Mining Methods

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Mining Methods

  1. 1. PlotMaker Mining Methods Blackout day presentation - 5 th December 2008 VENKAT M. Team Lead – Minex, INDIA
  2. 3. Mining Methods <ul><li>Coal is mined by two main methods - surface or ‘ opencast ’ mining and ‘ underground ’ mining. </li></ul><ul><li>The choice of method is largely determined by the depth, geology of the coal deposit and other factors. </li></ul><ul><li>The majority of the world's coal production is coming from Opencast mines. </li></ul><ul><li>This scenario is same in India also. </li></ul>
  3. 4. Mining Process Drilling | Blasting | Loading | Hauling | Transporting | Processing/Washing Drill machines (rotary/percussive) | SMS, emulsion, Primer, Nonel, etc | Shovels, Draglines, etc | Front-end loader, etc | Dumpers, Conveyors, etc | Coal washeries… OPENCAST
  4. 5. Mining Process Drilling | Blasting | Loading | Hauling | Transporting | Processing/Washing DRAG LINE OPENCAST
  5. 6. Mining Process Drilling | Blasting | Loading | Hauling | Transporting | Processing/Washing SURFACE MINER OPENCAST
  6. 7. Mining Process Drilling | Blasting | Loading | Hauling | Transporting | Processing/Washing IN-PIT CRUSHING & CONVEYING OPENCAST
  7. 8. Mining Process Drilling | Blasting | Loading | Hauling | Transporting | Processing/Washing Coal drill | Permitted explosives | Manual/ SDL/ LHD/Scraper | Manual/ SDL/ LHD/Scraper | Tubs, Conveyors, etc | Coal washeries… UNDERGROUND Supporting Ventilation Pumping
  8. 9. Mining Process Drilling | Blasting | Loading | Hauling | Transporting | Processing/Washing ROAD HEADERS CONTINUOUS MINERS UNDERGROUND
  9. 10. Mining Process Drilling | Blasting | Loading | Hauling | Transporting | Processing/Washing SDL/ LHD/ SCRAPER UNDERGROUND
  10. 11. Mining Process Drilling | Blasting | Loading | Hauling | Transporting | Processing/Washing LONGWALL UNDERGROUND
  11. 12. Selection of Mining Equipment <ul><li>Stripping Ratio – in case of Opencast. </li></ul><ul><li>Life of the mine </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure available </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed annual output </li></ul><ul><li>Technology available </li></ul>
  12. 13. OPENCAST MINING
  13. 14. Different OC Machinery <ul><li>Shovel + Dumper </li></ul><ul><li>Dragline </li></ul><ul><li>Surface Miner </li></ul><ul><li>Bucket Wheel Excavator </li></ul><ul><li>In-pit crushing + Spreader </li></ul>
  14. 15. Schematic diagram of Opencast
  15. 16. Heavy blasting in open cast benches
  16. 17. Shovel + Dumper <ul><li>Multi seam extraction </li></ul><ul><li>More flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Can work in steep gradients upto 1 in 5 </li></ul>
  17. 18. Shovel + Dumper
  18. 19. Rope Shovel and Dumper
  19. 20. Hydraulic Shovel and Dumper
  20. 21. Surface Miner <ul><li>Selective mining. </li></ul><ul><li>Particularly suitable for coal having compressive strength below 250 kg/cm 2 . </li></ul><ul><li>Suitable in gradient of 1 in 10 and flatter. </li></ul>
  21. 22. Surface Miner
  22. 23. Surface Miner
  23. 24. Bucket wheel excavator <ul><li>Used mainly for lignite extraction. </li></ul><ul><li>Particularly suitable for coal having low compressive strength upto 100 kg/cm 2 . </li></ul>
  24. 25. Bucket wheel excavator
