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Transport of Wine Over Long DistancesPresentation Transcript
Wine is bulky, heavy and perishable. Transport of wine over long distances(or under difficult conditions) is challenging and can be expensive and risky. Discuss the reason that wine has been transported, and the way carriers have met these challenges over time. VENITA SIMCOX August 2012
The Early Days Grape residue found on a 9000 year old terra cotta pot in China has been argued to be the worlds first known wine. The majority of experts believe that wine as we know it today was discovered in Europe, tracing its origins to the Caucasus Mountains, near Georgia, close to 5000 years B.C.
Ancient Vessel Amphora Invented by the Canaanites. Created mainly in ceramic, rare instances of metal, stone or glass. Thin neck for pouring, a handle either side (designed to be carried by two people) and a long pointed base. Used for storing and shipping wine, held in racks with specifically designed holes.
Vessel Progression Wood barrels were introduced sometime around 50 B.C. and were gradually recognised as a better alternative over terra cotta jugs for both storage and transport. Adopted by the Romans, the Gauls are credited with their invention. Not until the 17th century were glass bottles introduced.
Early Transport Journeys overland were long and treacherous as much of Europe was plagued with war. Where possible, wine was transported over the water on large wooden sailing ships. This fifteenth century illustration of the King of France riding into the harbour at Sluys in Flanders shows the rounded wine ships, or cogs, used in the wine fleets of the Middle Ages. The largest cogs could hold over 200 barrels
Modern Times Although the technology involved in all aspects of wine making has greatly evolved, the main method for long distance transport has stayed the same; shipping. Transporting wine via air freight, although considerably faster, is significantly more expensive and the available space onboard is limited. Motor Vessel Old Wine, a wine tanker built in 1964
Supply and Demand Consumers want diversity, quality and affordability in the wine they purchase. Producers want their wine to reach as many markets as possible. These simple ideas drive the supply of wine both domestically and internationally, forcing suppliers to continually search for cheaper, more effective ways to transport their product.
ChallengesMany issues are faced by the wineries in making transport decisions. Cost Quality control Timing Breakages/spoilage Environmental concerns
Bulk vs BottledShipping wine in bulk, although it has long beenassociated with cheap, low quality wine, has manybenefits. Less prone to experiencing large temperature variations during transit. Cost effective - A flexi tank holds the equivalent of 32,000 bottles compared to a standard container that carries approximately 12,000 bottles. Better for the environment.
Refrigerated ContainersWhether you choose bulk or bottled, youhave the option of a refrigerated container. Cost: Significantly more expensive. Quality: Greatly diminishes chance of product spoilage due to temperature variance. Alternative: Vin Liner
Shipping wine as a consumerOn a lesser scale, there are many options andissues to consider when shipping wine in smallquantities. Packaging materials Air or sea freight Taxes Cost Travel time
Environmental Concerns In todays society, the issue of environmental impact is a growing and valid concern. Carbon Footprint Food Miles Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) bottles
Carbon Footprint Defined as the amount of greenhouse gases caused by an organisation. Growing number of wine producers are embracing carbon reducing programs. The New Zealand Wine Company (producers of Grove Mill and Sanctuary Wines) are the first winemakers to achieve CarboNZero certification.
Food Miles “The theory is that the further food has to travel to market, the worse its impact on the environment will be and that ecologically conscious buyers will always select the option with the lowest miles travelled”. (Graham, 2007) Debate over the use of food miles to protect domestic markets. Does not take into consideration other factors, including transport methods.
PET Bottles Lighter: Weigh approximately 50g compared to a 750ml glass bottle Environmentally friendly: Fully recyclable and as they are smaller you can fit more into a container, reducing fuel and carbon emissions. Durable: Less likely to incur breakages than glass, making them ideal for outdoor events.
Moving to the Future Growing market for bulk wine shipments, especially to the United Kingdom. Emphasis on reducing carbon footprint. Consideration of alternatives to glass. Data logging to track temperature variations during transit.
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