The Millennium Development Goals Report


                                  2007
U N I T E D N AT I O N S
The Millennium
This report is based on a master set of data that has been compiled by an Inter-Agency and
Expert Group on ...
Foreword
Since their adoption by all United Nations Member         To achieve the Goals, nationally-owned development
Stat...
Overview
                                                                                                                 ...
UNITED NATIONS                                                                                                            ...
UNITED NATIONS




Poverty reduction has been                                                                       TARGET...
UNITED NATIONS                                                                                                            ...
UNITED NATIONS                                                                                                            ...
UNITED NATIONS                                                                                                            ...
Mdg2007
Mdg2007
Mdg2007
Mdg2007
Mdg2007
Mdg2007
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Mdg2007

  1. 1. The Millennium Development Goals Report 2007 U N I T E D N AT I O N S
  2. 2. The Millennium This report is based on a master set of data that has been compiled by an Inter-Agency and Expert Group on MDG Indicators led by the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, in response to the wishes of the General Assembly for periodic assessment of progress towards the MDGs. The Group comprises representatives of the international organizations whose activities include the preparation of one or more Development Goals of the series of statistical indicators that were identified as appropriate for monitoring progress towards the MDGs, as reflected in the list below. A number of national statisticians and outside expert advisers also contributed. I N T E R N AT I O N A L L A B O U R O R G A N I Z ATION F O O D A N D AG R I C U LT U R E O R G A N I Z ATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS U N I T E D N AT I O N S E DU CAT I O N A L , S C IENTIFIC AND CULTURAL ORGANIZATION Report 2007 WO R L D H E A LT H O R G A N I Z AT I O N T H E WO R L D B A N K I N T E R N AT I O N A L M O N E TA RY F U N D I N T E R N AT I O N A L T E L E C O M M U N I CATION UNION E C O N O M I C C O M M I S S I O N F O R A F R I CA E C O N O M I C C O M M I S S I O N F O R E U RO PE E C O N O M I C C O M M I S S I O N F O R L AT I N AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN E C O N O M I C A N D S O C I A L C O M M I S S I ON FOR ASIA AND THE PACIFIC E C O N O M I C A N D S O C I A L C O M M I S S I ON FOR WESTERN ASIA J O I N T U N I T E D N AT I O N S P RO G R A M ME ON HIV/AIDS U N I T E D N AT I O N S C H I L D R E N ’ S F U N D U N I T E D N AT I O N S C O N F E R E N C E O N TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT U N I T E D N AT I O N S D E V E L O P M E N T F U ND FOR WOMEN U N I T E D N AT I O N S D E V E L O P M E N T P ROGRAMME U N I T E D N AT I O N S E N V I RO N M E N T P ROGRAMME U N I T E D N AT I O N S F R A M E WO R K C O N VENTION ON CLIMATE CHANGE U N I T E D N AT I O N S H I G H C O M M I S S I O NER FOR REFUGEES U N I T E D N AT I O N S U N I T E D N AT I O N S H U M A N S E T T L E M ENTS PROGRAMME U N I T E D N AT I O N S P O P U L AT I O N F U N D N E W YO R K , 2007 I N T E R- PA R L I A M E N TA RY U N I O N O R G A N I SAT I O N F O R E C O N O M I C C O - OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT WO R L D T R A D E O R G A N I Z AT I O N
  3. 3. Foreword Since their adoption by all United Nations Member To achieve the Goals, nationally-owned development States in 2000, the Millennium Declaration and strategies and budgets must be aligned with them. the Millennium Development Goals have become a This must be backed up by adequate financing universal framework for development and a means within the global partnership for development and for developing countries and their development its framework for mutual accountability. partners to work together in pursuit of a shared future for all. The world wants no new promises. It is imperative that all stakeholders meet, in their entirety, the We are now at the midpoint between the adoption commitments already made in the Millennium of the MDGs and the 2015 target date. So far, our Declaration, the 2002 Monterrey Conference on collective record is mixed. The results presented in Financing for Development, and the 2005 World this report suggest that there have been some gains, Summit. In particular, the lack of any significant and that success is still possible in most parts of the increase in official development assistance since world. But they also point to how much remains to 2004 makes it impossible, even for well-governed be done. There is a clear need for political leaders to countries, to meet the MDGs. As this report makes take urgent and concerted action, or many millions clear, adequate resources need to be made available of people will not realize the basic promises of the to countries in a predictable way for them to be able MDGs in their lives. to effectively plan the scaling up of their investments. Yet, these promises remain