Human Nature And Behaviours


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Human Nature And Behaviours

  1. 1. Understanding Human Nature and Behaviour Presented by Muhammad Iqbal Malik
  2. 2. <ul><li>To develop an understanding about human nature and its influence on behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Becoming more self-aware and have a deeper understanding about others </li></ul><ul><li>To develop an appreciation for diversity </li></ul>Today’s Objectives
  3. 3. <ul><li>What is personality? </li></ul><ul><li>What makes us what we are? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the key elements of personality? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there generic types or classes? </li></ul><ul><li>Is this personality “good” or “bad”? </li></ul><ul><li>Is diversity a “curse ” or a blessing? </li></ul><ul><li>Application of what we have learnt </li></ul>We will cover:
  4. 4. Why Bother?
  5. 5. Know thyself The unexamined life is not worth living!
  6. 6. <ul><li>Self-awareness </li></ul><ul><li>People are the most important organizational resource </li></ul><ul><li>Improving predictability and self-confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Building relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Effective utilization of human resources </li></ul><ul><li>Avoiding or managing conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>Improving the quality of life and work environment </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Have you ever faced a person whom you failed to understand? </li></ul><ul><li>Have you ever been misunderstood (as a person)? </li></ul><ul><li>Have you ever been frustrated by people who looked, behaved, thought or felt very different than you? </li></ul><ul><li>Have you ever looked down on someone who behaved, thought or felt differently? </li></ul>Reflection
  8. 8. What is Personality?
  9. 9. <ul><li>“ Every man is in certain respects like all other men, like some other men, like no other man” </li></ul><ul><li>Kluckhohn & Murray </li></ul>Personality
  10. 10. <ul><li>Personality describes the character of emotion, thought, and behavior patterns unique to a person </li></ul><ul><li>It is a particular pattern of behaviour and thinking prevailing across time and situations that differentiates one person from another </li></ul><ul><li>Personality is the sum total of ways in which an individual react and interacts with others </li></ul>Personality
  11. 11. <ul><li>Personality is that which permits a prediction of what a person will do in a given situation </li></ul><ul><li>It explains how each individual is unique </li></ul><ul><li>Personality is one of the key determinants of human behaviour – but there are also other factors of behaviour e.g. situation, attitude, cognition, motivation, belief etc. </li></ul>Personality
  12. 12. What makes us what we are? How do we become “us”?
  13. 13. <ul><li>Nature vs. Nurture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heredity and biology - genes , nervous system , endocrine system and other systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environment and life experiences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Identical twins share the same template but have different “states” </li></ul><ul><li>Twins raised in different families have often demonstrated similar tastes, choosing the same profession and even using the same brands of products </li></ul>The Development of Personality
  14. 14. <ul><li>Some traits may be more strongly linked to heredity than others </li></ul><ul><li>The initial few years are critical in the formation of personality </li></ul><ul><li>Plaster vs. Plasticity hypothesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Set like plaster </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes throughout adulthood </li></ul></ul>The Development of Personality
  15. 15. <ul><li>Trait Theories – personality is a set of mental structures/systems, different for each individual, resulting in characteristic responses to situations </li></ul><ul><li>Humanist Theories – d ifficult to predict behaviour – lives are not scripted – personalities are defined by their own different perceptions and experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioural Theories – Personality is the constantly changing set of learned behaviour, influenced by reinforcements </li></ul>Views on Personality
  16. 16. <ul><li>Human behaviour is influenced by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personality traits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The interaction between personality and situation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How one perceives or defines a situation is a critical factor of behaviour </li></ul>Interactionism
  17. 17. <ul><li>Doctors report that the child would never be able to play any physically exerting sport… the child grows to be the fittest athlete in the world </li></ul><ul><li>How did the parents define the situation? </li></ul><ul><li>How did the child define the situation? </li></ul><ul><li>How did it influence their behaviour? </li></ul>CASE
  18. 18. <ul><li>Locus of Control (internal/external) The degree to which people believe they are in control of their own fate </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Esteem - Feelings of self-worth stemming from the individual's positive or negative beliefs about being valuable and capable </li></ul><ul><li>Self-awareness - being aware of oneself, including one's traits, feelings, behaviours and limitations </li></ul><ul><li>Risk Taking - a person’s willingness to take chances or risks </li></ul>Other Attributes
  19. 19. Personality Models
  20. 20. <ul><li>Before we examine various types of personalities we should remember: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There is no “right”, “wrong”, “good” or “bad” type </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each type has “strengths” and “weaknesses” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A personality may however be more “suitable” for a given role or situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personality traits may shift over time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behaviour/performance is not dependent on personality alone </li></ul></ul>Is this Personality Good or Bad?
