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Cruise Control <br />The Impacts of cruise ships on the city of Venice.<br />Shane<br />Bellingham<br />Cortney<br />Davis...
Ships vs. Passengers  Europe<br />2009<br /><ul><li> Ships increased 40%
 Passengers increased 194%</li></ul>5 million Passengers<br />2000<br />1.7 million Passengers<br />85 Ships<br />119 Ship...
Air Quality<br />Vibrations<br />Mooring men<br />200 m<br />Pilot Boards<br />Captain takes control<br />Hydrodynamics<br...
Top 15 EU Ports Passenger Visits<br />870,000 passengers<br />2008  Directorate-General for Maritime Affairs and Fisheries...
October 30th-December 8th<br />Our<br />Project<br />
Impact of Cruise Ships<br />Economy<br />Vibrations<br />Hydrodynamics<br />Mobility<br />Air Quality<br />
Top 15 Europe Ports Expenditures<br />95 Million <br />
    Impact:<br />Vibrations<br />Hydrodynamics<br />Mobility<br />Air Quality<br />
Impact:<br />Vibrations	<br />Hydrodynamics<br />Mobility<br />Air Quality<br />
Vibrational Effects<br />Reasons for Interest:<br />Structural Damage<br />Liquefaction<br />
Cell Phone Accelerometer<br />Accelerometer in an Android phone<br />Sensor Insider Pro<br />Measures Orientation and Acce...
Measurement Units<br />Acceleration:<br /><ul><li>m/s^2</li></ul>Orientation:<br /><ul><li>Yaw, Pitch and Roll</li></ul>ht...
Phone Orientation<br />
Vibrations from Queen Victoria<br />
Vibrations from Queen Victoria<br />Ship shuts off engine<br />Ship approaches dock<br />Planks being placed down<br />Pas...
Vibrations from MSC Magnifica<br />
Vibration Observations<br />Vibrations present<br />Phone not sensitive enough to detect<br />
Impact:<br />Vibrations<br />Hydrodynamics<br />Mobility<br />Air Quality<br />
Hydrodynamic Impact<br />Reasons for Interest:<br /> Alterations to natural flow<br /> Damage to canal walls<br /> Boat tr...
Water Accelerates Around the Hull<br />Stagnant<br />Maximum<br />
Determining Factors<br /><ul><li>Size and Geometry
 Vessel Speed
 Distance from Shore / Canal
 Tidal Conditions (Level and Phase)</li></li></ul><li>Cruise Ship Passing Shallow Canal<br />
ISMAR (1993)<br />
ISMAR Velocity and Height ResultsIl Rio di Santa Eufemia<br />VELOCITY:<br />HEIGHT:<br />“Database Navi, Gennaio 2004”<br />
ISMAR (1993)<br />
Water Level in Canal<br />
Recorded Water Level – MSC Magnifica<br />Velocity Increase<br />Velocity Decrease<br />
VPC and ISMAR Comparison<br />* Compressed for Consistent Time Frame<br />
Hydrodynamic Conclusions<br /><ul><li>ISMAR’s measurements are accurate
Current Increased ~ 57%
Most potential damage when:</li></ul>High speed<br />Closer to canal<br />Low tide<br />Larger ships<br />
Impact:<br />Vibrations<br />Hydrodynamics<br />Mobility<br />Air Quality<br />
Transportation Choices<br />Reasons for interest:<br />Increase in cruise ships<br /><ul><li>Increase in passengers</li></...
Total <br />15,438<br />
Total <br />15,438<br />
39%<br />39%<br />6%<br />Total <br />15,438<br />10%<br />6%<br />9%<br />
21%<br />Total <br />15,438<br />
6%<br />Total <br />15,438<br />
9%<br />Total <br />15,438<br />
25%<br />Total <br />15,438<br />10%<br />9%<br />6%<br />
6%<br />9%<br />39%<br />21%<br />15%<br />25%<br />Total <br />15,438<br />10%<br />9%<br />6%<br />
6%<br />9%<br />39%<br />21%<br />25%<br />
6%<br />9%<br />39%<br />21%<br />25%<br />
6%<br />9%<br />39%<br />21%<br />25%<br />
6%<br />9%<br />39%<br />21%<br />25%<br />
6%<br />9%<br />39%<br />21%<br />25%<br />
6%<br />9%<br />39%<br />21%<br />25%<br />
6%<br />9%<br />39%<br />21%<br />25%<br />
Mobility Conclusions<br />Buses- 6059 passengers (39%) 3 signs<br />Boats- 3866 passengers (25%) 8 signs<br />Taxis- 3209 ...
