Cruise Control: Cruise Ships Influencing the City of Venice

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B10 Ships Final IQP Presentation

B10 Ships Final IQP Presentation

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  • In 2009 1,420,000 passengers stepped on a cruise ship in Venice. In the same year, Venice ranked as the first homeport in the Mediterranean, the third passenger port in Europe, and the 11th in the world. In 2010, Venice expects nearly 2,000,000 passengers.
  • Public health – disease & death Climate change – local, regional and global Visibility Effects on cultural heritage
  • Different threshold limit values apply for personal PM exposure, set by different health organizations.Exposure limit (OSHA) for “lower respiratory system nuisance limit” = 5000 μg m-3OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) for Maritime: 29 CFR 1915.1000 Table Z-Shipyards  3.5 mg/m3 TWA NIOSH Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentration (IDLH): 1750 mg/m3
  • Specifications - microAeth Model AE51, Page 1 of 1, Oct 2010, Rev 061101 Cowper StreetBerkeley, CA 94702tel +1 510.845.2801fax +1 510.845.7137www.mageescientific.comMeasurement PrincipleReal-time analysis by measuring the rate of changein absorption of transmitted light due to continuouscollection of aerosol deposit on filter. Measurement at 880nm interpreted as concentration of Black Carbon (‘BC’).Measurement Range0-1 mg BC/m3, filter life time dependent on concentrationand flow rate setting:avg. 5 μg BC/m3 for 24 hours @ 100 mL/minavg. 100 μg BC/m3 for 3 hours @ 50 mL/minavg. 1 mg BC/m3 for 15 min @ 50 mL/minMeasurement Resolution0.001 μg BC/m3Measurement Precision±0.1 μg BC/m3, 1 min avg., 150 mL/min flow rateMeasurement Timebase (User setting)1 second, 1 minute or 5 minuteFlow Rate (User setting)Internal pump provides 50, 100, or 150 mL/min, monitoredby mass flow meter and stabilized by closed-loop control.Sampling3 mm spot created on filter ticket containing insert ofT60 Teflon-coated borosilicate glass fiber filter material.PM2.5 size selective inlet available.ConsumablesFilter ticket: 1 filter ticket per sampling event, typicallyone per day.Data Storage4 MB internal flash memory, providing up to 1 month datastorage when operating on a 5 minute timebase, and 1week when operating on a 1 minute timebase.CommunicationsUSB connectivity to Windows®-based PC withmicroAethCOM, or data stream via digital output throughmini USB port (command protocols can be supplied).Data OutputInternal data files are uploaded to microAethCOM PCsoftware and stored on local disk.PC SoftwaremicroAethCOM software is included. Provides visualinterface including real-time BC mass concentrationvalues. Facilitates settings configuration, calibrationroutines, downloading data, and uploading newinstrument firmware.Dimensions4.6 in (117 mm) L x 2.6 in (66 mm) W x 1.5 in (38 mm) DWeightApproximately 0.62 lbs (280 g).PowerInternal rechargeable lithium-ion battery.Power Supply AdapterInput: 100~240 VAC 50/60 Hz 0.2 AOutput: 5VDC / 0.5ACharging Time4 hours to full charge (using AC adapter, instrumentturned off).Total Run Time (single battery charge)Minimum 24 hours @ 5 minute time base at 100 mL/minflow rate.Operation Environment0 ~ 40 °C operating, non-condensing.Aethalometer®microAeth® Model AE51Product SpecificationsSpecifications are subject to change without notice.
  • 11-Nov – Strange because of large # of ships and small BC levels12-Nov – Strange because of # of ships and large BC levels13-Nov – Looks good15-Nov – Strange because of large # of ships and very small BC levels16-Nov – Looks good (mostly)17-Nov - Strange because of # of ships and large BC levels
  • 4 Cruise ships total between 11/13/10 and 11/14/10.
  • No cruise ships between 11/22/10 and 11/23/10.
  • No cruise ships since 11/27/10.