  21. 21. <ul><li>The Big Five </li></ul><ul><li>Cattell’s 16 Primary Factors </li></ul><ul><li>Myers-Briggs Type Indicator </li></ul>Personality Models
  22. 22. The Big Five <ul><li>Conscientiousness </li></ul><ul><li>Competence </li></ul><ul><li>Order </li></ul><ul><li>Dutifulness </li></ul><ul><li>Achievement striving </li></ul><ul><li>Self-discipline </li></ul><ul><li>Deliberation (reflection) </li></ul><ul><li>Extraversion </li></ul><ul><li>Warmth & Sociability </li></ul><ul><li>Assertiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Activity </li></ul><ul><li>Positive emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Talkativeness </li></ul><ul><li>Boldness </li></ul><ul><li>Spontaneity </li></ul><ul><li>Adventure & Enthusiasm </li></ul><ul><li>Agreeableness </li></ul><ul><li>Trust </li></ul><ul><li>Straightforwardness </li></ul><ul><li>Altruism </li></ul><ul><li>Compliance </li></ul><ul><li>Modesty </li></ul><ul><li>Tender-mindedness </li></ul><ul><li>Openness </li></ul><ul><li>Fantasy </li></ul><ul><li>Aesthetics </li></ul><ul><li>Feelings </li></ul><ul><li>Actions </li></ul><ul><li>Ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Values </li></ul><ul><li>Neuroticism </li></ul><ul><li>Anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>Angry hostility </li></ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul><ul><li>Self-consciousness </li></ul><ul><li>Impulsiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Vulnerability </li></ul>
  23. 23. Cattells’ 16 Primary Factors Lively, spontaneous, enthusiastic, cheerful, expressive, impulsive Serious, restrained, prudent, thoughtful, silent Liveliness Dominant, assertive, aggressive, competitive, stubborn, bossy Respectful, humble, cooperative, avoids conflict, obedient Dominance Emotionally stable, adaptive, mature, faces reality, calm Reactive, emotionally less stable, easily upset Emotional Stability Abstract-thinking, more intelligent, bright, fast learner Concrete-thinking, less intelligent Reasoning Warm, outgoing, kindly, easygoing, participating, likes people Reserved, impersonal, cool, detached, formal Warmth High Low Factor
  24. 24. Cattells’ 16 Primary Factors Abstracted, imaginative, absent-minded, absorbed in ideas, impractical, Grounded, practical, solution-oriented, steady, conventional Abstractedness Vigilant, suspicious, skeptical, distrustful, oppositional Trusting, accepting, unconditional, easy Vigilance Sensitive, aesthetic, sentimental, tender-minded, intuitive, refined Utilitarian, objective, unsentimental, tough-minded, rough Sensitivity Socially bold, venturesome, thick-skinned, uninhibited Shy, threat-sensitive, timid, hesitant, intimidated Social Boldness Rule-conscious, dutiful, conscientious, moralistic, rule-bound Expedient, nonconforming, disregards rules Rule-Consciousness High Low Factor
  25. 25. Cattells’ 16 Primary Factors Self-reliant, solitary, individualistic, self-sufficient Group-oriented, affiliative, follower, dependent Self-Reliance Open to change, experimenting, liberal, analytical, flexible Traditional, attached to familiar, conservative Openness to Change Apprehensive, self-doubting, worried, guilt-prone, insecure, self-blaming unworried, secure, complacent, free of guilt, confident Apprehension Private, tactful, non-disclosing, shrewd, worldly, diplomatic Straightforward, genuine, open, naive Privateness High Low Factor
  26. 26. Cattells’ 16 Primary Factors Tense, high energy, impatient, frustrated, high drive, time-driven Relaxed, easy going, calm, lazy, patient, low drive Tension Perfectionist, organized, compulsive, self-disciplined Tolerates disorder, flexible, careless, impulsive Perfectionism High Low Factor
  27. 27. <ul><li>4 Scales </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extraversion - Introversion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensing – Intuition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thinking – Feeling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Judging - Perceiving </li></ul></ul><ul><li>16 Types </li></ul>Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
