Internet Of Things
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  • 1. Internet of Things Design Aspects By Venkat Reddy Thangella (MT2013160) Sunkari Raja Shekhar Reddy (MT2013156)
  • 2. Introduction  The term Internet of Things was first coined by Kevin Ashton in 1999 in the context of supply chain management.  Communication Technologies: – Mobile wireless communications – Internet technology – Future is IOT Internet- Connecting world Internet of things-Controlling the world by using internet and establishing communication between devices/sensors and making life easier.
  • 3. Introduction contd...  Here devices could be microcontrollers or sensors which Sense from environment/nature, perform some analytics and give that as output.  Internet of things is  Any thing connection  Any place connection  Any time connection
  • 4. Why Internet of Things  It is estimated by 2020 there would be 50 billion objects/devices connected to the Internet which includes almost every electronic products.  To Make life easier  Improve the resource utilization ratio  Better relationship between human and nature
  • 5. Feel of IOT... What if..  Fire accident?? What if there is sudden fire accident/short circuit at your home when you were at your work place ??
  • 6. The application of IoT Scenario: shopping (2) When shopping in the market, the goods will introduce themselves. (1) When entering the doors, scanners will identify the tags on her clothing. (4) When paying for the goods, the microchip of the credit card will communicate with checkout reader. (3) When moving the goods, the reader will tell the staff to put a new one.
  • 7. Wireless Sensor Network  A wireless sensor network (WSN) of spatially distributed autonomous sensors to monitor physical or environmental conditions, such as temperature, sound, pressure, etc. and to cooperatively pass their data through the network to a main location.
  • 8. 8 Literature Survey  Building Internet of things using RFID RFID approach is discussed.  Future Internet: The Internet of Things Architecture, Possible Applications and Key Challenges. - Architecture of IOT, its challenges and applications is discussed. An Internet of Things (IoT) architecture for embedded appliances. - How embedded appliances can be connected to internet is discussed.
  • 9. Technologies used with IOT  Following technologies are being considered for implementing device to device communication in IOT: - RFID - BLUETOOTH - NFC - Wifi - WiMax etc.. The above technologies are short ranged communication technologies.
  • 10. Device to Device Communication using RFID  RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) devices are wireless microchips used for tagging objects for automated identification  RFID can identify objects wirelessly without line-of-sight  RFID systems consist of a reading device called a reader, and one or more tags.  The reader is a powerful device with ample memory and computational resources.
  • 11. 11 Open Challenges  Interoperability is an issue.  Scalability, Reliability..  What kind of data formats need to be used ?.  How many functionalities can a device perform?.  Will it support legacy systems?  Life of a Network.
  • 12. 12 Addressing Issues  Addressing each device uniquely is big concern.  IPv6 provides unique addressing to the 2^128 devices.  What if some more devices added to the Internet?  How about the security of each device connected to the Internet?  Even if, we chose to use IPv6. More the header wastage involved than the data provided by the Low-end devices.
  • 13. 13 Other Issues  Each end-node is low-power device.  Resource constrained.  Internet Protocol Stack is used then, it needs more memory and processing power.  Life of network will go down.  Queried for information on the end-node, if it is off. Who notifies it to the requester that it is not available ?.
  • 14. 14 Other Issues(continued..)  How can a end-device configured to dynamic IP- addressing? .  If collision happen, how many times it will retry for retransmission?.  How can a requester will understand the data send by end- node?. It sends only raw data, otherwise lot of analytics is needed.  Multidisciplinary nodes, variable data types, and formats.
  • 15. 15 Our Approach
  • 16. 16 Architecture Network Level System Level End Device Level
  • 17. 17 IPv6 Packet Format
  • 18. Adressing Schemes Wireless sensor networks (considering them as building blocks of IoT), which run on a different stack compared to the Internet, it cannot possess IPv6 stack to address individually and hence a subnet with a gateway having a URN will be required. BT devices emit signals with a unique Media Access Identification (MAC-ID) number that can be read by BT sensors within the coverage area.
  • 19. 19 Changes to IPv6
  • 20. Device Addressing Table Device Address Machine Address Last updated time at central node Device Status IP address/ Uniform Resource Name/ other MAC ID Eg: 10 msec ON/OFF  Device Address: It is the unique address(may be universally accepted) assigned by central node to all the devices paired with it.  Machine Address:It is the unique address assigned to each device by manufacturer or vendor of respective device.  Last updated time at central node:It is the most recent time At which specific device has given a response to central node. Central node maintains Last updated time of all devices individually  Device Status: This field updates automatically which intimates centralnode the status of device i.e ON/OFF or any mal functioning.
  • 21. Information table Machine Address Information present at central node MAC ID eg-: 30 degrees, 20 metres  Machine Address: It is the unique address assigned to each device by manufacturer or vendor of respective devices.  Information present at central node: It is the information given by respective devices upon sensing and processing internally.
  • 22. 22 Medium Access Control Two ways, 1. Central Node Polling. - Normal cases. 2. Threshold Crossing - Special cases where immediate response required. Ex: Fire Alarming, it needs to report to the fire station.
  • 23. 23 Central Node Polling Central node will make a request to the each node on periodic intervals. Retrieve the data from the end-node(sensors) store it to the Information Table(IT). Duration upon which data to be accessed will be decided by the Administrator(owner). Advantages Life of network will be high. No data processing required at end-nodes. No synchronization Traffic on end-node will be less.
  • 24. 24 Threshold Crossing Each node will get some threshold setting, or a special case it can access the medium for data transmission to central node. No need to wait for central node to poll for data transmission. Advantages No delay. Disadvantages Collision probability. Multiple transmissions may be needed. Life of end-node will go down.
  • 25. 25 Benefiting IOT Life of network will be more. - end-nodes will be active mode for long time. No need of huge processing power at end-nodes. - No need of complex algorithms required. Security is addressed. - All the nodes can be accessed from central node. Mobility of end-nodes. - No complex wiring required, and battery powered. QoS is enabled. - Priority can be set by the user, slot-based.
  • 26. 26 Benefiting IOT(continued) Faulty end-nodes can be detected instantly. - Node goes off, no request can be processed. End-user understandable data. - Processed data, digital data. No need of interoperability. - All can follow one protocol. Resource efficient. - More processors, ADC's and Memory chips are not required. Dynamic data diversion and easy change of behavioral parameters. - Destination address can change.
  • 27. 27 References 1. K. Ashton, That ‘‘Internet of Things’’ thing, RFiD Journal (2009). H. Sundmaeker, P. Guillemin, P. Friess, S. Woelfflé, 2. Vision and challenges for realizing the Internet of Things, Cluster of European Research Projects on the Internet of Things—CERP IoT, 2010. 3. J. Buckley (Ed.), The Internet of Things: From RFID to the Next-Generation Pervasive Networked Systems, Auerbach Publications, New York, 2006.[4] M. Weiser, R. Gold, The origins of ubiquitous computing research at PARC in the late 1980s, IBM Systems Journal (1999). 4. Internet of Things (IoT): A vision, architectural elements, and future directions. Jayavardhana Gubbi
  • 28. 28 Thank You