelum tibanya bantuan perubatan.tibanya bantuan perubatan. ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by:  Variasi nama:Variasi nama: •First AidFirst Aid •Bantu MulaBantu Mula •Pertolongan CemasPertolongan Cemas
  • 5.  Menyelamat nyawaMenyelamat nyawa  Mengelak mangsa cedera lebih seriusMengelak mangsa cedera lebih serius  Mengurangkan kesakitanMengurangkan kesakitan  Menguruskan pemindahan ke hospitalMenguruskan pemindahan ke hospital OBJEKTIFOBJEKTIF ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by: (1)(1) PENGENALANPENGENALAN PERTOLONGAN CEMASPERTOLONGAN CEMAS
  • 6.  Sesuatu situasi kritikal yangSesuatu situasi kritikal yang mengancam nyawamengancam nyawa  Jika tidak diberi rawatan segera,Jika tidak diberi rawatan segera, kesakitan mangsa menjadi lebihkesakitan mangsa menjadi lebih serius, lebih mudarat dan mungkinserius, lebih mudarat dan mungkin menyebabkan kematianmenyebabkan kematian APA ITU KECEMASAN?APA ITU KECEMASAN? ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by: (1)(1) PENGENALANPENGENALAN PERTOLONGAN CEMASPERTOLONGAN CEMAS
  • 7.  BertanggungjawabBertanggungjawab  Berjiwa cekal, waras dan tenangBerjiwa cekal, waras dan tenang  Mengamati prinsip keselamatan diriMengamati prinsip keselamatan diri  Berpengetahuan dan berkeyakinanBerpengetahuan dan berkeyakinan  TerlatihTerlatih CIRI-CIRI SEORANG PENYELAMATCIRI-CIRI SEORANG PENYELAMAT ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by: (1)(1) PENGENALANPENGENALAN PERTOLONGAN CEMASPERTOLONGAN CEMAS
  • 8. ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by: (2)(2) PERALATANPERALATAN PERTOLONGAN CEMASPERTOLONGAN CEMAS 1)1) TermometerTermometer 2)2) Mangkuk EnamelMangkuk Enamel 3)3) Ubat CiumUbat Cium 4)4) AsprinAsprin 5)5) PanadolPanadol 6)6) Ubat MelepuhUbat Melepuh 7)7) Kain Pembalut LukaKain Pembalut Luka 8)8) Kain TekapKain Tekap 9)9) KapasKapas 10)10) GuntingGunting 11)11) Kain KapasKain Kapas 12)12) Pin SematPin Semat 13)13) ElastoplastElastoplast 14)14) Ubat LukaUbat Luka 15)15) Papan TuapPapan Tuap 16)16) Kain SegitigaKain Segitiga 17)17) Ubat Cuci MataUbat Cuci Mata 18)18) Pembalut BerelastikPembalut Berelastik 19)19) Pembalut PembebatPembalut Pembebat 20)20) Pembalut TerbukaPembalut Terbuka 21)21) Adesif Lekat SendiriAdesif Lekat Sendiri ISI ‘KOTAK FIRST AID’ISI ‘KOTAK FIRST AID’
  • 9.  Pembebatan digunakan untuk menutup lukaPembebatan digunakan untuk menutup luka dan mengawal pendarahan.dan mengawal pendarahan. (3)(3) PEMBEBATANPEMBEBATAN && PEMBALUTPEMBALUT  Pembalut dilakukan untuk membantuPembalut dilakukan untuk membantu pembebatan.pembebatan. ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by:
  • 10. PEMBEBATANPEMBEBATAN (3)(3) PEMBEBATANPEMBEBATAN && PEMBALUTPEMBALUT ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by:
  • 11.  Pembalut Tiga SegiPembalut Tiga Segi  Pembalut LebarPembalut Lebar  Pembalut KecilPembalut Kecil  Pembalut GulungPembalut Gulung ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by: JENIS KAIN PEMBALUTJENIS KAIN PEMBALUT (3)(3) PEMBEBATANPEMBEBATAN && PEMBALUTPEMBALUT
  • 12.  Pembalut Tiga SegiPembalut Tiga Segi ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by: (3)(3) PEMBEBATANPEMBEBATAN && PEMBALUTPEMBALUT
  • 13. ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by:  Lipatan Tiga SegiLipatan Tiga Segi (3)(3) PEMBEBATANPEMBEBATAN && PEMBALUTPEMBALUT
