Problem-BasedLearning (PBL)on Language TeachingPresenter: Venjie Nera Oclaret
History• 1916—John Dewey’s progressivist movement’s  belief that teachers should teach by appealing to  students’ natural ...
Definition“ A learning method based on theprinciple of using problems as astarting point for the acquisitionand integratio...
Characteristics of PBL• Learning is student centered.• Learning occurs in small student groups.• Teachers are facilitators...
Characteristics of PBL• New information is acquired through self-  directed learning• Shifts away from short, isolated tea...
Language Theory• Interactionism. Language is  a system for the expression  of meaning; primary  function—interaction and  ...
Learning TheoryConstructivism:• Learning is not necessarily an outcome of teaching.• Students’ existing knowledge base inf...
Constructivism…• Learning usually progresses from the concrete to the abstract.• People learn most effectively through pra...
Focus of Instruction                 Curriculum as                  Experience                  Problem as                ...
Focus of Instruction                 Curriculum as                  Experience                  • Defines problems and con...
Focus of Instruction                     Curriculum as                      Experience• Models interest and enthusiasm  fo...
Focus of Instruction                    Curriculum as                     Experience             • Fosters active learning...
Problem as                      Curriculum                       Organizer  Student as                                    ...
Process of PBL• Students confront a problem.• In groups, students organize prior  knowledge and attempt to identify the na...
Objectives of the PBL Process
PBL in Language LearningThe following illustration will help to understand howPBL works in learning a language:i) Facilita...
PBL in Language Learning…ii) Facilitator presents the problem to thelearners.iii) Learners explore pre-existing knowledgei...
PBL in Language Learning…  • gather information from different sources  • compile the findings  • prepare hand-outs, works...
PBL in Language Learning…v) Learners present their findingsbefore the facilitator in the form of“presentation”.vi) Facilit...
What Might Engage Primary    Learners in PBL?Kindergarten language arts: Students andtheir teacher overhear another teache...
What Might Engage Intermediate Learners in PBL?4th grade language arts: The students’community wants to build a newconvent...
What Might Engage Middle     School Learners in PBL?Language arts: The principal asks thestudents to communicate informati...
What Might Engage Middle     School Learners in PBL?Language arts: The principal asks thestudents to communicate informati...
What Might Engage High School      Learners in PBL?American literature: A member of alocal citizens’ group challenges thei...
Assessment in PBL1. Assessment of student   participation in PBL by   facilitatorsCriteria: Preparation,accepting responsi...
Assessment in PBL2. Student assessment of the   PBL facilitatorsCriteria: Facilitation, guidance,encouragement, questionin...
Assessment in PBL3. Self-assessment of    participation in PBLCriteria: Decision-makingskills, critical reasoning,particip...
Assessment in PBL4. Peer assessmentCriteria: Level of knowledge,attitudes, involvement in groupprocess, accepting criticis...
Advantages
The Advantages of PBL• Emphasis on Meaning, Not Facts   • By replacing lectures with discussion forums, faculty mentoring,...
• Self-Motivated Attitude   • Students think problem based learning is a more interesting, stimulating,     and enjoyable ...
Disadvantages
Problems with PBL• Main problem: creating/ constructing suitable  problems that tap Ss schemata, interest,  reality• The r...
References:Brooks, J.G. & Brooks, M.G. (1999). In search of       understanding: The case for constructivist       classro...
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Problem Based Learning on Language Teaching

  1. 1. Problem-BasedLearning (PBL)on Language TeachingPresenter: Venjie Nera Oclaret
  2. 2. History• 1916—John Dewey’s progressivist movement’s belief that teachers should teach by appealing to students’ natural instincts to investigate and create.• 1980—Howard Barrows, a physician and medical educator, started using this approach to help medical students better diagnose new illnesses.• 1985—High schools and colleges start using PBL.• 1990-1991—Schools began developing PBL movements to improve student performance in science and other disciplines.
