Financial institutions and markets notes as per BPUT syllabus for MBA 2nd semester
MGT- 205: FINANCIAL MARKETS AND INSTITUTIONS
Module – I: Financial Market and Financial Institutions
Topic -1: Meaning and Structure of Financial Market
Financial market refers to those centers and arrangements which facilitate buying & selling of financial
assets / instruments. Whenever a financial transaction takes place, it is deemed to have taken place in financial
market. There is no specific place or location to indicate a financial market. Financial market is a mechanism
enabling participants to deal in financial claims. The markets also provide a facility in which their demands &
requirements interact to set a price for such claims. The main organized financial markets in India are the
money market & capital market. The first is a market for short-term securities.
Structure of Financial Market
Topic -2: Money Market
Money Market is the market for short term funds i.e. for a period up to one year. The money market is divided
into two: Unorganized and Organized Money Market.
1. Unorganized Market: Unorganized market consists of: Money lenders, Indigenous Bankers, Chit Funds, etc.
Money Lenders: Money Lenders lend money to individuals at a high rate of interest.
Indigenous Bankers: They operate like money lenders. They also accept deposits from public.
Chit Funds: These collect funds from members and provide loans to members and others.
2. Organized Money Market: Organized Markets work as per the rules and regulations of the RBI. RBI keeps a
strict control over the Organized Financial Market in India. Organized Market consists of: Treasury Bills,
Commercial Paper (CP), Certificate Of Deposit (CD), Call Money Market, and Commercial Bill Market.
Treasury Bills: To raise short term funds treasury bills are issued by Government. It is purchased by
Commercial Banks. At present, Government issues 91 days and 364 days treasury bills.
Commercial Paper (CP): Commercial paper is issued by companies who are listed on Stock
Exchange. CP is issued at discount and repaid at face value. The maturity period ranges from 7 days to
one year. CP's are issued in multiple of 5 lakh. The company issuing CP must have tangible net worth
of at least 4 crore.
Certificate Of Deposit (CD): CD's are used by Commercial Banks and Financial Institutions to raise
finance from the market. The maturity period for CD's is between 7 days to 1 year. CD's is issued at a
discount and repaid at face value. CD's is issued for a minimum of 25 lakhs.
Call Money Market: A loan which is taken or given for a very short period, that is for one day is
called Call Money Market. It involves lending and borrowing of money on a daily basis. No security is
required for these very short-term loans.
Commercial Bill Market (CBM): This market deals with Bills of exchange. The drawer of the bill
can get the bills discounted with Commercial Banks. The Commercial Banks can get the bills
rediscounted with Financial Institutions.
Topic -3: Capital Market
A capital market is an organized market. It provides long term finance for business. “Capital Market refers to
the facilities and institutional arrangements for borrowing and lending long-term funds”. Capital Market is
divided into three groups:
1. Industrial / Corporate Securities Market: It is a market for industrial securities. Corporate securities
are equity and preference shares, debentures and bonds of companies. Industrial security's market
is very Sensitive and Active Financial Market. It can be divided into two groups: Primary and
Primary Market: It is a market for new issue of securities, which are issued to the public for first
time. It is also called as New Issue Market.
Secondary Market: In the secondary market, there is a sale of secondary securities. It is also called as
Stock Market. It facilitates buying and selling of securities.
2. Government Securities Market: In this market, government securities are bought and sold. It is also
called as Gilt-Edged Securities Market. The securities are issued in the form of bonds and credit
notes. The buyers of such securities are Banks, Insurance Companies, Provident funds, RBI and
Individuals. These securities may be of short-term or long term.
3. Long-Term Loans Market: Banks and Financial institutions provide long-term loans to firms, for
modernization, expansion and diversification of business. Long-Term Loan Market can be divided
Term Loans Market: Banks and Financial Institutions provide term loans to companies for a period
of one year. The financial institutions help in recognizing investment opportunities to motivate
emerging businessmen. They also give encouragement to modernization.
Mortgages Market: It provides loans against securities of immovable assets like land and buildings.
Financial Guarantees Market: Financial Institutions (FIS) and banks provide financial guarantees on
behalf of their clients to third parties.
Topic -4: FOREIGN EXCHANGE MARKET
The term foreign exchange refers to the process of converting the home currencies into foreign
currencies and vice versa. According to Dr. Paul Einzing “Foreign exchange is the system or process of
converting one national currency into account, and of transferring money from one country to another”. The
market where foreign exchange transitions take place is called a foreign exchange market. It does not refer to
a market place in the physical sense of the term. In fact, it consists of a number of dealers, banks and brokers
engaged in the business of buying and selling foreign exchange. It also includes the central bank of each
country and the treasury authorities who enter into this market as controlling authorities. Those engaged in the
foreign exchange business are controlled by the foreign exchange maintenance act (FEMA).
The most important functions of this market are:
1. To most important necessary arrangements to transfer purchasing power from one country to another.
2. To provide adequate credit facilities for the promotion of foreign trade.
3. To cover foreign exchange risks by providing hedging facilities.
In India, the foreign exchange business has a three- tired structure consisting of:
1. Trading between banks and their commercial customers.
2. Trading between banks through authorized brokers.
3. Trading with banks abroad.
Brokers play an important role in the foreign exchange market in India. Apart from authorized dealers, the
RBI has permitted licensed hotels and individuals (known as authorized money changers) to deal in
foreign exchange business. The FEMA helps to smoothen the flow of foreign currency and to prevent any
misuse of foreign exchange which is a scarce commodity.
CHARACTERISTICS: Some of the important features of foreign exchange market are:
1) Electronic market: Foreign exchange market does not have a physical place. It is a market where
trading in foreign currencies takes place through the electronically linked network banks , foreign
exchange brokers and dealers whose function is to bring together buyers and sellers of foreign
2) Geographical dispersal: A redeeming feature of the foreign exchange market is that it is not to be
found in one place. The market is vastly dispersed throughout the leading financial centers of the
world such as London, New York, Paris, Zurich, Amsterdam, Tokyo, Hong Kong, Toronto, Frankfurt,
Milan, and other cities.
3) Transfer of purchasing power: Foreign exchange market aims at permitting the transfer of purchasing
power denominated in one currency to another whereby one currency to another whereby one currency
is traded for another currency. For example, an Indian exporter sells software to a U.S firm for dollars
and a U.S firm sells super computers to an Indian company for rupees. In these transactions, firms of
respective countries would like to have the payment settled in their currencies, i.e. Indian firm in
rupees and U.S dollars. It is the foreign exchange market, which facilitates such a settlement between
countries in their respective currency units.
4) Intermediary: Foreign exchange markets provide a convenient way of converting the currencies
earned into currencies wanted of their respective countries. For this purpose, the market acts as an
intermediary between buyers and sellers of foreign exchange.
5) Volume: A special feature of the FEM is that out of the total trading transactions that take place in the
FEM, around 95% takes the form of cross border purchase and sales of assets, that is, international
capital flows. Only around 5% relates to the export and import activities.
6) Provision of credit: A foreign exchange market provider’s credit through specialized instruments such
as banker’s acceptance and letters of credit. The credit thus provided is of much help to the traders and
businessmen in the international market.
7) Minimizing risks: The FEM helps the importer and exporter in the foreign trade to minimize their risks
of trade. This is being done through the provision of ‘Hedging’ facility. This enables traders to transact
business in the international market with a view to earning a normal business profit without exposure
to an expected change in anticipated profit. This is because exchange rates suddenly change.
CONSTITUENTS: The activities of the foreign exchange market are carried out predominantly through the
world wide bank interbank market. The trading is generally done by telephone, telex or the swift (Society for
Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunications) system. In addition, there are a number of players who
assist in trading of foreign currencies. Several of the foreign exchange markets are discussed briefly.
The Interbank market: It is an important segment of the foreign exchange market. It is the wholesale
market through which most currency transactions are channeled. It is used for trading amongst bankers. It is a
typical foreign exchange market through which around 95 percent of the foreign exchange transactions are
carried out. 20 major banks dominate the market.
There are three constituents of interbank market. They are spot market, forward market and swap
market. The spot market, currencies are traded for immediate delivery extending for a period not exceeding
two business days after the completion of the transaction. Spot transactions account for a share of 60 percent
of the foreign exchange market. In the case of forward market, delivery of currencies takes place at a future
date and contracts for buying and selling take place at the current date. Its transactions account for 10 percent
of the foreign exchange market. Swap market comprises around 30 percent of the transactions of the foreign
The Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunications: The swift is an important
mode of trading in a foreign exchange market. It is an international bank communications network that links
electronically all brokers and traders in foreign exchange.
The categories of participants take part in the operations of the foreign exchange market. They are bank and
non-bank foreign exchange dealers, individuals and firms conducting commercial and investment
transactions, speculators and arbitragers, central banks, and treasuries and foreign exchange brokers.
Foreign Exchange Dealers: Banks and non-bank agencies take part in the activities of the foreign exchange
dealers. Their role comprise, in actual market making. They are the actual market makers in the foreign
exchange market. They actively deal in foreign exchange for their own accounts. These banks buy and sell
major foreign currencies on a continuous basis. They trade with other banks in their own monetary centers
and in other centers of the world in order to maintain the inventory of foreign currencies within the trading
limits. Their profit comes from buying foreign exchange at a bid price and reselling it at a slightly higher
offer/ask price. Competition among dealers worldwide makes the foreign exchange market efficient and
Individuals and Firms: These are the exporters and importers, international portfolio investors, MNCs,
tourists and others who use foreign exchange market to facilitate the execution of commercial or investment
transactions. Firms that operate internationally must pay suppliers and workers in the local currency of each
country in which they operate and may receive payments from customers in many different countries. They
will eventually convert their foreign currency earnings into their home currency. In fact, for ages, supporting
international trade and travel has been the main aim of currency trading. It is interesting to note that some of
these participants use the foreign exchange market for hedging foreign exchange risks.