  • 14. ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by: 4.4. IKATAN,IKATAN, BALUTAN &BALUTAN & ANDUHANDUH ? Ikatan? Ikatan ? Balutan? Balutan ? Anduh? Anduh
  • 15. IKATANIKATAN Simpul SilaSimpul Sila ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by: (4)(4) IKATAN, BALUTANIKATAN, BALUTAN && ANDUHANDUH
  • 16.  Luka TanganLuka Tangan  Luka DadaLuka Dada  Luka BahuLuka Bahu  Luka PehaLuka Peha  Luka SikuLuka Siku  Luka LenganLuka Lengan  Luka LututLuka Lutut  Luka JariLuka Jari JENIS BALUTAN LUKAJENIS BALUTAN LUKA ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by: (4)(4) IKATAN, BALUTANIKATAN, BALUTAN && ANDUHANDUH
  • 17.  Balutan Luka TanganBalutan Luka Tangan ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by: 11 22 33 44 (4)(4) IKATAN, BALUTANIKATAN, BALUTAN && ANDUHANDUH
  • 18.  Balutan Luka TanganBalutan Luka Tangan ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by: (4)(4) IKATAN, BALUTANIKATAN, BALUTAN && ANDUHANDUH
  • 19.  Balutan Luka TanganBalutan Luka Tangan 11 22 33 44 ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by: (4)(4) IKATAN, BALUTANIKATAN, BALUTAN && ANDUHANDUH
  • 20. Luka di bahagian depanLuka di bahagian depan  Balutan Luka DadaBalutan Luka Dada ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by: (4)(4) IKATAN, BALUTANIKATAN, BALUTAN && ANDUHANDUH
  • 21.  Balutan Luka DadaBalutan Luka Dada Luka di bahagian belakangLuka di bahagian belakang ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by: (4)(4) IKATAN, BALUTANIKATAN, BALUTAN && ANDUHANDUH
  • 22.  BalutanBalutan Luka BahuLuka Bahu ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by: 11 22 33 (4)(4) IKATAN, BALUTANIKATAN, BALUTAN && ANDUHANDUH
  • 23.  Balutan Luka PehaBalutan Luka Peha ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by: 11 22 33 (4)(4) IKATAN, BALUTANIKATAN, BALUTAN && ANDUHANDUH
  • 24.  Balutan Luka SikuBalutan Luka Siku 11 22 11 22 ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by: (4)(4) IKATAN, BALUTANIKATAN, BALUTAN && ANDUHANDUH
  • 25.  Balutan Luka LututBalutan Luka Lutut 11 22 33 ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by: (4)(4) IKATAN, BALUTANIKATAN, BALUTAN && ANDUHANDUH
  • 26. ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by:  Balutan Luka LenganBalutan Luka Lengan 11 22 (4)(4) IKATAN, BALUTANIKATAN, BALUTAN && ANDUHANDUH
  • 27.  Balutan Luka JariBalutan Luka Jari ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by: 11 22 33 44 (4)(4) IKATAN, BALUTANIKATAN, BALUTAN && ANDUHANDUH
  • 28.  Anduh BesarAnduh Besar  Anduh KecilAnduh Kecil  AnduhAnduh Pergelangan TanganPergelangan Tangan  Anduh MenaikAnduh Menaik JENIS ANDUHJENIS ANDUH ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by: (4)(4) IKATAN, BALUTANIKATAN, BALUTAN && ANDUHANDUH
  • 29. ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by:  Anduh BesarAnduh Besar 11 22 33 44 (4)(4) IKATAN, BALUTANIKATAN, BALUTAN && ANDUHANDUH
  • 30. ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by:  Anduh MenaikAnduh Menaik 11 22 33 (4)(4) IKATAN, BALUTANIKATAN, BALUTAN && ANDUHANDUH
  • 31. ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by:  Pembalut CincinPembalut Cincin (4)(4) IKATAN, BALUTANIKATAN, BALUTAN && ANDUHANDUH 11 22 33
  • 32. JENIS-JENIS LUKAJENIS-JENIS LUKA ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by: 1) Luka Terhiris1) Luka Terhiris (5)(5) JENIS KEMALANGANJENIS KEMALANGAN && CARA RAWATANCARA RAWATAN
  • 33. ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by:
  • 34. 2) Luka Terkoyak2) Luka Terkoyak ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by: (5)(5) JENIS KEMALANGANJENIS KEMALANGAN && CARA RAWATANCARA RAWATAN
  • 35. ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by:
  • 36. 3) Luka Tertikam / Tembus3) Luka Tertikam / Tembus ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by: (5)(5) JENIS KEMALANGANJENIS KEMALANGAN && CARA RAWATANCARA RAWATAN
  • 37. 4) Luka Lebam4) Luka Lebam ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by: (5)(5) JENIS KEMALANGANJENIS KEMALANGAN && CARA RAWATANCARA RAWATAN
  • 38. ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by: 5) Luka Kena Tembak5) Luka Kena Tembak (5)(5) JENIS KEMALANGANJENIS KEMALANGAN && CARA RAWATANCARA RAWATAN
  • 39. ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by: CARA MENAHAN DARAHCARA MENAHAN DARAH
  • 40. CARA RAWATANCARA RAWATAN ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by:
  • 41. 6) Luka Kecil6) Luka Kecil ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by: CARA RAWATANCARA RAWATAN (5)(5) JENIS KEMALANGANJENIS KEMALANGAN && CARA RAWATANCARA RAWATAN
  • 42. CARA RAWATANCARA RAWATAN ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by: (5)(5) JENIS KEMALANGANJENIS KEMALANGAN && CARA RAWATANCARA RAWATAN
  • 43. 7) Luka di Perut7) Luka di Perut ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by: (5)(5) JENIS KEMALANGANJENIS KEMALANGAN && CARA RAWATANCARA RAWATAN
  • 44. 8) Luka di Dada8) Luka di Dada ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by: (5)(5) JENIS KEMALANGANJENIS KEMALANGAN && CARA RAWATANCARA RAWATAN
  • 45. 9) Pendarahan bahagian9) Pendarahan bahagian dalam Telingadalam Telinga ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by:
  • 46.  Di Malaysia terdapatDi Malaysia terdapat 141 spesis ular, di141 spesis ular, di mana 37 daripadanyamana 37 daripadanya adalah berbisa.adalah berbisa.  Terbahagi kepada 21Terbahagi kepada 21 Ular Laut dan 16 UlarUlar Laut dan 16 Ular Darat.Darat. 4.4.PATUKAN ULARPATUKAN ULAR ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by: (5)(5) JENIS KEMALANGANJENIS KEMALANGAN && CARA RAWATANCARA RAWATAN
  • 47. 1)1) Sepasang lubang bekas patukkan.Sepasang lubang bekas patukkan. 2)2) Terasa sakit yang amat pada tempat yangTerasa sakit yang amat pada tempat yang kena patuk.kena patuk. 3)3) Bengkak dan merah di sekeliling patukkan.Bengkak dan merah di sekeliling patukkan. 4)4) Pernafasan yang tercungap-cungapPernafasan yang tercungap-cungap 5)5) Kemungkinan terhenti pernafasan.Kemungkinan terhenti pernafasan. 6)6) Berpeluh dan penglihatan berpinar-pinar.Berpeluh dan penglihatan berpinar-pinar. SIMPTOM / TANDA AWALSIMPTOM / TANDA AWAL ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by: (5)(5) JENIS KEMALANGANJENIS KEMALANGAN && CARA RAWATANCARA RAWATAN
  • 48.  Patukan ular berbisa bergantung kepadaPatukan ular berbisa bergantung kepada spesis, amaun racun, kedudukan danspesis, amaun racun, kedudukan dan kedalaman patukkan.kedalaman patukkan.  Boleh membawa kepada maut.Boleh membawa kepada maut.  Mangsa rasa terkejut dan cemas.Mangsa rasa terkejut dan cemas. BAHAYABAHAYA ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by: (5)(5) JENIS KEMALANGANJENIS KEMALANGAN && CARA RAWATANCARA RAWATAN
  • 49. SAIZ PATUKANSAIZ PATUKAN ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by: (5)(5) JENIS KEMALANGANJENIS KEMALANGAN && CARA RAWATANCARA RAWATAN
