1. Oclaret, Venjie Nera Prof. Marla C. PapangoG2011131595 ELT 504 Teaching EnglishM.A. Ed. in ELT as a Second Language Problem-Based Learning (PBL) on Language TeachingHISTORY • 1916 John Dewey’s progressivist movement’s belief that teachers should teach by appealing to students natural instincts to investigate and create. • 1980 Howard Barrows, a physician and medical educator, started using this approach to help medical students better diagnose new illnesses. • 1985 High schools and colleges start using PBL. • 1990-1991 Schools began developing PBL movements to improve student performance in science and other disciplines.DEFINITION―A learning method based on the principle of using problems as a starting point for the acquisition and integration of newknowledge.‖ – H.S. Barrows (1982)CHARACTERISTICS • Learning is student centered. • Learning occurs in small student groups. • Teachers are facilitators or guides. • Problems form the organizing focus and stimulus for learning. • Problems are a vehicle for the development of problem-solving skills. • New information is acquired through self-directed learning • Shifts away from short, isolated teacher centered lessons • Creates long term, interdisciplinary student centered lessons • Integrates real world issues and practices • Teaches students to apply what they have learned in university to life-long endeavorsLANGUAGE THEORYInteractionism. Language is a system for the expression of meaning; primary function—interaction and communication.LANGUAGE LEARNING THEORYConstructivism: • Learning is not necessarily an outcome of teaching. • Students’ existing knowledge base influences their learning. • Learning usually progresses from the concrete to the abstract. • People learn most effectively through practice. • Effective learning requires feedback. • Expectations affect performance.FOCUS OF INSTRUCTION Fosters active learning Highlights a need for inquiry Supports knowledge construction Attracts and sustain student interest Integrates content areas Connects school learning and real world Provides relevance Enables meaningful learning Defines problems and conditions for Models interest and enthusiasm for learning resolution Coaches student thinking Establishes a context for learning Exposes effective learning strategies Pursues meaning and understanding Nurtures an environment that supports Becomes a self-directed learner open inquiry
2. PROCESS OF PBL • Students confront a problem. • In groups, students organize prior knowledge and attempt to identify the nature of the problem. • Students pose questions about what they do not understand. • Students design a plan to solve the problem and identify the resources they need. • Students begin to gather information as they work to solve the problem. The PBL Process The PBL process is not a complex one and it can be divided into 5 phases. In each and every phase, the roles and responsibilities of Facilitator and students can be defined. The following explains the PBL process and what is expected from Facilitator and students. Phase 1 : Introducing the concept Facilitator’s Role : To enlighten the students with the basic concepts of Problem Based Learning To enable the students to appreciate the advantages of using PBL Technique. Students’ Role : To overcome the barriers of switching over from conventional learning to Problem Based Learning To understand the concept thoroughly by having free interaction with tutor and peers. Phase 2 : Announcing the problem or Trigger Facilitator’s Role : To introduce the topic in the form of a trigger To elicit information related to the problem from students To provide elementary sources pertaining to the problem Students’ Role : To understand the trigger or problem To be mentally ready to meet the problem confidently Phase 3 : Grouping and Surveying Facilitator’s Role : To divide the students into groups by adopting strategies. To provide access to resources such as Books, Internet, Journals, Magazines, etc. To extend conducive environment for learning to take place Students’ Role : To develop a rapport with fellow group members To explore knowns and unknowns To investigate the problem into its minute details Phase 4: Monitoring and Coaching Facilitator’s Role : To monitor the progress of students and provide support as and when needed To avoid controlling and directing their efforts in solving the problem To provide constructive feedback during the activity Students’ Role : To have healthy and constructive discussion among peers To generate possible solutions to the problem Phase 5 : Assessing the performance Facilitator’s Role : To provide students with opportunities to share their findings To extend follow-up activities To assess the performance of students and give feedback Students’ Role : To present the findings in the form of presentation To assess the performance of facilitator To assess the performance of self and peerWhat Makes PBL Effective?Many formats for presenting and implementing problem-based learning units are possible; however, the followingparameters remain consistent:
3. Educators present the problematic situation first, and it serves as the organizing center and context for learning. The problematic situation has common characteristics: It is ill-structured and messy. It often changes with the addition of new information. It is not solved easily or with a specific formula. It does not result in one right answer. Students are active problem-solvers and learners; teachers are cognitive and metacognitive coaches. Learners share information but personally and individually construct knowledge. Discussion and challenge expose and test thinking. Assessment is an authentic companion to the problem and process. A PBL unit is not necessarily interdisciplinary, but it is always integrative.Reference: Torp, L. & Sage, S. (2002). Problems as Possibilities: PBL for K-16 Education. Alexandria, VA: ASCD, pp. 22-23What Might Engage Primary Learners in PBL?Kindergarten language arts: Students and their teacher overhear another teacher remark that their classroom does nothave many books. With their teacher, students analyze the problem and offer solutions for book collection, organizationand care. (Students explore classifying, graphing, alphabetizing, and using library and group skills.)What Might Engage Intermediate Learners in PBL?4th grade language arts: The students’ community wants to build a new convention complex along the river. City plannershave received several letters of concern from environmentalists, community residents and developers. How can studentsmeet the needs of all these groups?What Might Engage Middle School Learners in PBL?Language arts: The principal asks the students to communicate information about their school to the community.(Students transfer mathematical statistics about demographics, resources and ratios to a written and visual mode andinclude interviews with staff, students and alumni in their final product.)