The activities of FDI require the investor to obtain the currency of the foreign country. Large sums of money
are committed to international portfolio investments, the purchase of bonds, shares or other securities
denominated in a foreign currency. For this purpose, the investor needs to enter the foreign exchange markets
to obtain the currency to make a purchase, to convert the earnings from its foreign investments into home
currency and repatriate the capital when the investment is terminated.
Speculators and Arbitragers: Speculators buy and sell currencies solely to profit from anticipated changes
in exchange rates, without engaging in other sorts of business dealings for which foreign exchange is
essential. Currency speculation is often combined with speculation in short-term financial instruments, such as
treasury bills. The biggest speculators include leading banks and investment banks. Speculators and
arbitragers trade in the foreign exchange market in their own way trying to make profit through normal and
speculative operations. Main source of profit for dealers is the spread between the bid price and offer price
whereas speculators profit from exchange rate changes. It is interesting to note that a large portion of the
speculation and arbitrage takes place on behalf of major banks.
Central Banks and Treasuries: National treasuries or central banks may trade currencies for the purpose of
affecting exchange rates. A government’s deliberate attempt to alter the exchange rate between two currencies
by buying one and selling the other is called ‘intervention’. The amount of currency intervention varies
greatly from country to country and time to time, and depends mainly on how the government has decided to
manage its foreign exchange arrangements.
Central banks and treasuries use the foreign exchange market for the purposes of buying and selling country’s
foreign exchange reserves. They also aim at influencing the value of their own currencies in accordance with
the priorities of the national economic planning. They also use the foreign exchange market to work in unison
with the commitment entered into with the international trade agreements such as European Monetary System
etc. This is often done by the central bank in order to ensure stability and orderliness in the matters of foreign
Foreign Exchange Brokers: These are the commission agents who bring together suppliers and buyers of
foreign currency. They specialize in certain currency although they deal in all major foreign currencies such
as American Dollar, British Pound, Sterling, and Deutsche Mark, etc. Some of the services rendered by the
brokers include provision of information on the prevailing and future rates of exchange; maintaining
confidentiality of participants in the foreign exchange market and helping banks to keep at minimum the
contacts with other traders.
Several types of transactions are carried out in a foreign exchange market among the various players. They
are: Spot transactions, Forward transactions and Swap transactions.
Spot Transaction: An inter-bank transaction whereby the purchase of foreign exchange, and delivery and
payment for the same take place between banks usually on the following second business day is referred to as
‘spot transaction’. The rate quoted in such transactions is called ‘spot rate’. The date of settlement is known as
Forward Transaction: Where a specified amount of one currency is exchanged for a specified amount of
another currency at a future value date, it is a case of a ‘forward transaction’. Under this transaction, only the
delivery and payment take place at a future date, the exchange rate being determined at the time of agreement.
The rate quoted in such transactions is called ‘forward rate’. Forward exchange rates are normally quoted for
value dates of one, two, three, six and twelve months.
Swap Transaction: The simultaneous purchase and sale of a given amount of foreign exchange for different
value dates is referred to as ‘swap transactions’. Both the purchase and sale are with the same counter party.
There are two types of swap transactions. They are spot-against-forward swaps and forward-forward swaps.
In the case of spot-against-forward swaps, the dealer buys a currency in the spot market and simultaneously
sells the same amount back to the same bank in the forward market. The dealer incurs no unexpected foreign
exchange risk since the transaction is executed within a single counter party.
Topic -5: The Nature of the unorganized sector of the Indian Money Market
UNORGANISED SECTOR: The segment of money market which is not under control of RBI is known
as the unorganized segment of Indian money market. It consists of:
1. Moneylenders: money lenders are of three types:
Professional money lenders are those whose main activity is money lending. Pathans and kabulls are
itinerant money lenders charge very high rate of interest; they do not receive deposits from people. Their
lending activities are based on their own funds and interest receipts. Mainly economically weaker section
of people goes to these moneylenders for consumption and production loans.
2. Indigenous bankers: since commercial banks do not provide unsecured loans, the credit needs of a
large section of small traders remain unfulfilled. Indigenous bankers to some extent bridge this gap, since
their operation and establishment costs are lower. Although they do some important activity, they do not
care about the end use of these loans and they are not regulated by RBI. There are mainly four types of
indigenous bankers, viz., Guajarati shroffs, multani or shikarpuri shroffs, south Indian chettiars and
Marwari kayas. Indigenous bankers accept deposits and provide loans to individuals or organizations.
3. Unregulated non-bank financial intermediaries: most notable unregulated non-bank financial
intermediaries are chit funds and Nidhis. Chit funds have regular members making periodical
subscriptions to the funds. Some members of the funds, selected by some previously agreed criteria are
then allotted the fund. Nidhis are also like chit funds, as their principal source of capital base is provided
by its members and some of its members receive the loan. Both chit funds and Nidhis operate mainly in
south India and RBI has no control on them.
Topic -6: Various constituents of the organized sector of the Indian Money Market
The segment of money market which is under the control of RBI is known as organized market. It
1. Reserve bank of India: the reserve bank of India is the highest institution of the Indian money market.
This is the central bank of the country. The reserve bank of India plays a dominant role in controlling the
2. Public sector banks: the public sector banks are those banks whose ownership lies with the
government. The government controls them. In India, in 1969, 14th and in 1980, 6 banks were
nationalized all these banks are in the public sector. Their chief aim is social service. After the merger of
the new bank of India with the Punjab national bank in 1993, their number now stands at 19. In addition
to this the state bank of India and its subsidiaries are also included in the same category. Their number is
8. In this way, a total number of 27 banks are working in the public sector.
3. Private sector banks: private sector banks are those banks which are owned by private individuals.
They run them. Such banks include the Jammu and Kashmir bank ltd. The Punjab bank ltd., etc. an
individual has control over the bank to the extent of the shares he holds in it. Their main aim is to earn
4. Co-operative banks: co-operative banks are organized collectively by some individuals. These people
alone run these banks. The aim of these banks is to help their own members. They include the state cooperative bank, the central district co-operative bank and primary loan committees.
Topic -7: Classification of Financial Institutions in India:
1. Regulatory institutions
Reserve Bank of India (RBI)
Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI)
Central Board of Direct Taxes (CBDT)
Central Board of Excise& Customs
Securities Trading Corporation of India (STCI)
Unit Trust of India (UTI)
Industrial Development Bank of India (IDBI) Ltd.
Reconstruction Bank of India (IRBI), now (Industrial Investment Bank of India)
Export - Import Bank of India (EXIM Bank)
National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD)
Life Insurance Corporation of India (LIC)
General Insurance Corporation of India (GIC)
Housing and Urban Development Corporation Ltd. (HUDCO)
Shipping Credit and Investment Company of India Ltd. (SCICI)
National Housing Bank (NHB)
3. Banking Institutions and Non Banking Institutions
Banking institutions: A bank is an institution that accepts deposits of money from the public, which are
repayable on demand and withdraw able by cheques. The banking institutions of India play a major role in the
economy of the country. The banking institutions are the providers of depository and transaction services.
These activities are the major sources of creating money. The banking institutions are the major sources of
providing loans and other credit facilities to the clients.
Non Banking Financial Institutions (NBFC): An Institution which carried on as its business or part of its
business the following activities: - financing - acquisition of securities - hire purchase - insurance - chit fund mutual benefit company But does not include Institutions which carries on as its principal business: agricultural operations, - industrial activities - Sale and purchase of goods - providing of services - purchase,
sale and construction of immovable property.
All India Institutions
State level Institutions
State Financial Institutions
State Industrial Development Corporations
Topic -8: All India Developmental Financial institutions:
A wide variety of financial institutions have been set up at the national level. They cater to the diverse
financial requirements of the entrepreneurs. They include all India development banks like IDBI, SIDBI, IFCI
Ltd, IIBI; specialized financial institutions like IVCF, ICICI Venture Funds Ltd, TFCI; investment institutions
like LIC, GIC, UTI; etc.
All-India Development Banks (AIDBs):- Includes those development banks which provide institutional
credit to not only large and medium enterprises but also help in promotion and development of small scale
1. Industrial Development Bank of India (IDBI):- was established in July 1964 as an apex financial
institution for industrial development in the country. It caters to the diversified needs of medium and
large scale industries in the form of financial assistance, both direct and indirect. Direct assistance is
provided by way of project loans, underwriting of and direct subscription to industrial securities, soft
loans, technical refund loans, etc. While, indirect assistance is in the form of refinance facilities to
2. Industrial Finance Corporation of India Ltd (IFCI Ltd):- was the first development finance
institution set up in 1948 under the IFCI Act in order to pioneer long-term institutional credit to
medium and large industries. It aims to provide financial assistance to industry by way of rupee and
foreign currency loans, underwrites/subscribes the issue of stocks, shares, bonds and debentures of
industrial concerns, etc. It has also diversified its activities in the field of merchant banking,
syndication of loans, formulation of rehabilitation programmes, assignments relating to amalgamations
and mergers, etc.
3. Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI):- was set up by the Government of India in
April 1990, as a wholly owned subsidiary of IDBI. It is the principal financial institution for
promotion, financing and development of small scale industries in the economy. It aims to empower
the Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME) sector with a view to contributing to the process of
economic growth, employment generation and balanced regional development.