to be fulfilled. The MDGs are still achievable if we act now. This will require inclusive sound governance, increased I commend this report as a key resource to help public investment economic growth, enhanced show what can be achieved and how much still needs productive capacity, and the creation of decent to be done. Reliable and timely information is key to work. Success in some countries demonstrates formulating the necessary policies and strategies to that rapid and large-scale progress towards the ensure progress, monitor development and make the MDGs is feasible if we combine strong government MDGs achievable. leadership, good policies and practical strategies for scaling up public investments in vital areas with adequate financial and technical support from the international community. Ban Ki-moon Secretary-General, United Nations
  4. 4. Overview been unequally shared. Widening income inequality is each case, an effort should be made to quantify the resources of particular concern in Eastern Asia, where the share of required to implement these programmes. Implementation consumption of the poorest people declined dramatically should be based on a medium-term approach to public between 1990 and 2004. expenditure. A sound national statistical system and enhanced public accountability are necessary to support all • Most economies have failed to provide employment these efforts. Progress at the MDG mid-point opportunities to their youth, with young people more than three times as likely as adults to be unemployed. The MDGs should also be systematically integrated into The Millennium Declaration set 2015 as the target date for • Key interventions to control malaria have been expanded. post-conflict recovery strategies by coordinating security and achieving most of the Goals. As we approach the midway • Warming of the climate is now unequivocal. Emissions of • The tuberculosis epidemic, finally, appears on the verge humanitarian operations with long-term development efforts. point of this 15-year period, data are now becoming carbon dioxide, the primary contributor to global climate of decline, although progress is not fast enough to halve The MDGs provide outcome objectives that countries can use available that provide an indication of progress during the change, rose from 23 billion metric tons in 1990 to 29 prevalence and death rates by 2015. as benchmarks for the transition from relief and recovery to first third of this 15-year period. billion metric tons in 2004. Climate change is projected long-term development. By pointing to what has been achieved, these results also to have serious economic and social impacts, which will This report presents the most comprehensive global impede progress towards the MDGs. Success in achieving the MDGs in the poorest and most highlight how much remains to be done and how much more assessment of progress to date, based on a set of data disadvantaged countries cannot be achieved by these could be accomplished if all concerned live up fully to the This report also points to disparities within countries, prepared by a large number of international organizations countries alone. Developed countries need to deliver commitments they have already made. Currently, only one where particular groups of the population – often those within and outside the United Nations system. fully on longstanding commitments to achieve the official of the eight regional groups cited in this report is on track to living in rural areas, children of mothers with no formal achieve all the Millennium Development Goals. In contrast, development assistance (ODA) target of 0.7 per cent of gross The results are, predictably, uneven. The years since 2000, education and the poorest households – are not making the projected shortfalls are most severe in sub-Saharan national income (GNI) by 2015. It requires, in particular, the when world leaders endorsed the Millennium Declaration, enough progress to meet the targets, even where the rest of Africa. Even regions that have made substantial progress, Group of 8 industrialized nations to live up to their 2005 have seen some visible and widespread gains. Encouragingly, the population is. This is particularly evident in access to including parts of Asia, face challenges in areas such as pledge to double aid to Africa by 2010 and European Union the report suggests that some progress is being made even health services and education. In order to achieve the MDGs, health and environmental sustainability. More generally, Member States to allocate 0.7 per cent of GNI to ODA by in those regions where the challenges are greatest. These countries will need to mobilize additional resources and the lack of employment opportunities for young people, 2015. In spite of these commitments, ODA declined between accomplishments testify to the unprecedented degree of target public investments that benefit the poor. gender inequalities, rapid and unplanned urbanization, 2005 and 2006 and is expected to continue to fall slightly in commitment by developing countries and their development 2007 as debt relief declines. partners to the Millennium Declaration and to some deforestation, increasing water scarcity, and high HIV Rapid and large-scale progress is success in building the global partnership embodied in the prevalence