  28. 28. MBTI Scales <ul><li>Intuition </li></ul><ul><li>Meanings </li></ul><ul><li>Associations </li></ul><ul><li>Possibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Hunches/Speculations </li></ul><ul><li>Theoretical </li></ul><ul><li>Future </li></ul><ul><li>Fantasy </li></ul><ul><li>Sensing </li></ul><ul><li>Facts </li></ul><ul><li>Data </li></ul><ul><li>Details </li></ul><ul><li>Reality based </li></ul><ul><li>Actuality </li></ul><ul><li>Here and now </li></ul><ul><li>Utility/Purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Introversion </li></ul><ul><li>Inner World </li></ul><ul><li>Thoughts/Concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Reflective </li></ul><ul><li>Depth of Interest </li></ul><ul><li>Understand, then live </li></ul><ul><li>Concentration </li></ul><ul><li>Inwardly directed </li></ul><ul><li>Extraversion </li></ul><ul><li>Outer world </li></ul><ul><li>People/Things </li></ul><ul><li>Active </li></ul><ul><li>Breadth of Interest </li></ul><ul><li>Live, then understand </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Outgoing </li></ul>
  29. 29. MBTI Scales <ul><li>Perceiving </li></ul><ul><li>Pending </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible </li></ul><ul><li>Spontaneous </li></ul><ul><li>Tentative </li></ul><ul><li>Let life happen </li></ul><ul><li>Undaunted by surprise </li></ul><ul><li>Open to change </li></ul><ul><li>Judging </li></ul><ul><li>Organized </li></ul><ul><li>Settled </li></ul><ul><li>Planned </li></ul><ul><li>Decisive </li></ul><ul><li>Control own life </li></ul><ul><li>Set goals </li></ul><ul><li>Systematic </li></ul><ul><li>Feeling </li></ul><ul><li>Sympathy </li></ul><ul><li>Subjective </li></ul><ul><li>Humane </li></ul><ul><li>Personal </li></ul><ul><li>Appreciate </li></ul><ul><li>Values </li></ul><ul><li>Circumstances </li></ul><ul><li>Thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Objective </li></ul><ul><li>Logic </li></ul><ul><li>Impersonal </li></ul><ul><li>Critique </li></ul><ul><li>Reason </li></ul><ul><li>Criteria </li></ul>
  30. 30. MBTI – 16 Personality Types ISFP Quiet, serious, sensitive and kind. Do not like conflict, and not likely to do things which may generate conflict. Loyal and faithful. Extremely well-developed senses, and aesthetic appreciation for beauty. Not interested in leading or controlling others. Flexible and open-minded. Likely to be original and creative. Enjoy the present moment. ISFJ Quiet, kind, and conscientious. Can be depended on to follow through. Usually puts the needs of others above their own needs. Stable and practical, they value security and traditions. Well-developed sense of space and function. Rich inner world of observations about people. Extremely perceptive of other's feelings. Interested in serving others. ISTP Quiet and reserved, interested in how and why things work. Excellent skills with mechanical things. Risk-takers who they live for the moment. Usually interested in and talented at extreme sports. Uncomplicated in their desires. Loyal to their peers and to their internal value systems, but not overly concerned with respecting laws and rules if they get in the way of getting something done. Detached and analytical, they excel at finding solutions to practical problems. ISTJ Serious and quiet, interested in security and peaceful living. Extremely thorough, responsible, and dependable. Well-developed powers of concentration. Usually interested in supporting and promoting traditions and establishments. Well-organized and hard working, they work steadily towards identified goals. They can usually accomplish any task once they have set their mind to it.
  31. 31. MBTI – 16 Personality Types INTP Logical, original, creative thinkers. Can become very excited about theories and ideas. Exceptionally capable and driven to turn theories into clear understandings. Highly value knowledge, competence and logic. Quiet and reserved, hard to get to know well. Individualistic, having no interest in leading or following others. INTJ Independent, original, analytical, and determined. Have an exceptional ability to turn theories into solid plans of action. Highly value knowledge, competence, and structure. Driven to derive meaning from their visions. Long-range thinkers. Have very high standards for their performance, and the performance of others. Natural leaders, but will follow if they trust existing leaders. INFP Quiet, reflective, and idealistic. Interested in serving humanity. Well-developed value system, which they strive to live in accordance with. Extremely loyal. Adaptable and laid-back unless a strongly-held value is threatened. Usually talented writers. Mentally quick, and able to see possibilities. Interested in understanding and helping people. INFJ Quietly forceful, original, and sensitive. Tend to stick to things until they are done. Extremely intuitive about people, and concerned for their feelings. Well-developed value systems which they strictly adhere to. Well-respected for their perserverence in doing the right thing. Likely to be individualistic, rather than leading or following.