4. Industrial Investment Bank of India Ltd (IIBI):- was set up in 1985 under the Industrial
reconstruction Bank of India Act, 1984, as the principal credit and reconstruction agency for sick
industrial units. It was converted into IIBI on March 17, 1997, as a full-fledged development financial
institution. It assists industry mainly in medium and large sector through wide ranging products and
services. Besides project finance, IIBI also provides short duration non-project asset-backed financing
in the form of underwriting/direct subscription, deferred payment guarantees and working capital/other
short-term loans to companies to meet their fund requirements.
Topic -9: Investment Institutions:- Investment Institutions are the most popular form of financial
intermediaries, which particularly catering to the needs of small savers and investors. They deploy their assets
largely in marketable securities.
1. Life Insurance Corporation of India (LIC):- was established in 1956 as a wholly-owned corporation
of the Government of India. It was formed by the Life Insurance Corporation Act, 1956, with the
objective of spreading life insurance much more widely and in particular to the rural area. It also
extends assistance for development of infrastructure facilities like housing, rural electrification, water
supply, sewerage, etc. In addition, it extends resource support to other financial institutions through
subscription to their shares and bonds, etc. The Life Insurance Corporation of India also transacts
business abroad and has offices in Fiji, Mauritius and United Kingdom . Besides the branch
operations, the Corporation has established overseas subsidiaries jointly with reputed local partners in
Bahrain, Nepal and Sri Lanka.
2. Unit Trust of India (UTI):- was set up as a body corporate under the UTI Act, 1963, with a view to
encourage savings and investment. It mobilizes savings of small investors through sale of units and
channelises them into corporate investments mainly by way of secondary capital market operations.
Thus, its primary objective is to stimulate and pool the savings of the middle and low income groups
and enable them to share the benefits of the rapidly growing industrialization in the country. In
December 2002, the UTI Act, 1963 was repealed with the passage of Unit Trust of India (Transfer of
Undertaking and Repeal) Act, 2002, paving the way for the bifurcation of UTI into 2 entities, UTI-I
and UTI-II with effect from 1st February 2003.
3. General Insurance Corporation of India (GIC):- was formed in pursuance of the General Insurance
Business (Nationalization) Act, 1972(GIBNA), for the purpose of superintending, controlling and
carrying on the business of general insurance or non-life insurance. Initially, GIC had four subsidiary
branches, namely, National Insurance Company Ltd , The New India Assurance Company Ltd , The
Oriental Insurance Company Ltd and United India Insurance Company Ltd . But these branches were
delinked from GIC in 2000 to form an association known as 'GIPSA' (General Insurance Public Sector
Topic -10: Specialized Financial Institutions (SFIs):- Specialized Financial Institutions are the institutions
which have been set up to serve the increasing financial needs of commerce and trade in the area of venture
capital, credit rating and leasing, etc.
1. IFCI Venture Capital Funds Ltd (IVCF):- formerly known as Risk Capital & Technology Finance
Corporation Ltd (RCTC), is a subsidiary of IFCI Ltd. It was promoted with the objective of
broadening entrepreneurial base in the country by facilitating funding to ventures involving innovative
product/process/technology. Initially, it started providing financial assistance by way of soft loans to
promoters under its 'Risk Capital Scheme’. Since 1988, it also started providing finance under
'Technology Finance and Development Scheme' to projects for commercialization of indigenous
technology for new processes, products, market or services. Over the years, it has acquired great deal
of experience in investing in technology-oriented projects.
2. ICICI Venture Funds Ltd: - formerly known as Technology Development & Information Company
of India Limited (TDICI), was founded in 1988 as a joint venture with the Unit Trust of India.
Subsequently, it became a fully owned subsidiary of ICICI. It is a technology venture finance
company, set up to sanction project finance for new technology ventures. The industrial units assisted
by it are in the fields of computer, chemicals/polymers, drugs, diagnostics and vaccines,
biotechnology, environmental engineering, etc.
3. Tourism Finance Corporation of India Ltd. (TFCI):- is a specialized financial institution set up by
the Government of India for promotion and growth of tourist industry in the country. Apart from
conventional tourism projects, it provides financial assistance for non-conventional tourism projects
like amusement parks, ropeways, car rental services, ferries for inland water transport, etc.
Topic -11: State level financial institutions: Several financial institutions have been set up at the State level,
which supplement the financial assistance provided by the all India institutions. They act as a catalyst for
promotion of investment and industrial development in the respective States. They broadly consist of 'State
financial corporations' and 'State industrial development corporations'.
State Financial Corporations (SFCs):- are the State-level financial institutions which play a crucial
role in the development of small and medium enterprises in the concerned States. They provide financial
assistance in the form of term loans, direct subscription to equity/debentures, guarantees, discounting of
bills of exchange and seed/ special capital, etc. SFCs have been set up with the objective of catalyzing
higher investment, generating greater employment and widening the ownership base of industries. They
have also started providing assistance to newer types of business activities like floriculture, tissue culture,
poultry farming, commercial complexes and services related to engineering, marketing, etc. There are 18
State Financial Corporations (SFCs) in the country: Andhra Pradesh State Financial Corporation (APSFC)
Himachal Pradesh Financial Corporation (HPFC)
Madhya Pradesh Financial Corporation (MPFC)
North Eastern Development Finance Corporation (NEDFI)
Rajasthan Finance Corporation (RFC)
Tamil Nadu Industrial Investment Corporation Limited
Uttar Pradesh Financial Corporation (UPFC)
Delhi Financial Corporation (DFC)
Gujarat State Financial Corporation (GSFC)
The Economic Development Corporation of Goa ( EDC)
Haryana Financial Corporation ( HFC )
Jammu & Kashmir State Financial Corporation ( JKSFC)
Karnataka State Financial Corporation (KSFC)
Kerala Financial Corporation ( KFC )
Maharashtra State Financial Corporation (MSFC )
Odisha State Financial Corporation (OSFC)
Punjab Financial Corporation (PFC)
West Bengal Financial Corporation (WBFC)
State Industrial Development Corporations (SIDCs):- have been established under the Companies
Act, 1956, as wholly-owned undertakings of State Governments. They have been set up with the aim of
promoting industrial development in the respective States and providing financial assistance to small
entrepreneurs. They are also involved in setting up of medium and large industrial projects in the joint
sector/assisted sector in collaboration with private entrepreneurs or wholly-owned subsidiaries. They are
undertaking a variety of promotional activities such as preparation of feasibility reports; conducting
industrial potential surveys; entrepreneurship training and development programmes; as well as developing
industrial areas/estates. The State Industrial Development Corporations in the country are:1. Assam Industrial Development Corporation Ltd (AIDC)
2. Andaman & Nicobar Islands Integrated Development Corporation Ltd (ANIIDCO)
3. Andhra Pradesh Industrial Development Corporation Ltd (APIDC)
4. Bihar State Credit and Investment Corporation Ltd. (BICICO)
5. Chhattisgarh State Industrial Development Corporation Limited (CSIDC)
6. Goa Industrial Development Corporation
7. Gujarat Industrial Development Corporation (GIDC)
8. Haryana State Industrial & Infrastructure Development Corporation Ltd. (HSIIDC)
9. Himachal Pradesh State Industrial Development Corporation Ltd. (HPSIDC)
10. Jammu and Kashmir State Industrial Development Corporation Ltd.
11. Karnataka State Industrial Investment & Development Corporation Ltd. (KSIIDC)
12. State Infrastructure & Industrial Development Corporation of Uttaranchal Ltd. (SIDCUL)
13. Tripura Industrial Development Corporation Ltd. (TIDC)
14. Kerala State Industrial Development Corporation Ltd. (KSIDC)
15. Maharashtra Industrial Development Corporation (MIDC)
16. Manipur Industrial Development Corporation Ltd. (MANIDCO)
17. Nagaland Industrial Development Corporation Ltd. (NIDC)
18. Odisha Industrial Infrastructure Development Corporation
19. Omnibus Industrial Development Corporation (OIDC), Daman & Diu and Dadra & Nagar Haveli.
20. Pondicherry Industrial Promotion Development and Investment Corporation Ltd. (PIPDIC)
21. Uttar Pradesh State Industrial Development Corporation
22. Punjab State Industrial Development Corporation Ltd. (PSIDC)
23. Rajasthan State Industrial Development & Investment Corporation Ltd. (RIICO)
24. Sikkim Industrial Development & Investment Corporation Ltd. (SIDICO)
25. Tamilnadu Industrial Development Corporation Ltd. (TIDCO)
Module-II Capital Market
Topic -1: Introduction to Capital Market:
Capital market is a market for financial assets which have a long or indefinite maturity. Generally it
deals with long term securities having a maturity period of above one year. Capital market may be
further divided into three parts i.e.
(i) Industrial security market
(ii) Govt. securities market
(iii) Long term loan market
Capital market serves as a important source for the productive use of economy’s savings and
investment. These savings and investments facilitate capital formation and through this facilitate
increase in production and productivity in the economy. A capital market thus serves as an important
link between those who saves and those who aspire to invest their savings.
Capital markets – Types
(i) Industrial Security Market – It is market where industrial concerns raise their capital or debt by
issuing instruments like equity hares or ordinary shares, preference shares, debentures or bonds. This
market can be sub divided into:
(a) Primary Market or new issue market
(b) Secondary Market or stock Exchange
Primary Market is a market for new issues and hence it is called new issue market. It deals with
securities which are issued to the public for the first time. There are three ways through which capital is
raised in primary market. These are:
- Public issue
- Right Issue
- Private placement
Secondary market is a market for secondary sale of securities i.e. securities which already passed
through the new issue market are traded in this secondary market. Generally, such securities are quoted
in stock exchange and it provides a continuous; and regular market for buying and selling of securities.