  3. 3. Definition“ A learning method based on theprinciple of using problems as astarting point for the acquisitionand integration of newknowledge.” H.S. Barrows (1982)
  4. 4. Characteristics of PBL• Learning is student centered.• Learning occurs in small student groups.• Teachers are facilitators or guides.• Problems form the organizing focus and stimulus for learning.• Problems are a vehicle for the development of problem-solving skills.
  5. 5. Characteristics of PBL• New information is acquired through self- directed learning• Shifts away from short, isolated teacher centered lessons• Creates long term, interdisciplinary student centered lessons• Integrates real world issues and practices• Teaches students to apply what they have learned in university to life-long endeavors
  6. 6. Language Theory• Interactionism. Language is a system for the expression of meaning; primary function—interaction and communication.
  7. 7. Learning TheoryConstructivism:• Learning is not necessarily an outcome of teaching.• Students’ existing knowledge base influences their learning.
  8. 8. Constructivism…• Learning usually progresses from the concrete to the abstract.• People learn most effectively through practice.• Effective learning requires feedback.• Expectations affect performance.
  9. 9. Focus of Instruction Curriculum as Experience Problem as Curriculum Organizer Student as Teacher asProblem Solver Cognitive Coach
  10. 10. Focus of Instruction Curriculum as Experience • Defines problems and conditions for resolution • Establishes a context for learning Problem as • Pursues Curriculum meaning and Organizer understanding Student as Teacher asProblem Solver • Becomes a self-directed learner Cognitive Coach
  11. 11. Focus of Instruction Curriculum as Experience• Models interest and enthusiasm for learning• Coaches student thinking Problem as• Exposes effective learning Curriculum strategies Organizer• Nurturesas environment that Student an Teacher asProblem Solver supports open inquiry Cognitive Coach
  12. 12. Focus of Instruction Curriculum as Experience • Fosters active learning • Supports knowledge construction Problem as • Integrates content areas Curriculum Organizer • Provides relevance Student as Teacher asProblem Solver Cognitive Coach
  13. 13. Problem as Curriculum Organizer Student as Teacher asProblem Solver Cognitive Coach • Highlights a need for inquiry • Attracts and sustain student interest • Connects school learning and real world • Enables meaningful learning
  14. 14. Process of PBL• Students confront a problem.• In groups, students organize prior knowledge and attempt to identify the nature of the problem.• Students pose questions about what they do not understand.• Students design a plan to solve the problem and identify the resources they need.• Students begin to gather information as they work to solve the problem.
  15. 15. Objectives of the PBL Process
  16. 16. PBL in Language LearningThe following illustration will help to understand howPBL works in learning a language:i) Facilitator identifies or designs an ill-structured problem or task relevant to thelearner (e.g., complexity in using past tenseand present perfect tense, basic differencebetween these tense forms, structures of pastand present perfect tenses, rules for usingthese two tenses, where to use past tenseand present perfect tense. Solve thecomplexity)
  17. 17. PBL in Language Learning…ii) Facilitator presents the problem to thelearners.iii) Learners explore pre-existing knowledgeiv) Learners, in their own groups,collaboratively • discuss in detail • identify resources to look up or consult • assign tasks to the various group members (i.e. who is responsible for working on each learning issue.).
  18. 18. PBL in Language Learning… • gather information from different sources • compile the findings • prepare hand-outs, worksheets, etc. on the topic • propose solution(s).Some of the steps in (iv) may be revisited.Throughout the process, learners will need toact as scribes or recorders to take notes.
  19. 19. PBL in Language Learning…v) Learners present their findingsbefore the facilitator in the form of“presentation”.vi) Facilitator presents “thepresentation” to the students.vii) Learners and facilitator assess theperformance
  20. 20. What Might Engage Primary Learners in PBL?Kindergarten language arts: Students andtheir teacher overhear another teacherremarks that their classroom does not havemany books. With their teacher, studentsanalyze the problem and offer solutions forbook collection, organization and care.(Students explore classifying, graphing,alphabetizing, and using library and groupskills.)