4. What Might Engage High School Learners in PBL?American literature: A member of a local citizens’ group challenges the inclusion of Mark Twain’s novel The Adventures ofHuckleberry Finn in the curriculum. What are the issues? Should students study this novel? Why or why not ?How Does PBL Relate to Best Practices?Principles of Learning- Learning is not necessarily an outcome of teaching.- Students’ existing knowledge base influences their learning.- Learning usually progresses from the concrete to the abstract.- People learn most effectively through practice.- Effective learning requires feedback.- Expectations affect performance.Principles of Teaching Teaching should be consistent with the nature of inquiry.• Start with questions.• Engage students actively.• Concentrate on the collection and use of evidence.• Provide historical perspectives.• Insist on clear expression.• Use a team approach.• Do not separate knowing from finding out.• De-emphasize the memorization of technical vocabulary. Science teaching should reflect scientific values.• Welcome curiosity.• Reward creativity.• Encourage healthy questioning.• Avoid dogmatism.• Promote aesthetic responses. All teaching should aim to counteract learning anxieties.• Build on success.• Provide abundant experience in using tools.• Support the roles of girls and minorities in science and mathematics.• Emphasize group learning. Science teaching should extend beyond the school. Teaching should take its time.OBJECTIVES OF PBLPBL IN LANGUAGE LEARNINGThe following illustration will help to understand how PBL works in learning a language:
5. i) Facilitator identifies or designs an ill-structured problem or task relevant to the learner (e.g., complexity in using pasttense and present perfect tense, basic difference between these tense forms, structures of past and present perfecttenses, rules for using these two tenses, where to use past tense and present perfect tense. Solve the complexity)ii) Facilitator presents the problem to the learners.iii) Learners explore pre-existing knowledgeiv) Learners, in their own groups, collaboratively • discuss in detail • identify resources to look up or consult • assign tasks to the various group members (i.e. who is responsible for working on each learning issue.). • gather information from different sources • compile the findings • prepare hand-outs, worksheets, etc. on the topic • propose solution(s).Some of the steps in (iv) may be revisited. Throughout the process, learners will need to act as scribes or recorders totake notes.v) Learners present their findings before the facilitator in the form of ―presentation‖.vi) Facilitator presents ―the presentation‖ to the students.vii) Learners and facilitator assess the performanceASSESSMENT IN PBL 1. Assessment of student participation in PBL by facilitatorsCriteria: Preparation, accepting responsibility, team skills, attitude, professionalism and communicative skills 2. Student assessment of the PBL facilitatorsCriteria: Facilitation, guidance, encouragement, questioning and probing techniques, providing feedback 3. Self-assessment of participation in PBLCriteria: Decision-making skills, critical reasoning, participation, group dynamics, attitude, professionalism, communication 4. Peer assessmentCriteria: Level of knowledge, attitudes, involvement in group process, accepting criticism and giving feedbackADVANTAGES OF PBL 1. Emphasis on Meaning, Not Facts. By replacing lectures with discussion forums, faculty mentoring, and collaborative research, students become actively engaged in meaningful learning. 2. Increased Self Direction. As students pursue solutions to their classroom problem, they tend to assume increased responsibility for their learning. 3. Higher Comprehension and Better Skill Development. Students are able to practice the knowledge and skills in a functional context, thereby to better imagine what it will be like using the knowledge and skills on the job . 4. Interpersonal Skills and Teamwork. This methodology promotes student interaction and teamwork, thereby enhancing students interpersonal skills. 5. Self-Motivated Attitude. Students think problem based learning is a more interesting, stimulating, and enjoyable learning method, and that it offers a more flexible and nurturing way to learn.
6. 6. Facilitator-Student Relationship. The aspect faculty liked most is the tutor-student. Faculty also consider problem based learning a more nurturing and enjoyable curriculum, and believe the increased student contact is beneficial to the cognitive growth of the student. 7. Level of Learning. Problem based learning students score better than traditional students with respect to learning skills, problem-solving, self-evaluation techniques, data gathering, behavioral science, and their relation to the social-emotional problems of patientsDISADVANTAGES OF PBL • Main problem: creating/ constructing suitable problems that tap Ss schemata, interest, reality • The range of topics which can be discussed is a limiting factor - quality control is difficult • Heavy on library, computer resources, support • Objective evaluation of PBL is difficult • Inherent conflict with lectures - waste of timeReferences:Brooks, J.G. & Brooks, M.G. (1999). In search of understanding: The case for constructivist classrooms. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.Karthikeyan, R. (eds.). (2009). Using problem-based learning technique in teaching English grammar. (Research paper). Retrieved April 19, 2012 from www.languageinindia.comLarsson, J. (2001). Problem-based learning: A possible approach to language education? (Research paper, Jagiellonian University).Retrieved April 19, 2012 from ____________.Torp, L. & Sage, S. (2002). Problems & possibilities: PBL for K-16 education. Alexandria, VA: ASCD, p.16.