(ii) Govt. Security Market – It is a market where Long term Govt securities are traded which are issued
by central Govt, State Govt, Semi Govt authorities like City Corporations, Port Trusts, Improvement
Trusts, State Electricity Boards, All India and State level financial institutions and public sector
organizations/enterprises are dealt in this market. Govt. Securities are in many forms such as:
- Stock Certificates or inscribed stock
- Promissory Notes
- Bearer bonds.
Govt securities are sold through public debt office of RBI. Interest on these securities influences price
and yield in market.
(iii) Long Term loan market – Commercial banks and development banks play a significant role in this
market by supplying long term loans to corporate customers. Long term loan market may further be
- Term loan market
- Mortgage Market
- Financial guarantee Market.
Term Loan Market – In India many industrial finance institutions have been created by Central and
State Govts. which provide medium and long term loans to corporate customers. Institutions like IDBI,
IFCI, ICICI and other state financial corporations come in this category.
Mortgage Market – Refers to those centres which supply mortgage loan mainly to individual customers
against security of immovable property like real estate.
Financial guarantee Market – Refers to centres where finance is provided against the guarantee of
reputed person in financial circle. This guarantee may be in the form of (i) Performance guarantee or (ii)
Financial guarantee. Performance guarantee covers the payment of earnest money retention money,
advance payments and non compilation of contracts etc. The financial guarantee covers only financial
Topic -2: Primary Market, Role of the Primary market
A primary market issues new securities on an exchange. Companies, governments and other groups obtain
financing through debt or equity based securities. Primary markets, also known as "new issue markets," are
facilitated by underwriting groups, which consist of investment banks that will set a beginning price range for
a given security and then oversee its sale directly to investors.
The primary markets are where investors have their first chance to participate in a new security issuance. The
issuing company or group receives cash proceeds from the sale, which is then used to fund operations or
expand the business.
The key role of the primary market is to facilitate capital growth by enabling individuals to convert savings
into investments. It facilitates companies to issue new stocks to raise money directly from households for
business expansion or to meet financial obligations. It provides a channel for the government to raise funds
from the public to finance public sector projects.
“Going public” marks a milestone in a company's growth. The primary market is the first place where the
company's securities are sold. The major players of the primary market are large institutional investors, and
the market requirements are stringent. Therefore, the company as an investment potential is evaluated on
multiple levels. The primary issue is traded in the secondary market by individual investors. Failure to
generate interest in the primary market is translated as poor investment potential.
Role of the Primary market
2. Need for Companies to issue shares to the public:
Most companies are usually started privately by their promoter(s). However, the promoters' capital and the
borrowings from banks and financial institutions may not be sufficient for setting up or running the
business over a long term. So companies invite the public to contribute towards the equity and issue shares
to individual investors. The way to invite share capital from the public is through a 'Public Issue'. Simply
stated, a public issue is an offer to the public to subscribe to the share capital of a company. Once this is
done, the company allots shares to the applicants as per the prescribed rules and regulations laid down by
Topic -3: Different kinds of Issues: Capital instruments, namely, shares and debentures can be issued to the
market by adopting any pf the four modes: Public issues, Private placement, Rights issues and Bonus issues.
Let us briefly explain these different modes of issues.
A. Public Issue
Only public limited companies can adopt this issue when it wants to raise capital from the general
public. The company has to issue a prospectus as per requirements of the corporate laws in force inviting the
public to subscribe to the securities issued, may be equity shares, preference shares ;or debentures/bonds. A
private company cannot adopt this route to raise capital. The prospectus shall give an account of the prospects
of investment in the company. Convinced public apply to the company for specified number of
shares/debentures paying the application money, i.e., money payable at the time of application for the
shares/debentures usually 20 to 30% of the issue price of the shares/debentures.
Public issues enable broad-based share-holding. General public's savings directed into corporate
investment. Economy, company and individual investors benefit. The company management does not face the
challenge of dilution of control over the affairs of the company. And good price for the share and competitive
interest rate on debentures are quite possible.
B. Private Placement
Private placement involves the company issuing security places the same at the disposal of financial
institutions like mutual funds, investment funds >r banks the entire issue for subscription at the mutually
agreed upon pro-rata of interest.
This mode is preferred when the capital market is dull, shy and] depressed During the late 1990s and
early 2010s, Indian companies preferred private placement, even the debt issues, as the general public totally
deserted the} capital market since their hopes in the capital market were totally shattered, Private placement
is inexpensive as no promotion is issued. It is a wholesale} deal.
C. Right Shares
Whenever an existing company wants to issue new equity shares, the existing shareholders will be
potential buyers of these shares. Generally the Articles or Memorandum of Association of the Company gives
the right to existing shareholders to participate in the new equity issues of the company. This right is known
as 'pre-emptive right" and such offered shares are called ‘Right shares' or 'Right issue.
A right issue involves selling securities in the primary market by issuing rights to the existing
shareholders. When a company issues additional share capital, it has to be offered in the first instance to the
existing shareholders on a pro rata basis. This is required in India under section 81 of the Companies' Act,
1956. However, the shareholders may by a special resolution forfeit this right, partially or fully, to enable the
company to issue additional capital to public.
Significance of rights issue
The number of rights that a shareholder gets is equal to the number of shares held by him.
The number rights required to subscribe to an additional share is determined by the issuing
Rights are negotiable. The holder of rights can' sell them fully or partially.
Rights can be exercised only during a fixed period which is usually less than thirty days.
The price of rights issues is generally quite lower than market price and that a capital gain is quite
certain for the share holders.
Rights issue gives the existing shareholders an opportunity for the protection of their pro-rata share
in the earning and surplus of the company.
There is more certainty of the shares being sold to the existing shareholders. If a rights issue is
successful it is equal to favourable image and evaluation of the company's goodwill in the minds of
the existing shareholders.
D. Bonus Issues
Bonus issues are capital issues by companies to existing shareholders whereby no fresh capital is
raised but capitalization of accumulated earnings is done. The shares capital increases, but accumulated
earnings fall. A company shall, while issuing bonus shares must ensure the following:
The bonus issue is made out of free reserves built out of the genuine profits and shares premium
collected in cash only.
Reserves created by revaluation of fixed assets are not capitalized.
The development rebate reserves or the investment allowance reserve is considered as free reserve
for the purpose of calculation of residual reserves only.
All contingent liabilities disclosed in the audited accounts which have, bearing on the net profits,
shall be taken into account in the calculation; of the residual reserve.
The residual reserves after the proposed capitalization shall be at k 40 per cent of the increased
paid up capital.
30 per cent of the average profits before tax of the company for previous three years should yield a
rate of dividend on the net capital base of the company at 10 per cent.
The capital reserves appearing in the balance sheet of the company as a result of revaluation of
assets or without accrual of cash resources are capitalized nor taken into account in the
computation of the residual reserves of 40 percent for the purpose of bonus issues.
The declaration of bonus issue, in lieu of dividend is not made.
The bonus issue is not made unless the partly paid shares, if any existing, are made fully paid-up.
The company - a) has not defaulted in payment of interest or principal in respect of fixed deposits
and interest on existing debentures or principal on redemption thereof and (b) has sufficient reason
to believe that it has not defaulted in respect of the payment of statutory dues of the employees
such as contribution to provident fund, gratuity on bonus.
A company which announces its bonus issue after the approval of the board of directors must
implement the proposals within a period of six months from the date of such approval and shall not
have the option of changing the decision.
There should be a provision in the Articles of Association of the Company for capitalization of
reserves, etc. and if not, the company shall pass a resolution at its general body meeting making
decisions in the Articles of Association for capitalization.
Consequent to the issue of bonus shares if the subscribed and paid-up capital exceeds the
authorized share capital, a resolution shall be passed by the company at its general body meeting
for increasing the authorized capital.
The company shall get a resolution passed at its generating for bonus issue and in the said
resolution the management's intention regarding the rate of dividend to be declared in the year
immediately after the bonus issue should be indicated.
No bonus shall be made which will dilute the value or rights of the holders of debentures,
convertible folly or partly.
SEBI General Guidelines for public issues
Subscription list for public issues should be kept open for at least 3 working days and disclosed
in the prospectus.
Rights issues shall not be kept open for more than 60 days.
The quantum of issue, whether through a right or public issue, shall not exceed the amount
specified in the prospectus/letter of offer. No retention of over subscription is permissible under
any circumstances, except the special case of exercise of green-shoe option.
Within 45 days of the closures of an issue a report in a prescribed form with certificate from the
chartered accounts should be forwarded to SEBI to the lead managers.
The gap between the closure dates of various issue e.g. Rights and Indian public should not
exceed 30 days.
SEBI will have right to prescribe further guidelines for modifying the existing norms to bring
about adequate investor protection, enhance the quality of disclosures and to bring about
transparency in the primary market.
SEBI shall have right to issue necessary clarification to these guidelines to remove any difficulty
in its implementation.
Any violation of the guidelines by the issuers/intermediaries will be punishable by prosecution
by SEBI under the SEBI Act.
The provisions in the Companies Act, 1956 and other applicable lai shall be complied with the
connection with the issue of shares debentures.