Impact :<br />Vibrations<br />Hydrodynamics<br />Mobility<br />Air Quality<br />
Aerosol Black Carbon<br />Reasons for interest:<br />Direct and indirect effects<br /><ul><li>Physiological
Physical
Chemical</li></ul>Tracer to indicate movement of meteorological air masses<br />Second leading cause of Global Warming<br />
Aerosol Black Carbon<br />PM2.5 aerodynamic size range (i.e. less than 2.5 μm). <br />U.S. Regulations <br /><ul><li>OSHA ...
NIOSH (IDLH): < 1,750,000,000 ng/m3</li></li></ul><li>http://mageesci.com/<br />Aethalometer®<br />microAeth® Model AE51  ...
Using the Aethalometer<br />
Using the Aethalometer<br />
Using the Aethalometer<br />
Using the Aethalometer<br />
BC in Venice<br />
BC in Venice<br />
BC in Venice<br />
BC in Venice<br />
Harbor Location<br />
Harbor Location<br />
Harbor Location<br />
Harbor Location<br />
Contributing Factors<br /># of ships present<br />Efficiency of engines<br /><ul><li>Fuel quality</li></ul>Appliances near...
Harbor Data<br />Departure<br />Arrival<br />Atmosphere Settling<br />*Note*<br />2 Cruise Ships and 1 Ferry on 10-Nov <br...
Wind from Marghera<br />62.5° @ 1.41m/s<br />
Arriving Ferries<br />
Departing Ferry<br />
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Cruise Control: Cruise Ships Influencing the City of Venice

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  • In 2009 1,420,000 passengers stepped on a cruise ship in Venice. In the same year, Venice ranked as the first homeport in the Mediterranean, the third passenger port in Europe, and the 11th in the world. In 2010, Venice expects nearly 2,000,000 passengers.
  • Public health – disease &amp; death Climate change – local, regional and global Visibility Effects on cultural heritage
  • Different threshold limit values apply for personal PM exposure, set by different health organizations.Exposure limit (OSHA) for “lower respiratory system nuisance limit” = 5000 μg m-3OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) for Maritime: 29 CFR 1915.1000 Table Z-Shipyards  3.5 mg/m3 TWA NIOSH Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentration (IDLH): 1750 mg/m3
  • Specifications - microAeth Model AE51, Page 1 of 1, Oct 2010, Rev 061101 Cowper StreetBerkeley, CA 94702tel +1 510.845.2801fax +1 510.845.7137www.mageescientific.comMeasurement PrincipleReal-time analysis by measuring the rate of changein absorption of transmitted light due to continuouscollection of aerosol deposit on filter. Measurement at 880nm interpreted as concentration of Black Carbon (‘BC’).Measurement Range0-1 mg BC/m3, filter life time dependent on concentrationand flow rate setting:avg. 5 μg BC/m3 for 24 hours @ 100 mL/minavg. 100 μg BC/m3 for 3 hours @ 50 mL/minavg. 1 mg BC/m3 for 15 min @ 50 mL/minMeasurement Resolution0.001 μg BC/m3Measurement Precision±0.1 μg BC/m3, 1 min avg., 150 mL/min flow rateMeasurement Timebase (User setting)1 second, 1 minute or 5 minuteFlow Rate (User setting)Internal pump provides 50, 100, or 150 mL/min, monitoredby mass flow meter and stabilized by closed-loop control.Sampling3 mm spot created on filter ticket containing insert ofT60 Teflon-coated borosilicate glass fiber filter material.PM2.5 size selective inlet available.ConsumablesFilter ticket: 1 filter ticket per sampling event, typicallyone per day.Data Storage4 MB internal flash memory, providing up to 1 month datastorage when operating on a 5 minute timebase, and 1week when operating on a 1 minute timebase.CommunicationsUSB connectivity to Windows®-based PC withmicroAethCOM, or data stream via digital output throughmini USB port (command protocols can be supplied).Data OutputInternal data files are uploaded to microAethCOM PCsoftware and stored on local disk.PC SoftwaremicroAethCOM software is included. Provides visualinterface including real-time BC mass concentrationvalues. Facilitates settings configuration, calibrationroutines, downloading data, and uploading newinstrument firmware.Dimensions4.6 in (117 mm) L x 2.6 in (66 mm) W x 1.5 in (38 mm) DWeightApproximately 0.62 lbs (280 g).PowerInternal rechargeable lithium-ion battery.Power Supply AdapterInput: 100~240 VAC 50/60 Hz 0.2 AOutput: 5VDC / 0.5ACharging Time4 hours to full charge (using AC adapter, instrumentturned off).Total Run Time (single battery charge)Minimum 24 hours @ 5 minute time base at 100 mL/minflow rate.Operation Environment0 ~ 40 °C operating, non-condensing.Aethalometer®microAeth® Model AE51Product SpecificationsSpecifications are subject to change without notice.