  32. 32. MBTI – 16 Personality Types ESFJ Warm-hearted, popular, and conscientious. Tend to put the needs of others over their own needs. Feel strong sense of responsibility and duty. Value traditions and security. Interested in serving others. Need positive reinforcement to feel good about themselves. Well-developed sense of space and function. ESFP People-oriented and fun-loving, they make things more fun for others by their enjoyment. Living for the moment, they love new experiences. They dislike theory and impersonal analysis. Interested in serving others. Likely to be the center of attention in social situations. Well-developed common sense and practical ability. ESTJ Practical, traditional, and organized. Likely to be athletic. Not interested in theory or abstraction unless they see the practical application. Have clear visions of the way things should be. Loyal and hard-working. Like to be in charge. Exceptionally capable in organizing and running activities. &quot;Good citizens&quot; who value security and peaceful living. ESTP Friendly, adaptable, action-oriented. &quot;Doers&quot; who are focused on immediate results. Living in the here-and-now, they're risk-takers who live fast-paced lifestyles. Impatient with long explanations. Extremely loyal to their peers, but not usually respectful of laws and rules if they get in the way of getting things done. Great people skills.
  33. 33. MBTI – 16 Personality Types ENTJ Assertive and outspoken - they are driven to lead. Excellent ability to understand difficult organizational problems and create solid solutions. Intelligent and well-informed, they usually excel at public speaking. They value knowledge and competence, and usually have little patience with inefficiency or disorganization. ENTP Creative, resourceful, and intellectually quick. Good at a broad range of things. Enjoy debating issues, and may be into &quot;one-up-manship&quot;. They get very excited about new ideas and projects, but may neglect the more routine aspects of life. Generally outspoken and assertive. They enjoy people and are stimulating company. Excellent ability to understand concepts and apply logic to find solutions. ENFJ Popular and sensitive, with outstanding people skills. Externally focused, with real concern for how others think and feel. Usually dislike being alone. They see everything from the human angle, and dislike impersonal analysis. Very effective at managing people issues, and leading group discussions. Interested in serving others, and probably place the needs of others over their own needs. ENFP Enthusiastic, idealistic, and creative. Able to do almost anything that interests them. Great people skills. Need to live life in accordance with their inner values. Excited by new ideas, but bored with details. Open-minded and flexible, with a broad range of interests and abilities.
  34. 34. <ul><li>Self-management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand strengths, weaknesses and preferences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predict, plan and avoid failures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-optimize, excel and adapt </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Managing relationships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand strengths, weaknesses and preferences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predict, plan and avoid conflict and failures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adapt and support </li></ul></ul>Application
  35. 35. <ul><li>Try to accommodate type mismatch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember, type mismatch is unavoidable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember, 50% of the mismatch is caused by you  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not blame the person for something s/he hasn’t done  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not forget that the perceived weakness could be a real advantage in a different situation </li></ul></ul>Application
  36. 36. <ul><li>Diversity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognizing differences as natural </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appreciating diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing complementary work teams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expertise and task assignment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caution: other components of behaviour + development of others </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Synergy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>n1 + n2 = k x (n1 + n2) where k > 1 </li></ul></ul>Application
  37. 37. <ul><li>For those traits that are not dominant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid over exposure and over commitment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand the consequences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognition (thinking) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-monitoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive attitude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning and practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in socio-technical environment </li></ul></ul>Application: Other Considerations
  38. 38. <ul><li>Can you visualize someone who: </li></ul><ul><li>would panic under stress, is a frequent worrier or would be intensely tense on slightest criticism </li></ul><ul><li>is very open to change, new idea or suggestion </li></ul><ul><li>would do all it takes to get the job done, on time, even if it involves taking on enormous stress </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoys parties and gatherings, is talkative even with strangers, is adventurous and is action oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Is very considerate and sympathetic, and works hard to ensure that others feelings are not hurt </li></ul>Exercise: Trait Recognition
  39. 39. <ul><li>Identify a trait that you perceive as a “weakness”, then think of a situation where it could be utilized as a strength </li></ul>Exercise: “Undesirable” Traits
  40. 40. <ul><li>Awareness and recognition is the first step towards change </li></ul><ul><li>After self-evaluating your personality, observe other available templates and see how that may help you in adapting into a “new” person or adopting a different response set </li></ul><ul><li>If no traits are absolutely bad, then recognize that differences, perspectives and conflicts are actually opportunities to broaden our thinking and prospects </li></ul>Afterthoughts
  41. 41. <ul><li>While dealing with people, lose your spectacle and put on their glasses – try to understand first before being understood </li></ul>Final Word
  42. 42. Thank you
  43. 43. Q & A
  44. 44. <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>What Color is Your Personality, by Carol Ritberger </li></ul>Further Reading