Topic -4: Prospectus: A large number of new companies float public issues. While a large number of these
companies are genuine, quite a few may want to exploit the investors. Therefore, it is very important that an
investor before applying for any issue identifies future potential of a company. A part of the guidelines issued
by SEBI (Securities and Exchange Board of India) is the disclosure of information to the public. This
disclosure includes information like the reason for raising the money, the way money is proposed to be spent,
the return expected on the money etc. This information is in the form of 'Prospectus' which also includes
information regarding the size of the issue, the current status of the company, its equity capital, its current and
past performance, the promoters, the project, cost of the project, means of financing, product and capacity etc.
It also contains lot of mandatory information regarding underwriting and statutory compliances. This helps
investors to evaluate short term and long term prospects of the company.
Topic -5: Pricing an issue: The pricing of issues is done by companies in consultation with Merchant bankers.
An existing company with 5 years track record of profitability can freely price the issue. The premium has to be
decided after taking into account net asset value, profit earning capacity and market price. The justification for
price has to be stated and included in the prospectus.
Topic -6: Price discovery through Book building process:
Book Building: - Is a method of issuing / offering shares to investors in which the price at which share
are issued is discovered through bidding process. In this, bidder’s (potential investors) have the
flexibility to bid for shares at a price they are willing to pay. Book Building is basically a process used in
IPOs for efficient price discovery. It is a mechanism where, during the period for which the IPO is open, bids
are collected from investors at various prices, which are above or equal to the floor price. The offer price is
determined after the bid closing date.
Book Building Process
Book Building process is price discovery mechanism in an IPO. This process is helpful to discover a
better offer prices based on the price and demand discovery .under this process bids are collected from
the investors using the network of BSE/ NSE, which are above , below or equal to the floor price. Floor
price is a minimum bid price it is decided at beginning of the bidding process. Offer price is determined
after the bid closing date. The process Bidding shall be permitted only if electronic linked facility is
used. Issuing company appoint a lead merchant banker called book runner. Issuing company should
disclose the following information:
Nominated lead merchant banker
Syndicated members with who orders can be placed by the investors.
Investor can quota the price with the help of syndicate members. Bid price should always be more than the floor
price and it can be revised before closure of the issue. After closing the issue book runner analysis the bids and
evaluated the bid prices. This evaluation is based on many factors example Price Aggression, investor quality or
earliness of bids. Company and the book runner finalized the price. Finally Securities allocated to the success.
Topic -7: Registrar to an Issue:
The Registrar finalizes the list of eligible allottees after deleting the invalid applications and ensures that the
corporate action for crediting of shares to the demat accounts of the applicants is done and the dispatch of
refund orders to those applicable are sent. The Lead Manager coordinates with the Registrar to ensure follow
up so that that the flow of applications from collecting bank branches, processing of the applications and other
matters till the basis of allotment is finalized, dispatch security certificates and refund orders completed and
Topic -8: Listing of securities: Listing of securities means that the securities are admitted for trading on a
recognized stock exchange. Transactions in the securities of any company cannot be conducted on stock
exchanges unless they are listed by them. Hence, listing is the very basis on stock exchange operations. It is
the green signal given to selected securities to get the trading privileges of the stock exchange concerned.
Securities become eligible for trading only through listing. Listing means admission of the securities for
trading on the stock exchange through a formal agreement between the stock exchange and the
company. Securities are buy and sell in the recognized through members who are known as brokers.
The price at which the securities are buy and sales are known as official Quotation.
Listing is compulsory for those companies which intend to offer shares/debentures to the public for
subscription by means of issuing a prospectus. Moreover, the SEBI insists on listing for granting permission
to a new issue by a public limited company. Again, financial institutions do insist on listing for underwriting
new issues. Thus, listing becomes an unavoidable one today.
The companies which have got their shares/debentures listed in one or more recognized stock exchanges must
submit themselves to the various regulatory measures of the stock exchange concerned as well as the SEBI.
They must maintain necessary books; documents etc. and disclose any information which the stock exchange
may call for.
Types of listing
A. Initial listing
Listing public issue of shares and debentures
Listing of right issue of shares and debentures
Listing of Bonus issue of shares
Listing share issued on Amalgamation, mergers etc.
Advantage of listing
To The Company:
The company enjoys concession under direct tax laws.
The company goodwill increase at the international & national Level.
Term loan facilities/extend by the financial institution / bankers the form of Rupee currency and
the foreign currency.
Avoiding the fear of easy takeovers of the organization by others because of wide distribution.
To the investors
Maintain liquidity and safety in securities.
Listed securities are preferred by the bankers for extending term facility.
Rule of the stock exchange protect the interest of the investor.
Official quotation of the securities on the stock exchange corroborate the valuation taken by the
investor for the purpose of tax assessments under income tax act , wealth tax act .
Minimum Listing Requirements for new companies
The following revised eligibility criteria for listing of companies on the Exchange, through Initial Public
Offerings (IPOs) & Follow-on Public Offerings (FPOs), effective August 1, 2006.
ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR IPOs/FPOs
a. Companies have been classified as large cap companies and small cap companies. A large cap
company is a company with a minimum issue size of Rs. 10 crores and market capitalization of not less
than Rs. 25 crores. A small cap company is a company other than a large cap company.
I. In respect of Large Cap Companies
i. The minimum post-issue paid-up capital of the applicant company (hereinafter referred to as "the
Company") shall be Rs. 3 crores; and
ii. The minimum issue size shall be Rs. 10 crores; and
iii. The minimum market capitalization of the Company shall be Rs. 25 crores (market capitalization
shall be calculated by multiplying the post-issue paid-up number of equity shares with the issue price).
II. In respect of Small Cap Companies
i. The minimum post-issue paid-up capital of the Company shall be Rs. 3 crores; and
ii. The minimum issue size shall be Rs. 3 crores; and
iii. The minimum market capitalization of the Company shall be Rs. 5 crores (market capitalization shall
be calculated by multiplying the post-issue paid-up number of equity shares with the issue price); and
iv. The minimum income/turnover of the Company should be Rs. 3 crores in each of the preceding
three 12-months period; and
v. The minimum number of public shareholders after the issue shall be 1000.
vi. A due diligence study may be conducted by an independent team of Chartered Accountants or
Merchant Bankers appointed by the Exchange, the cost of which will be borne by the company. The
requirement of a due diligence study may be waived if a financial institution or a scheduled commercial
bank has appraised the project in the preceding 12 months.
III. For all companies:
I. In respect of the requirement of paid-up capital and market capitalization, the issuers shall be
required to include in the disclaimer clause forming a part of the offer document that in the event of the
market capitalization (product of issue price and the post issue number of shares) requirement of the
Exchange not being met, the securities of the issuer would not be listed on the Exchange.
II. The applicant, promoters and/or group companies, should not be in default in compliance of the
III. The above eligibility criteria would be in addition to the conditions prescribed under SEBI
(Disclosure and Investor Protection) Guidelines, 2000.
Minimum Listing Requirements for companies listed on other stock exchanges
The Governing Board of the Exchange at its meeting held on 6th August, 2002 amended the direct
listing norms for companies listed on other Stock Exchange(s) and seeking listing at BSE. These norms
are applicable with immediate effect.
1. The company should have minimum issued and paid up equity capital of Rs. 3 crores.
2. The Company should have profit making track record for last three years. The revenues/profits
arising out of extra ordinary items or income from any source of non-recurring nature should be
excluded while calculating distributable profits.
3. Minimum net worth of Rs. 20 crores (net worth includes Equity capital and free reserves excluding
4. Minimum market capitalization of the listed capital should be at least two times of the paid up
5. The company should have a dividend paying track record for the last 3 consecutive years and the
minimum dividend should be at least 10%.
6. Minimum 25% of the company's issued capital should be with Non-Promoters shareholders as per
Clause 35 of the Listing Agreement. Out of above Non Promoter holding no single shareholder should
hold more than 0.5% of the paid-up capital of the company individually or jointly with others except in
case of Banks/Financial Institutions/Foreign Institutional Investors/Overseas Corporate Bodies and
7. The company should have at least two years listing record with any of the Regional Stock Exchange.
8. The company should sign an agreement with CDSL & NSDL for demat trading.
Topic -9: Regulations Governing Primary capital markets in India: The overall responsibility of
development, regulation and supervision of the stock market rests with the Securities & Exchange Board of
India (SEBI), which was formed in 1992 as an independent authority. Since then, SEBI has consistently tried
to lay down market rules in line with the best market practices. It enjoys vast powers of imposing penalties on
market participants, in case of a breach. Any company making a public issue or a listed company making a
rights issue of value of more than Rs 50 lakh is required to file a draft offer document with SEBI for its
observations. The company can proceed further on the issue only after getting observations from SEBI. The
validity period of SEBI's observation letter is three months only i.e. the company has to open its issue within
three months period.
Topic -10: Public issue in foreign capital markets: Indian companies are permitted to raise foreign currency
resources through two main sources: a) issue of foreign currency convertible bonds more commonly known as
'Euro' issues and b) issue of ordinary shares through depository receipts namely 'Global Depository Receipts
(GDRs)/American Depository Receipts (ADRs)' to foreign investors i.e. to the institutional investors or
Topic -11: The Secondary Market/ Stock Exchanges:
The market where existing securities are traded is referred to as the secondary market or stock
market. In a stock market, purchases and sales of securities whether of Government or SemiGovernment bodies or other public bodies and also shares and debentures issued by joint stock
companies are affected. The securities of government are traded in the stock market as a separate
component, called guilt edged market. Government securities are traded outside the trading wing
in the form of over the counter sales or purchases. Another component of the stock market deals
with trading in shares and debentures of limited companies.