are pervasive obstacles. Aid has to be improved by ensuring that assistance is aligned Declaration. feasible with the policies that recipient countries have adopted, and Moreover, insecurity and instability in conflict and post- conflict countries make long-term development efforts Several developing countries are demonstrating that rapid that flows to individual countries are continuous, predictable The results achieved in the more successful cases demonstrate extremely difficult. In turn, a failure to achieve the MDGs and large-scale progress towards the MDGs is possible when and assured and are not tied to purchases in the donor that success is possible in most countries, but that the MDGs can further heighten the risk of instability and conflict. Yet in strong government leadership and policies and strategies country. To this end, donors should reduce the present will be attained only if concerted additional action is taken spite of a technical consensus that development and security that effectively target the needs of the poor are combined unpredictability of aid by providing multi-year schedules of immediately and sustained until 2015. All stakeholders need are mutually dependent, international efforts all too often with adequate financial and technical support from the aid flows to each recipient country. One of the uses of the to fulfil, in their entirety, the commitments they made in the treat them as independent from one another. international community. additional resources should be to multiply, within and across Millennium Declaration and subsequent pronouncements. countries, the number of “quick impact” initiatives that have The following are some measures of the progress that has The following are some of the key challenges that have to be In particular, impressive results have been achieved in proven their efficacy in the past few years. been achieved: addressed: sub-Saharan Africa in areas such as raising agricultural productivity (in Malawi, for example), boosting primary As a further element of their development partnership, and as • The proportion of people living in extreme poverty fell • Over half a million women still die each year from treatable school enrolment (as in Ghana, Kenya, Uganda and the agreed to in Doha in 2001, all governments should redouble from nearly a third to less than one fifth between 1990 and and preventable complications of pregnancy and childbirth. United Republic of Tanzania), controlling malaria (as in their efforts to reach a successful and equitable conclusion 2004. If the trend is sustained, the MDG poverty reduction The odds that a woman will die from these causes in sub- Niger, Togo, Zambia, Zanzibar), widening access to basic to the present trade negotiations – an outcome that ensures target will be met for the world as a whole and for most Saharan Africa are 1 in 16 over the course of her lifetime, rural health services (Zambia), reforesting areas on a large that the international trading system and global trading regions. compared to 1 in 3,800 in the developed world. scale (Niger), and increasing access to water and sanitation arrangements become more conducive to development in all • If current trends continue, the target of halving the (Senegal and Uganda). These practical successes now need to developing countries. • The number of extremely poor people in sub-Saharan Africa has levelled off, and the poverty rate has declined by proportion of underweight children will be missed by be replicated and scaled-up. Addressing the challenge of climate change has to be a nearly six percentage points since 2000. Nevertheless, the 30 million children, largely because of slow progress in With support from the United Nations, many developing new but integral element of each country’s development region is not on track to reach the Goal of reducing poverty Southern Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. countries – particularly in Africa – have advanced in strategy. More importantly, however, it should become an by half by 2015. preparing strategies to achieve the MDGs. As of mid-2007, enhanced part of the international development agenda: • The number of people dying from AIDS worldwide increased to 2.9 million in 2006, and prevention measures 41 countries in sub-Saharan Africa had started the process of All development partners should collaborate intensively • Progress has been made in getting more children into are failing to keep pace with the growth of the epidemic. In preparing national development strategies aligned with the in devising a shared global strategy to address this global school in the developing world. Enrolment in primary 2005, more than 15 million children had lost one or both MDGs and other development goals agreed upon through the problem. education grew from 80 per cent in 1991 to 88 per cent in 2005. Most of this progress has taken place since 1999. parents to AIDS. United Nations. During this mid-point year, the international community needs to support the preparation of these • Women’s political participation has been growing, albeit • Half the population of the developing world lack basic strategies and to accelerate implementation of the MDGs. slowly. Even in countries where previously only men were sanitation. In order to meet the MDG target, an additional