Transcript

  • 1. Cruise Control
    The Impacts of cruise ships on the city of Venice.
    Shane
    Bellingham
    Cortney
    Davis
    Chris
    O’Brien
    Erin
    Saari
  • 2. Ships vs. Passengers Europe
    2009
    • Ships increased 40%
    • 3. Passengers increased 194%
    5 million Passengers
    2000
    1.7 million Passengers
    85 Ships
    119 Ships
  • 4.
  • 5. Air Quality
    Vibrations
    Mooring men
    200 m
    Pilot Boards
    Captain takes control
    Hydrodynamics
    Tugboats
  • 6.
  • 7. Top 15 EU Ports Passenger Visits
    870,000 passengers
    2008 Directorate-General for Maritime Affairs and Fisheries
  • 8.
  • 9.
  • 10.
  • 11. October 30th-December 8th
    Our
    Project
  • 12.
  • 13. Impact of Cruise Ships
    Economy
    Vibrations
    Hydrodynamics
    Mobility
    Air Quality
  • 14. Top 15 Europe Ports Expenditures
    95 Million
  • 15. Impact:
    Vibrations
    Hydrodynamics
    Mobility
    Air Quality
  • 16. Impact:
    Vibrations
    Hydrodynamics
    Mobility
    Air Quality
  • 17. Vibrational Effects
    Reasons for Interest:
    Structural Damage
    Liquefaction
  • 18. Cell Phone Accelerometer
    Accelerometer in an Android phone
    Sensor Insider Pro
    Measures Orientation and Acceleration
  • 19. Measurement Units
    Acceleration:
    • m/s^2
    Orientation:
    • Yaw, Pitch and Roll
    http://www.shadowspawn.net/beta/quake3_mapping_yaw_pitch_roll_tut.htm
    http://www.elec-intro.com/acceleration
  • 20. Phone Orientation
  • 21.
  • 22.
  • 23. Vibrations from Queen Victoria
  • 24. Vibrations from Queen Victoria
    Ship shuts off engine
    Ship approaches dock
    Planks being placed down
    Passengers disembarking
  • 25.
  • 26. Vibrations from MSC Magnifica
  • 27. Vibration Observations
    Vibrations present
    Phone not sensitive enough to detect
  • 28. Impact:
    Vibrations
    Hydrodynamics
    Mobility
    Air Quality
  • 29. Hydrodynamic Impact
    Reasons for Interest:
    Alterations to natural flow
    Damage to canal walls
    Boat traffic
  • 30. Water Accelerates Around the Hull
    Stagnant
    Maximum
  • 31. Determining Factors
    • Size and Geometry
    • 32. Vessel Speed
    • 33. Distance from Shore / Canal
    • 34. Tidal Conditions (Level and Phase)
  • Cruise Ship Passing Shallow Canal
  • 35.
  • 36. ISMAR (1993)
  • 37. ISMAR Velocity and Height ResultsIl Rio di Santa Eufemia
    VELOCITY:
    HEIGHT:
    “Database Navi, Gennaio 2004”
  • 38. ISMAR (1993)
  • 39.
  • 40. Water Level in Canal
  • 41. Recorded Water Level – MSC Magnifica
    Velocity Increase
    Velocity Decrease
  • 42. VPC and ISMAR Comparison
    * Compressed for Consistent Time Frame
  • 43. Hydrodynamic Conclusions
    • ISMAR’s measurements are accurate
    • 44. Current Increased ~ 57%
    • 45. Most potential damage when:
    High speed
    Closer to canal
    Low tide
    Larger ships
  • 46. Impact:
    Vibrations
    Hydrodynamics
    Mobility
    Air Quality
  • 47. Transportation Choices
    Reasons for interest:
    Increase in cruise ships
    • Increase in passengers
    Effectiveness of transportation choices
  • 48.
  • 49. Total
    15,438
  • 50. Total
    15,438
  • 51.
  • 52.
  • 53.
  • 54.
  • 55.
  • 56.
  • 57.
  • 58.
  • 59. 39%
    39%
    6%
    Total
    15,438
    10%
    6%
    9%
  • 60.
  • 61.
  • 62.
  • 63.
  • 64.
  • 65.
  • 66.
  • 67.
  • 68.
  • 69. 21%
    Total
    15,438
  • 70.
  • 71.
  • 72. 6%
    Total
    15,438
  • 73.