  • 50. KESAN PATUKANKESAN PATUKAN ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by: (5)(5) JENIS KEMALANGANJENIS KEMALANGAN && CARA RAWATANCARA RAWATAN
  • 51. Terkelar, terbakar dan melecur adalahTerkelar, terbakar dan melecur adalah sama keadaannya.sama keadaannya. Perbezaannya hanya dari segi tahapPerbezaannya hanya dari segi tahap kecederaan. Kebiasaan terbakarkecederaan. Kebiasaan terbakar melibatkan kecederaan yang lebihmelibatkan kecederaan yang lebih serius daripada melecurserius daripada melecur.. 5.5.TERKELAR, TERBAKAR DAN MELECURTERKELAR, TERBAKAR DAN MELECUR (5)(5) JENIS KEMALANGANJENIS KEMALANGAN && CARA RAWATANCARA RAWATAN ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by:
  • 52. (5)(5) JENIS KEMALANGANJENIS KEMALANGAN && CARA RAWATANCARA RAWATAN ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by:
  • 53. Disebabkan terkena:Disebabkan terkena:  Air panasAir panas  Minyak panasMinyak panas  Wap panasWap panas MELECUR DAN LEBAMMELECUR DAN LEBAM Simptom:Simptom:  Kulit melecur danKulit melecur dan kemerahankemerahan  Bahagian terbakarBahagian terbakar mengelembung danmengelembung dan bengkak dengan cepatbengkak dengan cepat  Sakit yang amat sangatSakit yang amat sangat (5)(5) JENIS KEMALANGANJENIS KEMALANGAN && CARA RAWATANCARA RAWATAN ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by:
  • 54. 1.1. Baringkan mangsa di tempat teduh, sejukBaringkan mangsa di tempat teduh, sejuk dan selesa.dan selesa. 2.2. Tanggalkan pakaian dan perhiasan padaTanggalkan pakaian dan perhiasan pada anggota tercedera seperti; kasut, cincin,anggota tercedera seperti; kasut, cincin, jam tangan, dll.jam tangan, dll. 3.3. Jika serius elakkan beri minuman danJika serius elakkan beri minuman dan makanan.makanan. 4.4. Hantar ke hospital jika perlu.Hantar ke hospital jika perlu. CARA RAWATANCARA RAWATAN (5)(5) JENIS KEMALANGANJENIS KEMALANGAN && CARA RAWATANCARA RAWATAN ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by:
  • 55. CARA RAWATAN TERBAKAR RINGANCARA RAWATAN TERBAKAR RINGAN 2211 (5)(5) JENIS KEMALANGANJENIS KEMALANGAN && CARA RAWATANCARA RAWATAN ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by:
  • 56.  Renjatan elektrik bolehRenjatan elektrik boleh menyebabkan maut,menyebabkan maut, mungkin mereka yangmungkin mereka yang cuba membantu turutcuba membantu turut menemui maumenemui maut.t. 6.6.RENJATAN ELEKTRIKRENJATAN ELEKTRIK ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by:
  • 57.  Matikan suis atau suis utama danMatikan suis atau suis utama dan pastikan elektrik sudah terputus.pastikan elektrik sudah terputus.  Menggunakan penebat untukMenggunakan penebat untuk menyelamatkan mangsa:menyelamatkan mangsa: 1.1. Gunakan galah yang panjang dan keringGunakan galah yang panjang dan kering 2.2. Kerusi kayuKerusi kayu 3.3. Tikar getahTikar getah 4.4. Kain sal (tuala yang kering)Kain sal (tuala yang kering) 5.5. Plastik tebalPlastik tebal 6.6. Tali atau tali nylon yang keringTali atau tali nylon yang kering LANGKAH YANG PERLU DIAMBILLANGKAH YANG PERLU DIAMBIL (5)(5) JENIS KEMALANGANJENIS KEMALANGAN && CARA RAWATANCARA RAWATAN ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by:
  • 58. CARA MENGALIH BAHAYACARA MENGALIH BAHAYA (5)(5) JENIS KEMALANGANJENIS KEMALANGAN && CARA RAWATANCARA RAWATAN ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by:
  • 59.  Sekiranya mangsa tidak bernafas,Sekiranya mangsa tidak bernafas, pulihkan pernafasan dari mulut ke mulut.pulihkan pernafasan dari mulut ke mulut.  Jika gagal segera lakukan CPR.Jika gagal segera lakukan CPR.  Jika ada kesan terbakar beri rawatanJika ada kesan terbakar beri rawatan terbakar.terbakar.  Segerakan mangsa ke hospital.Segerakan mangsa ke hospital. CARA RAWATANCARA RAWATAN (5)(5) JENIS KEMALANGANJENIS KEMALANGAN && CARA RAWATANCARA RAWATAN ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by:
  • 60.  Kecederaan tulang meliputi patah atau retakKecederaan tulang meliputi patah atau retak..  Kemungkinan kecederaan boleh berlakuKemungkinan kecederaan boleh berlaku disebabkan pukulan secara langsung ataudisebabkan pukulan secara langsung atau tidak langsung, terjatuh dari bangunan yangtidak langsung, terjatuh dari bangunan yang tinggi, tarikan otot anggota yang tertindih,tinggi, tarikan otot anggota yang tertindih, tembakan atau perlanggaran dantembakan atau perlanggaran dan sebagainya.sebagainya. 7.7.PATAH & TERSELIUHPATAH & TERSELIUH (5)(5) JENIS KEMALANGANJENIS KEMALANGAN && CARA RAWATANCARA RAWATAN ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by:
  • 61. Patah tebu Patah kayu muda JENIS-JENIS PATAHJENIS-JENIS PATAH 11 22 (5)(5) JENIS KEMALANGANJENIS KEMALANGAN && CARA RAWATANCARA RAWATAN ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by:
  • 62. Patah riukPatah riuk Patah melaratPatah melarat JENIS-JENIS PATAHJENIS-JENIS PATAH 33 44 (5)(5) JENIS KEMALANGANJENIS KEMALANGAN && CARA RAWATANCARA RAWATAN ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by:
  • 63.  Lebam dan bengkakLebam dan bengkak  Anggota tidak dapat digerakkanAnggota tidak dapat digerakkan  Terluka atau berubah bentukTerluka atau berubah bentuk  Tajam/berbonjol pada kulitTajam/berbonjol pada kulit  SakitSakit SIMPTOMSIMPTOM (5)(5) JENIS KEMALANGANJENIS KEMALANGAN && CARA RAWATANCARA RAWATAN ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by:
  • 64. BLANKET LIFT: PreparationBLANKET LIFT: Preparation ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by: CARA RAWATANCARA RAWATAN
  • 65. BLANKET LIFT: Rolling OnBLANKET LIFT: Rolling On ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by: CARA RAWATANCARA RAWATAN
  • 66. BLANKET LIFT: LiftingBLANKET LIFT: Lifting ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by: CARA RAWATANCARA RAWATAN
  • 67. 8.8.TERCEKIKTERCEKIK ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by:
  • 68. ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by:
  • 69. 9.9.LEMAS DI AIRLEMAS DI AIR (5)(5) JENIS KEMALANGANJENIS KEMALANGAN && CARA RAWATANCARA RAWATAN ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by:
  • 70.  Lakukan pemeriksaan asas seperti,Lakukan pemeriksaan asas seperti, periksa pernafasan dan nadi.periksa pernafasan dan nadi.  Periksa tahap kesedaran, buka salurPeriksa tahap kesedaran, buka salur pernafasan.pernafasan.  Jika perlu lakukan CPR.Jika perlu lakukan CPR. RAWATANRAWATAN (5)(5) JENIS KEMALANGANJENIS KEMALANGAN && CARA RAWATANCARA RAWATAN ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by:
  • 71.  Apa-apa bahan jikaApa-apa bahan jika dimasukkan kedimasukkan ke dalam kuantiti yangdalam kuantiti yang mencukupi bolehmencukupi boleh mengakibatkanmengakibatkan kemudaratan.kemudaratan. 10.10.KERACUNANKERACUNAN ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by:
  • 72.  Mulut – makan, minumMulut – makan, minum  Paru-paru – sedut gas/asapParu-paru – sedut gas/asap  Suntikan – gigitan, patukan, jarumSuntikan – gigitan, patukan, jarum  Kulit – semburan racun perosakKulit – semburan racun perosak PUNCA KERACUNANPUNCA KERACUNAN (5)(5) JENIS KEMALANGANJENIS KEMALANGAN && CARA RAWATANCARA RAWATAN ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by:
  • 73. 1.1. Pastikan persekitaran dan diri anda selamat.Pastikan persekitaran dan diri anda selamat. 2.2. Alihkan mangsa ke tempat yang selamat.Alihkan mangsa ke tempat yang selamat. 3.3. Kesan melecur pada mulut – beri minum airKesan melecur pada mulut – beri minum air atau susu sedikit demi sedikit.atau susu sedikit demi sedikit. 4.4. Jika sesak nafas, baringkan ke posisi koma.Jika sesak nafas, baringkan ke posisi koma. 5.5. Jika tidak sedar – lakukan ‘primary survey’.Jika tidak sedar – lakukan ‘primary survey’. RAWATANRAWATAN (5)(5) JENIS KEMALANGANJENIS KEMALANGAN && CARA RAWATANCARA RAWATAN ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by:
  • 74. MelaluiMelalui 33 cara:cara: 1.1. Resusitasi secara hembusanResusitasi secara hembusan (mulut ke mulut)(mulut ke mulut) 2.2. Resusitasi secara tekananResusitasi secara tekanan (kardio-pulmonari)(kardio-pulmonari) 3.3. Holger NielsonHolger Nielson TEKNIK-TEKNIKTEKNIK-TEKNIK (6)(6) PEMULIHANPEMULIHAN PERNAFASANPERNAFASAN ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by:
  • 75. Holger NeilsonHolger Neilson11 (6)(6) PEMULIHANPEMULIHAN PERNAFASANPERNAFASAN ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by:
  • 76. 22 Holger NeilsonHolger Neilson (6)(6) PEMULIHANPEMULIHAN PERNAFASANPERNAFASAN ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by:
  • 77. ProfessionallyProfessionally coordinates by:coordinates by:
  • 78. Rescue BreathingRescue Breathing  Is a way of breathing air into an unconsciousIs a way of breathing air into an unconscious victim who is not breathing but has a pulse.victim who is not breathing but has a pulse.
  • 79. CPR (on adults & large children)CPR (on adults & large children) (see handout)(see handout)  Giving chest compressions.Giving chest compressions.  Position the heel of the right hand on the lower half of thePosition the heel of the right hand on the lower half of the breast bone, right between the nipples.breast bone, right between the nipples.  Position left hand on top of the right hand.Position left hand on top of the right hand.  Position shoulders directly over the hands and pushPosition shoulders directly over the hands and push straight down, pushing the breastbone down 1.5 – 2straight down, pushing the breastbone down 1.5 – 2 inches.inches.  15 chest compressions, then 2 breaths.15 chest compressions, then 2 breaths.  After 3 sets of 15 and 2 check for signs of circulation.After 3 sets of 15 and 2 check for signs of circulation.
  • 80. RICE TreatmentRICE Treatment  RestRest  For 24 to 72 hrs. Longer rest may be required for severeFor 24 to 72 hrs. Longer rest may be required for severe injuries.injuries.  IceIce  Apply for 20 min cycles ASAP after injury occurs. Applying coldApply for 20 min cycles ASAP after injury occurs. Applying cold helps reduce pain, swelling and inflammation.helps reduce pain, swelling and inflammation.  CompressionCompression  Wrap the injury to reduce swelling. Make sure it is not tooWrap the injury to reduce swelling. Make sure it is not too tight!tight!  ElevationElevation  Raise the injured part above heart level to reduce swellingRaise the injured part above heart level to reduce swelling and drain blood and fluid from the area.and drain blood and fluid from the area.