allowed to stand for political election, women now have a 1.6 billion people will need access to improved sanitation In general, strategies should adopt a wide-ranging approach seat in parliament. over the period 2005-2015. If trends since 1990 continue, that seeks to achieve pro-poor economic growth, including the world is likely to miss the target by almost 600 million through the creation of a large number of additional • Child mortality has declined globally, and it is becoming people. opportunities for decent work. This, in turn, will require clear that the right life-saving interventions are proving comprehensive programmes for human development, JOSÉ ANTONIO OCAMPO effective in reducing the number of deaths due to the main • To some extent, these situations reflect the fact that the particularly in education and health, as well as building Under-Secretary-General for Economic and Social Affairs child killers – such as measles. benefits of economic growth in the developing world have productive capacity and improved physical infrastructure. In 4 5
  5. 5. UNITED NATIONS THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS REPORT 2007 TARGET proportion of people living in extreme poverty fell from The poorest are getting a little less poor in Goal 1 nearly a third to 19 per cent over this period. If progress Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people continues, the MDG target will be met. However, most regions success is unequally shared, since the decline in global whose income is less than $1 a day poverty is mostly due to rapid economic growth in Poverty gap ratio, 1990 and 2004 (Percentage) Eradicate Extreme poverty is beginning to fall in Asia. Eastern and South-Eastern Asia, in particular, experienced impressive reductions in poverty, and accelerating growth in India has also put Southern Asia Sub-Saharan Africa 19.5 extreme sub-Saharan Africa Proportion of people living on less than $1 a day, 1990, 1999 and 2004 on track to achieve the goal. In contrast, poverty rates in Western Asia more than Southern Asia 11.0 17.5 poverty (Percentage) doubled between 1990 and 200. Extreme poverty 6.7 rose sharply in the early 1990s in the Commonwealth of Latin America the Caribbean Sub-Saharan Africa Independent States (CIS) and the transition countries 3.5 of South-Eastern Europe. Poverty rates in those regions hunger 46.8 3.0 45.9 are now dropping, however, and approaching the levels Eastern Asia 41.1 of the 1980s. 8.9 1990 Southern Asia 2.1 2004 In sub-Saharan Africa, the proportion of people living in 41.1 South-Eastern Asia 33.4 extreme poverty fell from .8 per cent in 1990 to 1.1 5.1 29.5 per cent in 200. Most of this progress was achieved 1.5 since 2000. The number of people living on less than Eastern Asia Western Asia 33.0 $1 a day is also beginning to level off, despite rapid 0.4 17.8 population growth. The per capita income of seven sub- 0.9 9.9 Saharan countries grew by more than . per cent a Transition countries of South-Eastern Europe year between 2000 and 200; another 2 had growth Latin America the Caribbean 0.0 rates of more than 2 per cent a year over this period, 10.3 1990 0.2 providing a degree of optimism for the future. 9.6 1999 Northern Africa 8.7 2004 0.5 South-Eastern Asia 20.8 The international poverty line is 0.2 CIS 8.9 being redrawn 0.1 6.8 0.1 Western Asia The latest estimates on poverty draw on over 00 Developing regions 1.6 household surveys from 100 developing countries, 9.3 2.5 representing 9 per cent of the population of the 5.4 3.8 developing world. The international poverty line is Northern Africa based on a level of consumption representative of 0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 2.6 the poverty lines found in low-income countries. 2.0 Since 2000, the international poverty line has 1.4 been set at $1.08 a day, measured in terms of 199 In most developing regions, the average income of those living on less than Transition countries of South-Eastern Europe purchasing power parity (PPP). In the coming year, $1 a day has increased. The poverty gap ratio, which reflects the depth 0.1 new estimates of PPP, based on 200 prices, will of poverty as well as its incidence, has decreased in all regions except 1.3 be produced by the International Comparison Western Asia, where the rising poverty rate has caused the poverty gap 0.7 Program. These new measures of the relative cost to increase, and in the transition countries in Europe and the CIS, where CIS of living among countries will require a revision to there has been marginal deterioration or no change. In contrast, the poor 0.5 the international poverty line and may change our in Eastern and South-Eastern Asia have made important gains. In spite of 5.5 understanding of the extent and distribution of global some improvement, the poverty gap ratio in sub-Saharan Africa remains 0.6 poverty. the highest in the world, indicating that the poor in that region are the most Developing regions economically disadvantaged in the world. 31.6 23.4 19.2 0 10 20 30 40 50 Worldwide, the number of people in developing countries living on less than $1 a day fell to 980 million in 200 – down from 1.2 billion in 1990. The