  • 11-Nov – Strange because of large # of ships and small BC levels12-Nov – Strange because of # of ships and large BC levels13-Nov – Looks good15-Nov – Strange because of large # of ships and very small BC levels16-Nov – Looks good (mostly)17-Nov - Strange because of # of ships and large BC levels
  • 4 Cruise ships total between 11/13/10 and 11/14/10.
  • No cruise ships between 11/22/10 and 11/23/10.
  • No cruise ships since 11/27/10.
  • Transcript of "Cruise Control: Cruise Ships Influencing the City of Venice"

    1. 1. Cruise Control <br />The Impacts of cruise ships on the city of Venice.<br />Shane<br />Bellingham<br />Cortney<br />Davis<br />Chris <br />O’Brien<br />Erin <br />Saari<br />
    2. 2. Ships vs. Passengers Europe<br />2009<br /><ul><li> Ships increased 40%
    3. 3. Passengers increased 194%</li></ul>5 million Passengers<br />2000<br />1.7 million Passengers<br />85 Ships<br />119 Ships <br />
    4. 4.
    5. 5. Air Quality<br />Vibrations<br />Mooring men<br />200 m<br />Pilot Boards<br />Captain takes control<br />Hydrodynamics<br />Tugboats<br />
    6. 6.
    7. 7. Top 15 EU Ports Passenger Visits<br />870,000 passengers<br />2008 Directorate-General for Maritime Affairs and Fisheries <br />
    8. 8.
    9. 9.
    10. 10.
    11. 11. October 30th-December 8th<br />Our<br />Project<br />
    12. 12.
    13. 13. Impact of Cruise Ships<br />Economy<br />Vibrations<br />Hydrodynamics<br />Mobility<br />Air Quality<br />
    14. 14. Top 15 Europe Ports Expenditures<br />95 Million <br />
    15. 15. Impact:<br />Vibrations<br />Hydrodynamics<br />Mobility<br />Air Quality<br />
    16. 16. Impact:<br />Vibrations <br />Hydrodynamics<br />Mobility<br />Air Quality<br />
    17. 17. Vibrational Effects<br />Reasons for Interest:<br />Structural Damage<br />Liquefaction<br />
    18. 18. Cell Phone Accelerometer<br />Accelerometer in an Android phone<br />Sensor Insider Pro<br />Measures Orientation and Acceleration<br />
    19. 19. Measurement Units<br />Acceleration:<br /><ul><li>m/s^2</li></ul>Orientation:<br /><ul><li>Yaw, Pitch and Roll</li></ul>http://www.shadowspawn.net/beta/quake3_mapping_yaw_pitch_roll_tut.htm<br />http://www.elec-intro.com/acceleration<br />
    20. 20. Phone Orientation<br />
    21. 21.
    22. 22.
    23. 23. Vibrations from Queen Victoria<br />
    24. 24. Vibrations from Queen Victoria<br />Ship shuts off engine<br />Ship approaches dock<br />Planks being placed down<br />Passengers disembarking<br />
    25. 25.