  • 81. AED (Automated ExternalAED (Automated External DeDefibrillatorfibrillator))  What is an automated external defibrillatorWhat is an automated external defibrillator (AED)?(AED)? An AED is a device about the size of a laptopAn AED is a device about the size of a laptop computer that analyzes the heart's rhythm forcomputer that analyzes the heart's rhythm for any abnormalities and, if necessary, directsany abnormalities and, if necessary, directs the rescuer to deliver an electrical shock tothe rescuer to deliver an electrical shock to the victim. This shock, called defibrillation,the victim. This shock, called defibrillation, may help the heart to reestablish an effectivemay help the heart to reestablish an effective rhythm of its own.rhythm of its own.
  • 82. AED (Automated ExternalAED (Automated External DeDefibrillatorfibrillator))  How does an AED work?How does an AED work? An AED is easy to operate. It uses voice prompts toAn AED is easy to operate. It uses voice prompts to instruct the rescuer. Once the machine is turned on,instruct the rescuer. Once the machine is turned on, the rescuer will be prompted to apply two electrodesthe rescuer will be prompted to apply two electrodes provided with the AED to the victim's chest. Onceprovided with the AED to the victim's chest. Once applied, the AED will begin to monitor the victim'sapplied, the AED will begin to monitor the victim's heart rhythm. If a "shockable" rhythm is detected, theheart rhythm. If a "shockable" rhythm is detected, the machine will charge itself and instruct the rescuer tomachine will charge itself and instruct the rescuer to stand clear of the victim and to press the shockstand clear of the victim and to press the shock button.button.
  • 83. AED (Automated ExternalAED (Automated External DeDefibrillatorfibrillator))  AED’s are required to be in most large publicAED’s are required to be in most large public buildings.buildings.  Such as malls, schools, and stadiums.Such as malls, schools, and stadiums.
  • 84. SplintsSplints  A material or device used to protect andA material or device used to protect and immobilize a body part.immobilize a body part.  A splint should be used only if it can beA splint should be used only if it can be applied without hurting the victim.applied without hurting the victim.  Two Types of SplintsTwo Types of Splints Soft splints are made from blankets, towels,Soft splints are made from blankets, towels, sheets, or bandages.sheets, or bandages. Rigid splints are made from rolled-up newspapersRigid splints are made from rolled-up newspapers or boards.or boards.
  • 85. Appling Splints…Appling Splints…  Attempt to splint the injury in the position youAttempt to splint the injury in the position you find it.find it.  Make sure it is not too tight!Make sure it is not too tight!  On Fractured BonesOn Fractured Bones Must include the joint above and below the injuredMust include the joint above and below the injured bone.bone.  On Injured JointsOn Injured Joints Must include the bone above and below theMust include the bone above and below the injured joint.injured joint.
  • 86. SlingsSlings  Is a wide piece of cloth looped under anIs a wide piece of cloth looped under an inured arm for support.inured arm for support.  Example: Triangular BandageExample: Triangular Bandage
  • 87. Treatments for CommonTreatments for Common InjuriesInjuries
  • 88. Types Bleeding WoundsTypes Bleeding Wounds  BruiseBruise Is a wound blood vessels cause bleeding underIs a wound blood vessels cause bleeding under the skin.the skin.  IncisionIncision Is a cut caused by a sharp-edged object, such aIs a cut caused by a sharp-edged object, such a razor, scissors, broken glass.razor, scissors, broken glass.  LacerationLaceration Is a cut that causes a jagged or irregular tearing ofIs a cut that causes a jagged or irregular tearing of the skin.the skin.
  • 89. Types Bleeding WoundsTypes Bleeding Wounds  AbrasionAbrasion  AKA a scrape, is a wound caused by rubbing or scrapingAKA a scrape, is a wound caused by rubbing or scraping away the skin.away the skin.  AvulsionAvulsion  Is a wound in which skin or other body tissue is separatedIs a wound in which skin or other body tissue is separated or completely torn away from the body.or completely torn away from the body.  PuncturePuncture  Is a wound produced when a pointed instrument orIs a wound produced when a pointed instrument or projectile pierces the skin.projectile pierces the skin.  The risk of infection is high with this type of wound.The risk of infection is high with this type of wound.