  • 74.
  • 75. 9%
    Total
    15,438
  • 76.
  • 77.
  • 78.
  • 79.
  • 80.
  • 81.
  • 82.
  • 83.
  • 84.
  • 85.
  • 86.
  • 87.
  • 88. 25%
    Total
    15,438
    10%
    9%
    6%
  • 89. 6%
    9%
    39%
    21%
    15%
    25%
    Total
    15,438
    10%
    9%
    6%
  • 90. 6%
    9%
    39%
    21%
    25%
  • 91.
  • 92. 6%
    9%
    39%
    21%
    25%
  • 93.
  • 94. 6%
    9%
    39%
    21%
    25%
  • 95.
  • 96. 6%
    9%
    39%
    21%
    25%
  • 97.
  • 98. 6%
    9%
    39%
    21%
    25%
  • 99.
  • 100. 6%
    9%
    39%
    21%
    25%
  • 101.
  • 102. 6%
    9%
    39%
    21%
    25%
  • 103. Mobility Conclusions
    Buses- 6059 passengers (39%) 3 signs
    Boats- 3866 passengers (25%) 8 signs
    Taxis- 3209 passengers (21%) 4 signs
    People Mover-1386 passengers (9%) 3 signs
    Walking- 918 passengers (6%) 1 sign
  • 104. Impact :
    Vibrations
    Hydrodynamics
    Mobility
    Air Quality
  • 105.
  • 106. Aerosol Black Carbon
    Reasons for interest:
    Direct and indirect effects
    Tracer to indicate movement of meteorological air masses
    Second leading cause of Global Warming
  • 109. Aerosol Black Carbon
    PM2.5 aerodynamic size range (i.e. less than 2.5 μm).
    U.S. Regulations
    • OSHA (PEL): < 3,500,000 ng/m3
    • 110. NIOSH (IDLH): < 1,750,000,000 ng/m3
  • http://mageesci.com/
    Aethalometer®
    microAeth® Model AE51
  • 111. Using the Aethalometer
  • 112. Using the Aethalometer
  • 113. Using the Aethalometer
  • 114. Using the Aethalometer
  • 115. BC in Venice
  • 116. BC in Venice
  • 117. BC in Venice
  • 118. BC in Venice
  • 119. Harbor Location
  • 120. Harbor Location
  • 121. Harbor Location
  • 122. Harbor Location
  • 123. Contributing Factors
    # of ships present
    Efficiency of engines
    • Fuel quality
    Appliances near instrument
    Wind
    People smoking
    Land vehicles
  • 124. Harbor Data
    Departure
    Arrival
    Atmosphere Settling
    *Note*
    2 Cruise Ships and 1 Ferry on 10-Nov
    1 Cruise Ship and 1 Ferry on 14-Nov
    = Cruise Ship
    = Ferry
  • 125. Wind from Marghera
    62.5° @ 1.41m/s
  • 126. Arriving Ferries
  • 127. Departing Ferry
  • 128. Air Quality Conclusions
    BC >> @ night and morning
    BC levels directly correlate with the presence of cruise ships and ferries
    • Levels are significantly higher but would not violate OSHA regulations
  • Impact:
    Vibrations
    Hydrodynamics
    Mobility
    Air Quality
    Levels would not violate US regulations
    Buses most popular 39%
    Boats most advertized
    4.5 times increase in BC level
    Phone not sensitive enough
    Vibrations present
    Confirmed ISMAR
  • 129. https://sites.google.com/site/ve10ships/
    Email:ve10-ships@wpi.edu
    Venice Project Center
    • Address: San Polo 1932/A Fondamenta de le Tette Venice, 30125 ITALY
    • 130. Telephone: (+39) 041 523-3209
    • 131. Fax: (+39) 041 241-9344
    For More Information
  • 132. Special Thanks!
    Jeff Blair
    • Magee Scientific
    Antonio Campagnol
    • Capitaneriadi Porto
    Marco Nogara
    • Captain for Disney Cruise Lines
    Luca Zaggia
    • IstitutodiScienze Marine
    Marco Zanforlin
    • Venezia Terminal Passiggeri
  • We look forward to future collaboration!
  • 133. The Team
    Cortney Davis
    Biology
    Chris O’Brien
    Mechanical
    Engineering
    Shane
    Bellingham
    Mechanical
    Engineering
    Erin Saari
    Chemical
    Engineering
  • 134. Questions?