    26. 26. Vibrations from MSC Magnifica<br />
    27. 27. Vibration Observations<br />Vibrations present<br />Phone not sensitive enough to detect<br />
    28. 28. Impact:<br />Vibrations<br />Hydrodynamics<br />Mobility<br />Air Quality<br />
    29. 29. Hydrodynamic Impact<br />Reasons for Interest:<br /> Alterations to natural flow<br /> Damage to canal walls<br /> Boat traffic<br />
    30. 30. Water Accelerates Around the Hull<br />Stagnant<br />Maximum<br />
    31. 31. Determining Factors<br /><ul><li>Size and Geometry
    32. 32. Vessel Speed
    33. 33. Distance from Shore / Canal
    34. 34. Tidal Conditions (Level and Phase)</li></li></ul><li>Cruise Ship Passing Shallow Canal<br />
    35. 35.
    36. 36. ISMAR (1993)<br />
    37. 37. ISMAR Velocity and Height ResultsIl Rio di Santa Eufemia<br />VELOCITY:<br />HEIGHT:<br />“Database Navi, Gennaio 2004”<br />
    38. 38. ISMAR (1993)<br />
    39. 39.
    40. 40. Water Level in Canal<br />
    41. 41. Recorded Water Level – MSC Magnifica<br />Velocity Increase<br />Velocity Decrease<br />
    42. 42. VPC and ISMAR Comparison<br />* Compressed for Consistent Time Frame<br />
    43. 43. Hydrodynamic Conclusions<br /><ul><li>ISMAR’s measurements are accurate
    44. 44. Current Increased ~ 57%
    45. 45. Most potential damage when:</li></ul>High speed<br />Closer to canal<br />Low tide<br />Larger ships<br />
    46. 46. Impact:<br />Vibrations<br />Hydrodynamics<br />Mobility<br />Air Quality<br />
    47. 47. Transportation Choices<br />Reasons for interest:<br />Increase in cruise ships<br /><ul><li>Increase in passengers</li></ul>Effectiveness of transportation choices<br />
    48. 48.
    49. 49. Total <br />15,438<br />
    50. 50. Total <br />15,438<br />
    51. 51.
    52. 52.
    53. 53.
    54. 54.
    55. 55.
    56. 56.
    57. 57.
    58. 58.
    59. 59. 39%<br />39%<br />6%<br />Total <br />15,438<br />10%<br />6%<br />9%<br />
    60. 60.
    61. 61.
    62. 62.
    63. 63.
    64. 64.
    65. 65.
    66. 66.
    67. 67.
    68. 68.
    69. 69. 21%<br />Total <br />15,438<br />
    70. 70.
    71. 71.
    72. 72. 6%<br />Total <br />15,438<br />
    73. 73.
    74. 74.
    75. 75. 9%<br />Total <br />15,438<br />
    76. 76.
    77. 77.
    78. 78.
    79. 79.
    80. 80.
    81. 81.
    82. 82.
    83. 83.
    84. 84.
    85. 85.
    86. 86.
    87. 87.
    88. 88. 25%<br />Total <br />15,438<br />10%<br />9%<br />6%<br />
    89. 89. 6%<br />9%<br />39%<br />21%<br />15%<br />25%<br />Total <br />15,438<br />10%<br />9%<br />6%<br />
    90. 90. 6%<br />9%<br />39%<br />21%<br />25%<br />
    91. 91.
    92. 92. 6%<br />9%<br />39%<br />21%<br />25%<br />
    93. 93.
    94. 94. 6%<br />9%<br />39%<br />21%<br />25%<br />
    95. 95.
    96. 96. 6%<br />9%<br />39%<br />21%<br />25%<br />
    97. 97.
    98. 98. 6%<br />9%<br />39%<br />21%<br />25%<br />
    99. 99.
    100. 100. 6%<br />9%<br />39%<br />21%<br />25%<br />
    101. 101.