  6. 6. UNITED NATIONS Poverty reduction has been TARGET accompanied by rising inequality Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of Share of poorest quintile in national consumption, people who suffer from hunger. 1990 and 2004 (Percentage) Latin America the Caribbean Child hunger is declining in all regions, but 2.8 meeting the target will require accelerated 2.7 Sub-Saharan Africa progress 3.4 1990 3.4 2004 Proportion of children under age five who are underweight, 1990 and 2005 Eastern Asia (Percentage) 7.1 4.5 Southern Asia 53 Western Asia 46 5.9 5.4 Sub-Saharan Africa 33 South-Eastern Asia 29 6.2 6.1 South-Eastern Asia 39 CIS 28 7.9 6.2 Northern Africa 10 1990 Northern Africa 8 2005 6.2 6.3 Latin America the Caribbean 11 Southern Asia 7 7.2 6.7 Western Asia 11 Transition countries of South-Eastern Europe 7 8.3 7.8 Eastern Asia 19 Developing regions 7 4.6 3.9 Developing regions 33 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 27 0.0 10 20 30 40 50 60 The benefits of economic growth in the developing world have been unequally shared, both within and among countries. Between 1990 and 200, the share Globally, the proportion of children under five who are underweight of national consumption by the poorest fifth of the declined by one fifth over the period 1990-200. Eastern Asia showed the population in developing regions decreased from greatest improvement and is surpassing the MDG target, largely due to . to .9 per cent (in countries where consumption nutritional advances in China. Western Asia and Latin America and the figures were unavailable, data on income were used). Caribbean have also demonstrated significant progress, with underweight Widening income inequality is of particular concern in prevalence dropping by more than one third. The greatest proportions of Eastern Asia, where the share of consumption among children going hungry continue to be found in Southern Asia and sub- the poorest people declined dramatically during this Saharan Africa. Poor progress in these regions means that it is unlikely that period. Still, inequality remains the highest in Latin the global target will be met. If current trends continue, the world will miss America and the Caribbean and in sub-Saharan Africa, the 201 target by 0 million children, essentially robbing them of their full where the poorest fifth of the people account for only potential. about per cent of national consumption (or income). 8 9
  7. 7. UNITED NATIONS THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS REPORT 2007 The net enrolment ratio in primary education in primary school age in rural areas of the developing world are out of school, Goal 2 TARGET the developing regions increased to 88 per cent in compared with 18 per cent of children in the same age group living in cities. Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls the school year 200/200, up from 80 per cent Girls are still excluded from education more often than boys, a pattern that alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary in 1990/1991. Two thirds of the increase occurred is particularly evident in Western and Southern Asia. Achieve since 1999. Although sub-Saharan Africa has made schooling significant progress over the last few years, it still trails behind other regions, with 0 per cent of its children of One child in five who is old enough to attend universal Sub-Saharan Africa is making progress towards secondary school is still enrolled in primary primary school age out of school. A strong push will be needed over the next few years to enrol all children in universal enrolment, but has a long way to go school and to fulfil their right to a quality education. school primary Total net enrolment ratio in primary education,* 1990/1991, 1998/1999 and 2004/2005 (Percentage) Girls and children from poorer Net school attendance in primary school by children of official age and by children of secondary school age in all developing regions, 2005 or rural families are least likely to (Percentage) education Sub-Saharan Africa 54 57 1991 1999 attend school 100 70 90 2005 Children of primary school age out of school, by Oceania 80 83 sex, place of residence and household wealth, 2005 80 Boys 75 (Percentage) 70 Girls 81 78 40 60 Western Asia 50 35 37 81 40 85 30 31 31 30 86 CIS, Europe 25 20 25 21 91 17 10 83 20 20 20 90 0 18 Children of primary school age Children of secondary school age 17 Southern Asia 15 attending primary school attending primary school 74 12 81 10 90 When many children entering school are under or over the official age for 5 enrolment, the net enrolment ratios for primary school do not accurately South-Eastern Asia 94 reflect the situation of children in school. Surveys indicate that attendance 92 0 Boys Girls Urban Rural Richest Fourth Third Second Poorest by over-age children is very common, especially in some regions. In sub- 94 20% 20% Saharan Africa, for example, more children of secondary school age are attending primary school than secondary school. Though late enrolment is CIS, Asia better than not enrolling at all, it represents a challenge for the education 89 Progress has been made in reducing the number of system and reflects the difficulties families face in sending their children 93 children out of school. Still, the number is unacceptably to school. Late enrolment also puts children at a disadvantage by causing 94 high. Based on enrolment data, about 2 million potential learning problems