Control over Secondary Market
For the effective functioning of secondary market, proper control must be exercised. At present,
control is exercised through the following three important processes:
a) Recognition of Stock Exchanges
b) Listing of Securities
c) Registration of Brokers.
a) Recognition of Stock Exchanges : Stock exchanges are the important ingredient of the capital
market. They are the citadel of capital and fortress of finance. They are the theatres of trading in
securities and as such they assist and control the buying and selling of securities. Thus, according
to Husband and Dockeray “securities or stock exchanges are privately organized markets which
are used to facilities trading in securities.” However, at present stock exchanges need not
necessarily be privately organized once.
As per the securities Contacts Regulation Act, 1956 a stock exchange has been defined as follows:
“It is an association, organization or body of individuals whether incorporated or not, established
for the purpose of assisting, regulating and controlling business in buying, selling and dealing in
securities.” In brief, stocks exchanges constitute a market where securities issued by the central
and state governments, public bodies and joint stock companies are traded.
b. Listing of securities: Listing of securities means that the securities are admitted for trading
on a recognized stock exchange. Transactions in the securities of any company cannot be
conducted on stock exchanges unless they are listed by them. Hence, listing is the very basis on
stock exchange operations. It is the green signal given to selected securities to get the trading
privileges of the stock exchange concerned. Securities become eligible for trading only through
Listing is compulsory for those companies which intend to offer shares/debentures to the public for
subscription by means of issuing a prospectus. Moreover, the SEBI insists on listing for granting
permission to a new issue by a public limited company. Again, financial institutions do insist on
listing for underwriting new issues. Thus, listing becomes an unavoidable one today.
The companies which have got their shares/debentures listed in one or more recognized stock
exchanges must submit themselves to the various regulatory measures of the stock exchange
concerned as well as the SEBI. They must maintain necessary books; documents etc. and disclose
any information which the stock exchange may call for.
C. Registration of Brokers: A broker is none other than a commission agent who transacts
business in securities on behalf of his clients who are non-members of a stock exchange. Thus, a
non-member can purchase and sell securities only through a broker who is the member of the stock
exchange. To deal in securities on recognized stock exchanges, the broker should register his name
as a broker with the SEBI. A stock broker must possess the following qualification to register as a
(a) He must be an Indian citizen with 21 years of age.
(b) He should neither be a bankrupt nor compounded with creditors.
(c) He should not have been convicted for any offence, fraud etc.
(d) He should not have engaged in any other business other than that of a broker in securities.
(e) He should not be a defaulter of any stock exchange.
(f) He should have completed 12th std examinations.
Functions of stock exchange: Stock market performs pivotal position in the financial system. It
performs several economic functions and renders invaluable service to the investors, and to the
economy as a whole
1. Liquidity and marketability of securities: Stock exchanges provide liquidity to securities since
securities can be converted to cash at any time according to the discretion of the investor by selling
them at the listed prices. They facilitate buying and selling of securities at listed prices by
providing continuous marketability to the investors in respect of securities they hold or intend to
hold. Thus, they create a ready outlet for dealing in securities
2. Safety of funds: Stock exchanges ensure safety of funds invested because they have to function
under strict rules and regulations and bye-laws are meant to ensure safety of investible funds.
Over- trading, illegitimate speculation etc. are prevented through carefully designed set of rules.
This would strengthen the investor’s confidence and promote larger investment.
3. Supply of long term funds: The securities traded in the stock market are negotiable and
transferable in character and as such they can be transferred with minimum of formalities from one
hand to another. So, when a security is transacted, one investor is substituted by another, but
company is assured of long term availability of funds
4. Flow of capital to profitable ventures: The profitable and popularity of companies are reflected in
stock prices. The prices quoted indicate the relative profitability and performance of companies.
Funds tend to be attracted towards securities of profitable companies and this facilitates the flow of
capital into profitable channels.
5. Motivation for improved performance: The performance of a company is reflected on the prices
quoted in the stock market. These prices are more visible in the eyes of the public. Stock market
provides room for this price quotation for these securities listed by it. This public exposure makes
a company conscious of its status in the market and it acts as a motivation to improve its
6. Promotion of investment: Stock exchanges mobilize the savings of the public and promote
investment through capital formation. But for these Stock exchanges, surplus funds available with
individuals and institutions would not have gone for productive and remunerative ventures
7. Reflection of business cycle: The changing business conditions in the economy are immediately
reflected on the stock exchanges. Booms and depressions can be identified through the dealings on
the Stock exchanges and suitable monetary and fiscal policies can be taken by the government.
Thus a Stock market portrays the prevailing economic situation instantly to all concerned so that
suitable actions can be taken.
8. Marketing of new issues: If the new issues are listed, they are readily acceptable to the public,
since listing presupposes their evaluation by concerned stock exchange authorities. Costs of
underwriting such issues would be less. Public response to such new issues would be relatively
high. Thus, a stock market helps in the marketing of new issues also
9. Miscellaneous services: Stock exchange supplies securities of different kinds with different
maturities and yields. It enables the investors to diversify their risks by a wider portfolio of
investment. It also inculcates saving habits among the community and paves the way for capital
formation. It guides the investors in choosing securities by supplying the daily quotation of listed
securities and by disclosing the trends of dealings on the Stock exchange. It enables companies and
the government to raise resources by providing a ready market for their securities.
FEATURES OF SECONDARY MARKET: The market where securities are traded after
they are initially offered in the primary market. Most trading is done in the secondary market.
In Secondary market share are traded between two investors.
In secondary market there is no issuing of the fresh securities but trading of the already issued
In secondary market both buying and selling can take place
It has a special and fixed place known as stock exchange. However, it must be noted that it is not
essential that all the buying and selling of securities will be done only through stock exchange. Two
individuals can buy or sell them manually. This will also be called a transaction of the secondary
market. Generally, most of the transactions are made through the medium of stock exchange.
Example are the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE),National
Stock Exchange NSE, bond markets, over-the-counter markets, residential mortgage loans, governmental
guaranteed loans etc.
The prices of securities in secondary market are determined by demand and supply.
Only investors do the trading among themselves in secondary market.
The trading of securities does not take place first. A security can be traded in the secondary market
only if issued in the primary market.
Secondary market creates liquidity, hence, indirectly promotes capital formation.
It creates liquidity in securities. Liquidity means immediate conversion of securities into cash. This
job is performed by the secondary market.
Secondary market comes after primary market. New securities are first sold in the primary market and
thereafter it is the turn of the secondary market.
Topic -12: Trading Mechanisms:
Trading at Indian stock exchanges takes place through an open electronic limit order book, in which order
matching is done by the trading computer. There are no market makers or specialists and the entire process is
order-driven, which means that market orders placed by investors are automatically matched with the best
limit orders. As a result, buyers and sellers remain anonymous. The advantage of an order driven market is
that it brings more transparency, by displaying all buy and sell orders in the trading system. However, in the
absence of market makers, there is no guarantee that orders will be executed.
All orders in the trading system need to be placed through brokers, many of which provide online trading
facility to retail customers. Institutional investors can also take advantage of the direct market access (DMA)
option, in which they use trading terminals provided by brokers for placing orders directly into the stock
market trading system.
Topic -13: Dematerialization of shares: In order to mitigate the risks associated with share trading in paper
format, dematerialization concept was introduced in Indian Financial Market. Dematerialisation or Demat in
short is the process through which an investor’s physical share certificate gets converted to electronic format
which is maintained in an account with the Depository Participant. India adopted the demat System
successfully and there are plans to facilitate trading of almost all financial assets in demat format in future.
Through this article, we will try to understand the demat process and its benefits from common investor’s
What is it?
Dematerialisation is the process of converting physical shares into electronic format. An investor who wants
to dematerialize his shares needs to open a demat account with Depository Participant. Investor surrenders his
physical shares and in turn gets electronic shares in his demat account.
Storage of Dematerialized Shares – Depository
Depository is the body which is responsible for storing and maintaining investor's securities in demat or
electronic format. In India there are two depositories i.e. NSDL and CDSL.
Who is a Depository Participant?
Depository Participant (DP) is the market intermediary through which investors can avail the depository
services. Depository Participant provides financial services and includes organizations like banks, brokers,
custodians and financial institutions.
Advantages of Demat
Dealing in demat format is beneficial for investors, brokers and companies alike. It reduces the risk of holding
shares in physical format from investor’s perspective. It’s beneficial for brokers as it reduces the risk of
delayed settlement and enhances profit because of increased participation.
From share issuing company’s perspective, issuance in demat format reduces the cost of new issue as papers
are not involved. Efficiency and timeliness of the issue is also maintained while companies deal in demat
There are a lot of other benefits, but let’s focus on benefits with respect to common investor and the same are
• Demat format reduces the risk of bad deliveries
• Time and money is saved as you are not dealing in paper now. You need not go to the notary, broker for
taking delivery or submitting the share certificate
• Liquidity is very high in case of demat format as whole process in automated.
• All the benefits of corporate action like bonus, stock split, rights etc are managed through the depository
leading to elimination of transit losses
• Interest on loan against demat shares are less as compared to physical shares
• Investors save stamp duty while transferring shares in demat format.
• One needs to pay less brokerage in case of demat shares
Most of the trading in shares are done in demat format now a day, but there are few investors who still hold
shares in paper format. You cannot deal in paper shares now, so you need to dematerialize them first. In order
to dematerialize physical/paper shares, investors need to fill Demat Request Form (DRF), and submit the
same along with physical shares. DRF is available with the DP and you simply need to raise a request for
demat conversion with the DP. Their representative will come and get the DRF form signed. So the complete
process of dematerialization involves:
Investor surrenders the physical certificates for dematerialization to the DP along with DRF.