  25. 32. DRAGLINE <ul><li>Gradients flatter than 1 in 6. </li></ul><ul><li>Seams should be free of faults & other geological disturbances. </li></ul><ul><li>Deposits with Major Strike length. </li></ul><ul><li>A hilly property is not suitable. </li></ul><ul><li>Deposit should have atleast 15 years life. </li></ul>
  26. 33. DRAGLINE
  27. 35. Giant Dragline bucket
  28. 36. In-pit crusher conveyor technology
  29. 37. In-pit crusher conveyor technology
  30. 38. In-pit crusher conveyor technology
  31. 39. UNDERGROUND MINING
  32. 40. Incline entry into a seam.
  33. 41. Entry through a shaft
  34. 42. Entry through a shaft
  35. 43. Man riding systems in the mines
  36. 44. A well supported underground roadway
  37. 45. Coal train - 1919, Pennsylvania
  38. 46. Drilling operation in the coal face
  39. 47. MANUAL COAL LOADING
  40. 48. LOAD HAUL DUMPER Capacity – 2/2.7 Cu.M Production – 150/200 Tonnes/day For seams of 1 in 6 gradient and flatter Thickness of 2.0 m to 4.0 m
  41. 49. SIDE DUMP LOADER Capacity – 1.0 Cu.M Production – 120 Tonnes/day For seams of 1 in 5 gradient and flatter Thickness of 2.0 m to 3.5 m
  42. 50. MECHANISED DRIVAGE MACHINES Rate of drivage –6 meters/day Production –150 Tonnes/day For seams of 1 in 4 gradient and flatter Thickness of 2.0 m to 4.0 m
  43. 51. Continuous Miner Rate of drivage –50 meters/day Production –1500 Tonnes/day For seams of 1 in 5 gradient and flatter Thickness of 3.0 m to 4.0 m
  44. 52. Mechanised Roof Bolter Bolting -240 bolts/day For seams of 1 in 5 gradient and flatter Thickness of 2.0 m to 5.0 m
  45. 53. Direction of retreat FACE Bottom Gate TOP Gate LONGWALL GENERAL LAYOUT Dip direction <ul><li>Longwall mining method includes drivage of two long roadways in coal and joining them at the end by a perpendicular drivage forming a face. </li></ul>
  46. 54. LONGWALL MINING
  47. 55. SHEARER WORKING AT LONGWALL FACE
  48. 56. SHEARER WORKING AT LONGWALL FACE
  49. 57. POWERED ROOF SUPPORT AT LONGWALL FACE
  50. 58. LONGWALL MAIN GATE
  51. 59. NEW CONCEPTS (Going to be implemented in INDIA)
  52. 60. Highwall Mining Trench Mining Bench Mining
  53. 61. Highwall Mining
  54. 62. Highwall Mining
  55. 63. Punch Longwall
  56. 64. <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Step change in cost and productivity </li></ul><ul><li>More production capacity </li></ul><ul><li>High productivity & low cost </li></ul><ul><li>Longer term and higher % of reserves extraction </li></ul><ul><li>Easy logistics – near surface </li></ul><ul><li>High gate road development rates feasible </li></ul><ul><li>Higher and faster returns on investment </li></ul><ul><li>Total investment ~ $100 million – compared with > $300 millions UG </li></ul>Punch Longwall
  57. 65. Punch Longwall
  58. 66. Punch Longwall
  59. 67. Erection of Arches
  60. 68. Erection of Arches
  61. 69. Meshing & Lagging with special sleepers
  62. 71. Punch Longwall
  63. 72. Longwall Top Coal Caving (LTCC)
  64. 73. Longwall Top Coal Caving (LTCC)
  65. 74. PED schematic operation PC for entering messages. <ul><li>PED Receivers can be: </li></ul><ul><li>BeltPED Personal Receiver (shown) </li></ul><ul><li>AutoPED Vehicle Receiver </li></ul><ul><li>ControlPED for Equipment Switching </li></ul><ul><li>BlastPED for Remote Blast Initiation </li></ul>Modulator Transmitter Link Data Link Antenna (Surface or Underground) Ultra Low Frequency Transmission Through Rock
  66. 75. PED receiver cap lamps
  67. 77. Questions… Please
  68. 78. VENKAT M. TL-Minex-INDIA

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