  21. 21. What Might Engage Intermediate Learners in PBL?4th grade language arts: The students’community wants to build a newconvention complex along the river.City planners have received severalletters of concern fromenvironmentalists, community residentsand developers. How can studentsmeet the needs of all these groups?
  22. 22. What Might Engage Middle School Learners in PBL?Language arts: The principal asks thestudents to communicate informationabout their school to the community.(Students transfer mathematical statisticsabout demographics, resources andratios to a written and visual mode andinclude interviews with staff, students andalumni in their final product.)
  23. 23. What Might Engage Middle School Learners in PBL?Language arts: The principal asks thestudents to communicate informationabout their school to the community.(Students transfer mathematical statisticsabout demographics, resources andratios to a written and visual mode andinclude interviews with staff, students andalumni in their final product.)
  24. 24. What Might Engage High School Learners in PBL?American literature: A member of alocal citizens’ group challenges theinclusion of Mark Twain’s novel TheAdventures of Huckleberry Finn inthe curriculum. What are the issues?Should students study this novel?Why or why not?
  25. 25. Assessment in PBL1. Assessment of student participation in PBL by facilitatorsCriteria: Preparation,accepting responsibility, teamskills, attitude, professionalismand communicative skills
  26. 26. Assessment in PBL2. Student assessment of the PBL facilitatorsCriteria: Facilitation, guidance,encouragement, questioningand probing techniques,providing feedback
  27. 27. Assessment in PBL3. Self-assessment of participation in PBLCriteria: Decision-makingskills, critical reasoning,participation, group dynamics,attitude, professionalism,communication
  28. 28. Assessment in PBL4. Peer assessmentCriteria: Level of knowledge,attitudes, involvement in groupprocess, accepting criticismand giving feedback
  29. 29. Advantages
  30. 30. The Advantages of PBL• Emphasis on Meaning, Not Facts • By replacing lectures with discussion forums, faculty mentoring, and collaborative research, students become actively engaged in meaningful learning.• Increased Self Direction • As students pursue solutions to their classroom problem, they tend to assume increased responsibility for their learning.• Higher Comprehension and Better Skill Development • Students are able to practice the knowledge and skills in a functional context, thereby to better imagine what it will be like using the knowledge and skills on the job .• Interpersonal Skills and Teamwork • This methodology promotes student interaction and teamwork, thereby enhancing students interpersonal skills.
  31. 31. • Self-Motivated Attitude • Students think problem based learning is a more interesting, stimulating, and enjoyable learning method, and that it offers a more flexible and nurturing way to learn.• Facilitator-Student Relationship • The aspect faculty liked most is the tutor-student. Faculty also consider problem based learning a more nurturing and enjoyable curriculum, and believe the increased student contact is beneficial to the cognitive growth of the student.• Level of Learning • Problem based learning students score better than traditional students with respect to learning skills, problem-solving, self-evaluation techniques, data gathering, behavioral science, and their relation to the social-emotional problems of patients
  32. 32. Disadvantages
  33. 33. Problems with PBL• Main problem: creating/ constructing suitable problems that tap Ss schemata, interest, reality• The range of topics which can be discussed is a limiting factor - quality control is difficult• Heavy on library, computer resources, support• Objective evaluation of PBL is difficult• Inherent conflict with lectures - waste of time
  34. 34. References:Brooks, J.G. & Brooks, M.G. (1999). In search of understanding: The case for constructivist classrooms. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.Karthikeyan, R. (eds.). (2009). Using problem-based learning technique in teaching English grammar. (Research paper). Retrieved April 19, 2012 from www.languageinindia.comLarsson, J. (2001). Problem-based learning: A possible approach to language education? (Research paper, Jagiellonian University). Retrieved April 19, 2012 from ____________.Torp, L. & Sage, S. (2002). Problems & possibilities: PBL for K-16 education. Alexandria, VA: ASCD, p.16.
  35. 35. Thank you for listening!
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