  • 90. Controlling BleedingControlling Bleeding  What is the procedure for controlling bleedingWhat is the procedure for controlling bleeding that we covered last class?that we covered last class?
  • 91. ShockShock  Is a dangerous reduction in blood flow to theIs a dangerous reduction in blood flow to the body tissues.body tissues.  Signs of shock include…rapid, shallowSigns of shock include…rapid, shallow breathing; cold, clammy skin; rapid, weakbreathing; cold, clammy skin; rapid, weak pulse; dizziness; weakness; and fainting.pulse; dizziness; weakness; and fainting.  What is the treatment for shock that weWhat is the treatment for shock that we covered last class?covered last class?
  • 92. FracturesFractures  Is a break or crack in a bone.Is a break or crack in a bone.  Two TypesTwo Types Open FractureOpen Fracture There is also a break in the skin.There is also a break in the skin. Closed FractureClosed Fracture There is no break in the skin.There is no break in the skin.  TreatmentTreatment Treat for bleeding and shock, splint the injury,Treat for bleeding and shock, splint the injury, apply ice.apply ice.
  • 93. DislocationsDislocations  Is the movement of a bone away from its joint.Is the movement of a bone away from its joint.  TreatmentTreatment Splint above and below the dislocated joint, applySplint above and below the dislocated joint, apply a cold compress.a cold compress. Never try and set a dislocation!Never try and set a dislocation!
  • 94. Sprains and StrainsSprains and Strains  Sprain – is an injury to the ligaments, tendons,Sprain – is an injury to the ligaments, tendons, and soft tissue around a joint caused byand soft tissue around a joint caused by undue stretching.undue stretching.  Strain – is an overstretching of muscles and/orStrain – is an overstretching of muscles and/or tendons.tendons.  Treatment – Apply the RICE treatment.Treatment – Apply the RICE treatment.
  • 95. Weather Related InjuriesWeather Related Injuries  Heat Cramps – are painful muscle spasms in theHeat Cramps – are painful muscle spasms in the legs and arms due to excessive fluid loss throughlegs and arms due to excessive fluid loss through sweating.sweating.  Treatment – have victim rest in a cool, shaded area; drinkTreatment – have victim rest in a cool, shaded area; drink cool water; and stretch stiff muscles.cool water; and stretch stiff muscles.  Heat Exhaustion – is extreme tiredness due to theHeat Exhaustion – is extreme tiredness due to the body’s inability to regulate its temperature.body’s inability to regulate its temperature.  Treatment – have victim lie down with feet elevated in aTreatment – have victim lie down with feet elevated in a cool, shaded area; give cool water to drink.cool, shaded area; give cool water to drink.
  • 96. Weather Related InjuriesWeather Related Injuries  Heat Stroke – is an overheating of the bodyHeat Stroke – is an overheating of the body that is life-threatening. Sweating ceases, sothat is life-threatening. Sweating ceases, so that the body cannot regulate its temperature.that the body cannot regulate its temperature. Treatment – have victim lie in cool, wet towels orTreatment – have victim lie in cool, wet towels or sheets; place ice backs near the neck, armpits,sheets; place ice backs near the neck, armpits, and groin.and groin.
  • 97. Weather Related InjuriesWeather Related Injuries  Frostbite – is the freezing of body parts, oftenFrostbite – is the freezing of body parts, often the tissues of the extremities.the tissues of the extremities. Treatment – do not attempt rewarming; handle theTreatment – do not attempt rewarming; handle the affected area carefully and try to keep it warm.affected area carefully and try to keep it warm.  Hypothermia – is a reduction of the bodyHypothermia – is a reduction of the body temperature so that it is lower than normal.temperature so that it is lower than normal. Treatment – move the victim to a warmTreatment – move the victim to a warm environment; remove any wet clothing; cover theirenvironment; remove any wet clothing; cover their head with blankets.head with blankets.