2. DP updates the account of the investor and shares are allocated in investor demat holding.
Topic -14: Settlement cycle: Equity spot markets follow a T+2 rolling settlement. This means that any trade
taking place on Monday gets settled by Wednesday. All trading on stock exchanges takes place between 9:55
am and 3:30 pm, Indian Standard Time (+ 5.5 hours GMT), Monday through Friday. Delivery of shares must
be made in dematerialized form, and each exchange has its own clearing house, which assumes all settlement
risk, by serving as a central counterparty.
Topic -15: Clearing corporations: An organization associated with an exchange to handle the confirmation,
settlement and delivery of transactions, fulfilling the main obligation of ensuring transactions are made in a
prompt and efficient manner. They are also referred to as "clearing firms" or "clearing houses". In order to
make certain that transactions run smoothly, clearing corporations become the buyer to every seller and the
seller to every buyer. In other words, they take the offsetting position with a client in every transaction.
Topic -16: Price bands: The prospectus may contain either the floor price for the securities or a price band
within which the investors can bid. The spread between the floor and the cap of the price band shall not be
more than 20%. In other words, it means that the cap should not be more than 120% of the floor price. The
price band can have a revision and such a revision in the price band shall be widely disseminated by
informing the stock exchanges, by issuing a press release and also indicating the change on the relevant
website and the terminals of the trading members participating in the book building process. In case the price
band is revised, the bidding period shall be extended for a further period of three days, subject to the total
bidding period not exceeding ten days. It may be understood that the regulatory mechanism does not play a
role in setting the price for issues. It is up to the company to decide on the price or the price band, in
consultation with Merchant Bankers.
Topic -17: Risk management: The risk management system in case of Indian stock exchanges is based on
two pillars. While margins calculated on open positions and collateral deposited against it forms the first line
of defence, deposit based capital (base minimum capital, liquid net worth) given by trading member
(TM)/clearing member (CM) becomes the second line of defence against failure of any market participant.
As against net positions serving as the basis for levying margins on brokers for positions taken by
them and their clients as implemented in other jurisdictions, in India VaR (Value at Risk) based margins are
imposed at a client level i.e. net for a client and gross across all clients for the broker, thereby ignoring any
netting-off that may occur between client-client and client proprietary positions. VaR based margins are
updated 5 times per day to keep the margin requirements in sync with the current level of market volatility. In
addition to VaR based initial margins there are additional requirements specified, as a second level of defence,
in the form of an exposure margin/extreme loss margins which provides extra cushion in case of tail risk
events and finally mark-to-market losses are collected and paid in cash on a daily basis.
Indian stock exchanges have a deposit based capital requirement over and above entry level and
continuing net worth criteria for market participants undertaking the trading/clearing activity. Such net worth
requirements vary based on the nature of the business activity, trading or clearing or both, of the participant.
Further in addition to the minimum capital requirements, Stock Exchanges/Clearing Corporations have been
empowered to collect additional deposits in order to satisfy itself on the parameter of credit risk. This is as
against a balance sheet based capital adequacy requirement prevalent in many other jurisdictions.
A sound risk management system is integral to an efficient clearing and settlement system. NSE
introduced for the first time in India, risk containment measures that were common internationally but were
absent from the Indian securities markets. Risk containment measures include capital adequacy requirements
of members, monitoring of member performance and track record, stringent margin requirements, position
limits based on capital, online monitoring of member positions and automatic disablement from trading when
limits are breached, etc.
Topic -18: Trading Rules:
A Stock exchange is a corporation or organization that provides trading facilities for stockbrokers and traders.
Instruments traded on stock exchanges include stocks, investment trusts, commodities, options, mutual funds,
unit trusts and bonds. Only members can trade on an exchange.
Specialists: A stock specialist is a member of a stock exchange who provides several services. They make a
market in stocks by providing the best bid and best ask during trading hours. Specialists also maintain a fair
and orderly market.
Floor Brokers: Floor brokers trade on the floor on the major exchanges. Floor brokers buy and sell securities
in their own account. Floor brokers are required to take and pass written tests in order to trade. They must
abide by exchange rules, and they must be a member of the exchange on which they trade.
Stock brokers/Financial Advisers: Stock brokers, financial advisers, certified financial planners and
registered representatives buy and sell stocks on behalf of their clients and customers. They must pass certain
written exams in order to carry out trades and adhere to ethical standards.
Day Traders: Day traders are individuals who buy and sell securities for their own accounts. Day traders will
trade quickly--making purchases and sales on the same day.
Casual Traders: A casual trader is a person who tries to build up a portfolio by buying and selling securities
for his own account over a period of time. Technology has simplified the process and given the casual trader
much of the same information and tools available to professional traders.
Online Trading: Online trading is available to any person that has an account at an online trading firm. A
person can enter trades from a personal computer and set price limits and targets. Commissions are often
much less than at a full-service brokerage firm.
How to do Buying and Selling of Stocks
Now a days, there is no any physical trading, means going physical to stock exchange and do buying and
selling of shares. Now everything is done online in electronic format .No need to go to any stock exchange. Stock
transaction takes place in 3 major steps.
1. You place order (buy or sell) online 2. The order goes to your broker (broker like indiabulls, 5paisa etc)
3. From broker the order goes to stock exchange (either BSE or NSE)
And finally based on your price your order gets executed. Your role is to place only buy or sell order. No need to worry
about broker part and stock exchange part. You just need to place your order. There are two methods for placing
orders; Online trading and Offline trading.
Online Stock Trading - The online stock trading is done by self. If you want to do trading yourself then you can go for
For online trading you need computer, Internet connection, demat and trading account. You can even make use of
internet café, if you do not want buy computer and internet connection at the beginning. But demat account and trading
accounts are must for trading in stock market.
Offline stock trading - In this method the orders will be placed by the broker on your behalf. Means you have to tell your
broker which stocks to buy and sell and based on your instruction he carries out transaction. In this method you don’t
need any computer and internet connection.
Topic -19: Regulatory Framework:
Capital issue (control) act ,1947
Securities contract (regulation) act, 1956
SEBI act, 1992 Depositories Act, 1996
Companies Act, 1956
Capital issue (control) act ,1947
Any firm, issuing shares needed central government permission Also determine the amount and price of the
issue The act was repealed in 1992, Market determined allocation started
Securities contract (regulation) act, 1956
It provided for control on: all aspect of securities trading and running of stock exchange to prevent
undesirable transaction It give central government regulatory jurisdiction over:
Stock exchanges: recognition and supervision
Contracts in securities
Listing of securities
Stock exchanges: recognition and supervision processing application of recognition of stock exchanges grant
of recognition to stock exchange, procedure of corporatisation and demutualization of stock exchanges,
withdrawal of recognition to stock exchange.
Demutualization and BSE: BSE has completed the process of Demutualization in terms of The BSE
(Corporatisation and Demutualization) Scheme, 2005. The Bombay Stock Exchange Limited has succeeded
'The Stock Exchange, Mumbai' in accordance with the Scheme The Securities and Exchange Board of India
(SEBI) had approved and published the Scheme of 'The Stock Exchange, Mumbai' . This act also empowers
the Central government to call for periodical returns and make direct enquiries to direct rules to be made and
powers of SEBI to make or amend bye-laws of recognized stock exchanges have been laid down. to supersede
governing body of recognized stock exchange and vests with the Central Government the power to suspend
business of recognized stock exchanges
Contracts in Securities: If the Central Government is not satisfied regarding the nature or the volume of
transactions in securities it may, by notification in the Official gazette, declare contracts in notified areas
Listing of Securities: The act also provides conditions of listing, delisting of securities, right of appeal against
refusal of stock exchanges to list securities of public companies, right of appeal to SAT against refusal of
stock exchange to list securities of public companies, procedures and powers of SAT, Right to legal
Penalties and Procedures: The act also provides various cases when a person is liable for penalties such as
when there is failure to: Furnish information, return, etc. Enter into agreements with clients Redress investor's
grievances Segregate securities or moneys of client or clients Comply with provision of listing and delisting
SEBI Act, 1992
The SEBI Act, 1992 was enacted to empower SEBI with statutory powers for protecting the interests of
investors in securities, promoting the development of the securities market and regulating the securities
market by measures it thinks fit.
The measure provide for: Regulating the business in stock exchanges and other securities markets. Registering
and regulating the working of: stock brokers, sub-brokers, share transfer agents bankers to an issue, trustee of
trust deeds, registrar to an issue, merchant bankers, underwriters, portfolio managers, investment advisers and
Registering and regulating the working of the depositories, participants, foreign institutional investors, credit
rating agencies and such other Registering and regulating the working of venture capital funds and collective
investment schemes, including mutual funds.
Prohibiting fraudulent and unfair trade practices relating to securities markets.
Promoting investors education and training of intermediaries of securities markets.
Prohibiting insider trading in securities.
Regulating substantial acquisition in shares and takeover of companies.
Undertaking inspection, conducting inquires and audits of the stock exchanges, mutual funds, other
persons associated with the securities market,
Companies Act, 1956
It deals with issue, allotment and transfer of securities and various aspects relating to company management
Provide for standard disclosure in public issues Company management. Management perception of the risk
factors information about other listed companies under the same management Company ‘s other projects
Depositories Act, 1996
Depository Act, 1996 Provides for the
Establishment of depositories in securities
Ensure free transferability of securities with speed and accuracy
By making securities freely transferable
Dematerializing the securities
On line transfer
The Depositories Act, 1996 provides for the establishment of depositories for securities to ensure
transferability of securities with speed, accuracy and security. The act provides the rights and obligations of
depositories, participants, issuers and beneficial owners.