    102. 102. 6%<br />9%<br />39%<br />21%<br />25%<br />
    103. 103. Mobility Conclusions<br />Buses- 6059 passengers (39%) 3 signs<br />Boats- 3866 passengers (25%) 8 signs<br />Taxis- 3209 passengers (21%) 4 signs<br />People Mover-1386 passengers (9%) 3 signs<br />Walking- 918 passengers (6%) 1 sign<br />
    104. 104. Impact :<br />Vibrations<br />Hydrodynamics<br />Mobility<br />Air Quality<br />
    105. 105.
    106. 106. Aerosol Black Carbon<br />Reasons for interest:<br />Direct and indirect effects<br /><ul><li>Physiological
    107. 107. Physical
    108. 108. Chemical</li></ul>Tracer to indicate movement of meteorological air masses<br />Second leading cause of Global Warming<br />
    109. 109. Aerosol Black Carbon<br />PM2.5 aerodynamic size range (i.e. less than 2.5 μm). <br />U.S. Regulations <br /><ul><li>OSHA (PEL): < 3,500,000 ng/m3
    110. 110. NIOSH (IDLH): < 1,750,000,000 ng/m3</li></li></ul><li>http://mageesci.com/<br />Aethalometer®<br />microAeth® Model AE51 <br />
    111. 111. Using the Aethalometer<br />
    112. 112. Using the Aethalometer<br />
    113. 113. Using the Aethalometer<br />
    114. 114. Using the Aethalometer<br />
    115. 115. BC in Venice<br />
    116. 116. BC in Venice<br />
    117. 117. BC in Venice<br />
    118. 118. BC in Venice<br />
    119. 119. Harbor Location<br />
    120. 120. Harbor Location<br />
    121. 121. Harbor Location<br />
    122. 122. Harbor Location<br />
    123. 123. Contributing Factors<br /># of ships present<br />Efficiency of engines<br /><ul><li>Fuel quality</li></ul>Appliances near instrument<br />Wind<br />People smoking<br />Land vehicles<br />
    124. 124. Harbor Data<br />Departure<br />Arrival<br />Atmosphere Settling<br />*Note*<br />2 Cruise Ships and 1 Ferry on 10-Nov <br />1 Cruise Ship and 1 Ferry on 14-Nov<br />= Cruise Ship<br />= Ferry<br />
    125. 125. Wind from Marghera<br />62.5° @ 1.41m/s<br />
    126. 126. Arriving Ferries<br />
    127. 127. Departing Ferry<br />
    128. 128. Air Quality Conclusions<br />BC >> @ night and morning<br />BC levels directly correlate with the presence of cruise ships and ferries<br /><ul><li>Levels are significantly higher but would not violate OSHA regulations</li></li></ul><li> Impact:<br />Vibrations<br />Hydrodynamics<br />Mobility<br />Air Quality<br />Levels would not violate US regulations<br />Buses most popular 39%<br />Boats most advertized<br />4.5 times increase in BC level<br />Phone not sensitive enough<br />Vibrations present<br />Confirmed ISMAR<br />
    129. 129. https://sites.google.com/site/ve10ships/<br />Email:ve10-ships@wpi.edu<br />Venice Project Center<br /><ul><li>Address: San Polo 1932/A Fondamenta de le Tette Venice, 30125 ITALY
    130. 130. Telephone: (+39) 041 523-3209
    131. 131. Fax: (+39) 041 241-9344</li></ul>For More Information<br />
    132. 132. Special Thanks!<br />Jeff Blair<br /><ul><li>Magee Scientific</li></ul>Antonio Campagnol<br /><ul><li>Capitaneriadi Porto</li></ul>Marco Nogara<br /><ul><li>Captain for Disney Cruise Lines</li></ul>Luca Zaggia<br /><ul><li>IstitutodiScienze Marine</li></ul>Marco Zanforlin<br /><ul><li>Venezia Terminal Passiggeri</li></li></ul><li>We look forward to future collaboration! <br />
    133. 133. The Team<br />Cortney Davis<br />Biology<br />Chris O’Brien<br />Mechanical<br />Engineering<br />Shane<br />Bellingham<br />Mechanical<br />Engineering<br />Erin Saari<br />Chemical<br />Engineering<br />
    134. 134. Questions?<br />
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