and lessening opportunities to advance to a Eastern Asia children of primary school age were not in school in higher level of education. Where the information is available, data show 99 that children who start school at least two years later than the official age 99 200; per cent of them were girls. As high as this are more likely to be from poorer households and have mothers with no 95 number seems, surveys show that it underestimates formal education. Northern Africa the actual number of children who, though enrolled, are 82 not attending school. Moreover, neither enrolment nor 90 attendance figures reflect children who do not attend 95 school regularly. To make matters worse, official data Latin America the Caribbean are not usually available from countries in conflict or 87 94 post-conflict situations. If data from these countries 97 were reflected in global estimates, the enrolment Developing regions picture would be even less optimistic. 80 83 The children most likely to drop out of school or to not 88 attend at all are those from poorer households or living in rural areas. For example, nearly a third of children of 0 20 40 60 80 100 *Number of pupils of the theoretical school-age group for primary education, enrolled either in primary or secondary education, expressed as a percentage of the total population in that age group. 10 11
  8. 8. UNITED NATIONS THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS REPORT 2007 Women’s labour is more likely than men’s to be unpaid Goal 3 TARGET Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary Share of women in total employment by job status, Wage employment in most of Africa and in many education preferably by 2005 and in all levels of edu- 1990-2005 (Percentage) parts of Asia and Latin America is concentrated Promote cation no later than 2015 Contributing unpaid family workers Employers 60 40 in urban areas. Outside cities and towns, most employment is in agriculture, and mainly for family subsistence. Women in developing regions Doors are opening slowly for women in the gender equality labour market Employees 22 40 78 60 are more likely than men to work in agriculture, and as contributing but unpaid family workers. Worldwide, over 0 per cent of unpaid family and empower Employees in non-agricultural wage employment who are women, 1990 Total employment workers are women – meaning that women 41 59 and 2005 (Percentage) continue to lack access to job security and social Southern Asia protection. women 0 20 40 60 80 100 13 Women Men 18 Northern Africa 20 20 1990 Women gain ground politically, though men still wield control Western Asia 2005 16 Share of women in single or lower houses of Women’s political participation is growing, albeit slowly. Globally, as of 21 parliament, 1990 and 2007 (Percentage) January 200, women represented 1 per cent of single and lower houses Sub-Saharan Africa of parliament, up from 1 per cent in 1990. However, women represented 28 Oceania at least 0 per cent of parliamentarians in only 19 countries. Rwanda is still 1 32 leading the way, and is close to parity with 9 per cent of parliamentary 3 Oceania seats occupied by women, followed by Sweden and Costa Rica, where 28 Western Asia 5 1990 women’s representation is and 9 per cent, respectively. At the other 38 8 2007 end of the spectrum, women lawmakers are absent altogether in some South-Eastern Asia 38 Northern Africa countries. In 200 elections in the Solomon Islands and Tuvalu, no women 39 3 were elected to the lower houses of parliament. 8 Eastern Asia 38 CIS * Encouraging signs, however, are coming from the Arab States. In 200, 12 41 for the first time, both women and men ran for election in Kuwait, where Southern Asia women obtained 2 parliamentary seats, and in the United Arab Emirates, Latin America the Caribbean 6 37 where they won 2 per cent of seats. In Bahrain, a woman was elected to 13 42 the lower house of parliament for the first time in that nation’s history. Sub-Saharan Africa Developed regions 7 44 17 Worldwide, women’s entry into political leadership positions is also 47 South-Eastern Asia widening. As of March 200, women were presiding officers in CIS 49 10 parliament – more than ever before – including, for the first time, in Gambia, 17 Israel, Swaziland, Turkmenistan and the United States. In contrast, there is 51 Eastern Asia no clear positive trend in the number of women in the highest positions of World 20 36 state or government. Thirteen women were heads of state or government in 19 39 200, compared to 9 in 2000 and 12 in 199. A record number of women Latin America the Caribbean took up these top positions in 200 – six in all – in Chile, Jamaica, Liberia, 0 10 20 30 40 60 12 50 20 the Republic of Korea and Switzerland, and as acting president in Israel. Women’s participation in paid, non-agricultural employment has continued Developed regions to increase slowly. The greatest gains are in some of the regions where 16 A number of factors are at play in determining women’s political women have the least presence in the labour market – in Southern 22 representation – including political will, the strength of national women’s Asia, Western Asia and Oceania. In Northern Africa, where women’s World movements and continued emphasis by the international community on participation is also low, progress has been insignificant. Only one in five 13 gender equality and women’s empowerment. However, the most decisive 17 factor remains gender quota systems. In 200, countries with quotas nearly paid employees in that region is a woman, a situation that has remained unchanged for the last 1 years. In other regions, women are slowly gaining doubled the number of women elected, compared to countries without any 0 5 10 15 20 25 access to paid employment at a level on par with men, or, in the case of the form of gender quota system. Other countries have supported women’s *Data for 1990 are not available for the CIS. CIS, exceeding it. election bids through training and funding. 12 1