A depository is required to enter into an agreement with one or more participants as its agents. Any person
through a participant can enter into an agreement for availing its services. Any person who enters into an
agreement with depository should surrender the certificate of security for which he requires the services of a
depository to the issuer
After the issuer receives the certificate of security, he should cancel the certificate of security and substitute in
its records the name of the depository as a registered owner in respect of that security the depository should
enter the name of the person who has entered into agreement, as the beneficial owner in its records.
After receiving intimation from the participant, every depository should register the transfer of security in the
name of the transferee. All securities held by a depository should be dematerialized and be in a fungible form.
The depositories should be deemed to be the registered owner for the purpose of effecting transfer of
ownership of security on behalf of a beneficial owner. The depository as a registered owner should not have
any voting rights or other rights in the securities held by it.
A Beneficial owner, with the prior approval of the depository creates a pledge or hypothecation of securities
owned by him through a depository. The depository is required to maintain a register and an index of
beneficial owners. The depositories are required to furnish information about the transfer of securities in the
name of beneficial owners at such intervals and in such manner as may be specified by the bye-laws.
Topic -20: Current Status of the Market (status is shown in the internet and news papers on daily basis).
Topic -21: Corporate Action: A corporate action is an event initiated by a public company that affects the
securities (equity or debt) issued by the company. Some corporate actions such as a dividend (for equity
securities) or coupon payment (for debt securities (bonds)) may have a direct financial impact on the
shareholders or bondholders; another example is a call (early redemption) of a debt security. Other corporate
actions such as stock split may have an indirect impact, as the increased liquidity of shares may cause the
price of the stock to rise. Some corporate actions such as name change have no direct financial impact on the
shareholders. Corporate actions are typically agreed upon by a company's board of directors and authorized by
the shareholders. Some examples are stock splits, dividends, mergers and acquisitions, rights issues and spinoffs.
Reasons: The primary reasons for companies to use corporate actions are:
Return profits to shareholders: Cash dividends are a classic example where a public company declares a
dividend to be paid on each outstanding share. Bonus is another case where the shareholder is rewarded. In a
stricter sense the Bonus issue should not impact the share price but in reality, in rare cases, it does and results
in an overall increase in value.
Influence the share price: If the price of a stock is too high or too low, the liquidity of the stock suffers.
Stocks priced too high will not be affordable to all investors and stocks priced too low may be de-listed.
Corporate actions such as stock splits or reverse stock splits increase or decrease the number of outstanding
shares to decrease or increase the stock price respectively. Buybacks are another example of influencing the
stock price where a corporation buys back shares from the market in an attempt to reduce the number of
outstanding shares thereby increasing the price.
Corporate Restructuring: Corporations re-structure in order to increase their profitability. Mergers are an
example of a corporate action where two companies that is competitive or complementary come together to
increase profitability. Spin-offs are an example of a corporate action where a company breaks itself up in
order to focus on its core competencies.
TYPES: Corporate actions are classified as voluntary, mandatory and mandatory with choice corporate
Mandatory Corporate Action: A mandatory corporate action is an event initiated by the corporation by the
board of directors that affects all shareholders. Participation of shareholders is mandatory for these corporate
actions. An example of a mandatory corporate action is cash dividend. All holders are entitled to receive the
dividend payments, and a shareholder does not need to do anything to get the dividend. Other examples of
mandatory corporate actions include stock splits, mergers, pre-refunding, return of capital, bonus issue, asset
ID change, pari-passu and spin-offs. Strictly speaking the word mandatory is not appropriate because the
share holder person doesn't do anything. In all the cases cited above the shareholder is just a passive
beneficiary of these actions. There is nothing the Share holder has to do or does in a Mandatory Corporate
Voluntary Corporate Action: A voluntary corporate action is an action where the shareholders elect to
participate in the action. A response is required by the corporation to process the action. An example of a
voluntary corporate action is a tender offer. A corporation may request share holders to tender their shares at a
pre-determined price. The shareholder may or may not participate in the tender offer. Shareholders send their
responses to the corporation's agents, and the corporation will send the proceeds of the action to the
shareholders who elect to participate.
Sometimes a voluntary corporate action may give the option of how to get the proceeds of the action. For
example in case of a cash or stock dividend option, the shareholder can elect to take the proceeds of the
dividend either as cash or additional shares of the corporation. (These are commonly known as Mandatory
Events with Options, as a dividend is mandatory but a shareholder has the option to elect for the cash or to reinvest their cash dividend into the shares) Other types of Voluntary actions include rights issue, making
buyback offers to the share holders while delisting the company from the stock exchange etc.
Mandatory with Choice Corporate Action: This corporate action is a mandatory corporate action where
share holders are given a chance to choose among several options. An example is cash or stock dividend
option with one of the options as default. Share holders may or may not submit their elections. In case a share
holder does not submit the election, the default option will be applied.
Topic -22: Buyback of shares: The repurchase of outstanding shares (repurchase) by a company in order to
reduce the number of shares on the market. Companies will buy back shares either to increase the value of
shares still available (reducing supply), or to eliminate any threats by shareholders who may be looking for a
controlling stake. A buyback allows companies to invest in them-selves. By reducing the number of shares
outstanding on the market, buybacks increase the proportion of shares a company owns. Buybacks can be
carried out in two ways:
1. Shareholders may be presented with a tender offer whereby they have the option to submit (or tender) a
portion or all of their shares within a certain time frame and at a premium to the current market price. This
premium compensates investors for tendering their shares rather than holding on to them.
2. Companies buy back shares on the open market over an extended period of time.
Topic -23: Index: Security market Index measures the behaviour of the security prices and the stock
market. Indicators represent the entire stock market and its segments which measure the movement of
the stock market. The most popular index in India are the Bombay stock exchange sensitivity Index (BSE
Sensex or BSE – 100) and the National Stock Exchange Nifty. The two prominent Indian market indexes are
Sensex and Nifty. Sensex is the oldest market index for equities; it includes shares of 30 firms listed on the
BSE, which represent about 45% of the index's free-float market capitalization. It was created in 1986 and
provides time series data from April 1979, onwards. Another index is the S&P CNX Nifty; it includes 50
shares listed on the NSE, which represent about 62% of its free-float market capitalization. It was created in
1996 and provides time series data from July 1990, onward.
Purpose of Index
Security Index is helpful to show the economic health and analyzing the movement of price of various
securities listed into the stock exchange.
Helpful to evaluate the Risk – return portfolio analysis.
Helpful to measure the growth of the secondary market.
Index can be used to compare a given share prices behaviour with its movement.
It is helpful to the investor to make their Investment decision.
Funds can be allocated more rationally between stocks with knowledge of the relationship of
price of individual with the movements in the market.
Market indices act as sensitive barometer of the changes in trading pattern in the stock market.
Factors that influence the construction of Index numbers
Selecting the shares for inclusion in the index making.
Determine the relative importance of each share included in the sample weighting
Average the included share into single share measure.
Sample List of Indices
BSE 500 and Sectoral Indices
S&P CNX 50
CNX Nifty Junior
OTCEI – Composite Index
Module-III: Banking Basics and New Age Banking
Topic -1: Historical Perspective of Banking, An Overview of development of Banking in India
Banking in India originated in the last decades of the 18th century. The first banks were The General Bank
of India, which started in 1786, and Bank of Hindustan, which started in 1790; both are now defunct. The
oldest bank in existence in India is the State Bank of India, which originated in the Bank of Calcutta in June
1806, which almost immediately became the Bank of Bengal. This was one of the three presidency banks, the
other two being the Bank of Bombay and the Bank of Madras, all three of which were established under
charters from the British East India Company. For many years the Presidency banks acted as quasi-central
banks, as did their successors. The three banks merged in 1921 to form the Imperial Bank of India, which,
upon India's independence, became the State Bank of India in 1955.
A bank is a financial institution and a financial intermediary that accepts deposits and channels
those deposits into lending activities, either directly or through capital markets. A bank connects customers
with capital deficits to customers with capital surpluses.
Topic -2: Banking Structure
The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) is the central banking and monetary authority of India, and also
acts as the regulator and supervisor of commercial banks.
Scheduled Banks in India
Scheduled banks comprise scheduled commercial banks and scheduled co-operative banks.
Scheduled commercial banks form the bedrock of the Indian financial system, currently accounting
for more than three-fourths of all financial institutions' assets. SCBs are present throughout India,
and their branches, having grown more than four-fold in the last 40 years now number more than
80,500 across the country. Our focus in this module will be only on the scheduled commercial
Public Sector Banks
Public sector banks are those in which the majority stake is held by the Government of India (GoI).
Public sector banks together make up the largest category in the Indian banking system. There are
currently 27 public sector banks in India. They include the SBI and its 6 associate banks (such as
State Bank of Indore, State Bank of Bikaner and Jaipur etc), 19 nationalised banks (such as
Allahabad Bank, Canara Bank etc) and IDBI Bank Ltd. Public sector banks have taken the lead role
in branch expansion, particularly in the rural areas.
Regional Rural Banks
Regional Rural Banks (RRBs) were established during 1976-1987 with a view to develop the rural
economy. Each RRB is owned jointly by the Central Government, concerned State Government and
a sponsoring public sector commercial bank. RRBs provide credit to small farmers, artisans, small
entrepreneurs and agricultural labourers. Over the years, the Government has introduced a number
of measures of improve viability and profitability of RRBs, one of them being the amalgamation of