  9. 9. UNITED NATIONS THE MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS REPORT 2007 Recent surveys show that substantial improvements are possible, though disparities were found in the countries Goal 4 TARGET studied. Even in countries that have made good progress (i.e., that have seen a drop of at least 1 per cent in child Reduce by two thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the mortality rates between 1998 and 200), different patterns are observed. Survival rates have improved at all ages under-five mortality rate within the five-year span, but in some countries gains were most pronounced during certain periods – for example, Reduce child in the vulnerable first month of life. Evidence from the latest surveys will be further studied to determine the key interventions necessary to reduce mortality during the various stages of a child’s early life. Child survival rates show slow improvement, and are worst in sub-Saharan Africa mortality Changes in the levels of child mortality also show wide differentials according to socio-economic status. In most countries that have made substantial reductions in child mortality in recent years, the largest changes were Under-five mortality rate per 1,000 live births, 1990 and 2005 observed among children living in the richest 0 per cent of households, or in urban areas, or whose mothers have some education. Sub-Saharan Africa 185 In countries where progress is lagging or where child mortality has increased, AIDS is likely to be a major 166 contributing factor. Malaria, too, continues to kill vast numbers of children. In other countries, war and conflict Southern Asia have been the leading causes of increasing child mortality in the recent past. 126 82 CIS, Asia 81 Vaccinations spur decline in measles and expansion of basic health services 72 Oceania Percentage of children 12-23 months old who received Measles is one of the leading causes of child death among diseases that can 80 at least one dose of measles vaccine, 1990 and 2005 be prevented by vaccines. Globally, deaths from measles fell by over 0 per 63 (Percentage) cent between 2000 and 200 – a major public health success. According Western Asia Oceania to the latest data available, the number of these deaths dropped from 68 70 8,000 in 1999 to ,000 in 200. The most striking gains were found 55 63 in Africa, where measles deaths decreased by nearly per cent over the South-Eastern Asia Sub-Saharan Africa same period – from an estimated 0,000 to 12,000. 78 57 41 1990 64 1990 2005 These achievements are attributed to improved immunization coverage Northern Africa Southern Asia 2005 88 throughout the developing world, as well as immunization campaigns that 57 35 65 supplement routine services. While coverage stagnated between 1990 and Latin America the Caribbean 1999, immunization has rapidly gained ground since 2000. In sub-Saharan South-Eastern Asia 54 72 Africa, coverage dipped to 9 per cent in 1999 and increased again to 31 80 per cent by the end of 200. This was largely the result of advocacy and Eastern Asia Eastern Asia support provided by the international Measles Initiative – which targeted 48 98 priority countries – together with the commitment of the African 27 87 governments involved. CIS, Europe Western Asia 27 80 Routine measles immunization serves as a proxy indicator for access to 17 91 basic health services among children under five. Accelerated activities to Transition countries of South-Eastern Europe Latin America the Caribbean 29 control measles are contributing to the development of health infrastructure 76 17 92 that supports routine immunization and other health services. Moreover, Developing regions measles vaccination campaigns have become a channel for delivering other Northern Africa 106 85 life-saving interventions, such as mosquito nets to protect against malaria, 83 95 de-worming medicine and vitamin A supplements. Transition countries of South-Eastern Europe 0 50 100 150 200 93 96 Estimates for 200 indicate that 10.1 million children died before their fifth CIS birthday, mostly from preventable causes. Though infant and child mortality 85 rates have declined globally, the pace of progress has been uneven across 98 regions and countries. Accelerated improvements are needed most urgently Developing regions in sub-Saharan Africa, Southern Asia, CIS countries in Asia and in Oceania. 71 Not surprisingly, the lack of progress in child survival has been mirrored by 75 neglect of many basic health services in parts of the developing world. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 1 1
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