In 2009 1,420,000 passengers stepped on a cruise ship in Venice. In the same year, Venice ranked as the first homeport in the Mediterranean, the third passenger port in Europe, and the 11th in the world. In 2010, Venice expects nearly 2,000,000 passengers.
Public health – disease & death Climate change – local, regional and global Visibility Effects on cultural heritage
Different threshold limit values apply for personal PM exposure, set by different health organizations.Exposure limit (OSHA) for “lower respiratory system nuisance limit” = 5000 μg m-3OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) for Maritime: 29 CFR 1915.1000 Table Z-Shipyards 3.5 mg/m3 TWA NIOSH Immediately Dangerous To Life or Health Concentration (IDLH): 1750 mg/m3
Specifications - microAeth Model AE51, Page 1 of 1, Oct 2010, Rev 061101 Cowper StreetBerkeley, CA 94702tel +1 510.845.2801fax +1 510.845.7137www.mageescientific.comMeasurement PrincipleReal-time analysis by measuring the rate of changein absorption of transmitted light due to continuouscollection of aerosol deposit on filter. Measurement at 880nm interpreted as concentration of Black Carbon (‘BC’).Measurement Range0-1 mg BC/m3, filter life time dependent on concentrationand flow rate setting:avg. 5 μg BC/m3 for 24 hours @ 100 mL/minavg. 100 μg BC/m3 for 3 hours @ 50 mL/minavg. 1 mg BC/m3 for 15 min @ 50 mL/minMeasurement Resolution0.001 μg BC/m3Measurement Precision±0.1 μg BC/m3, 1 min avg., 150 mL/min flow rateMeasurement Timebase (User setting)1 second, 1 minute or 5 minuteFlow Rate (User setting)Internal pump provides 50, 100, or 150 mL/min, monitoredby mass flow meter and stabilized by closed-loop control.Sampling3 mm spot created on filter ticket containing insert ofT60 Teflon-coated borosilicate glass fiber filter material.PM2.5 size selective inlet available.ConsumablesFilter ticket: 1 filter ticket per sampling event, typicallyone per day.Data Storage4 MB internal flash memory, providing up to 1 month datastorage when operating on a 5 minute timebase, and 1week when operating on a 1 minute timebase.CommunicationsUSB connectivity to Windows®-based PC withmicroAethCOM, or data stream via digital output throughmini USB port (command protocols can be supplied).Data OutputInternal data files are uploaded to microAethCOM PCsoftware and stored on local disk.PC SoftwaremicroAethCOM software is included. Provides visualinterface including real-time BC mass concentrationvalues. Facilitates settings configuration, calibrationroutines, downloading data, and uploading newinstrument firmware.Dimensions4.6 in (117 mm) L x 2.6 in (66 mm) W x 1.5 in (38 mm) DWeightApproximately 0.62 lbs (280 g).PowerInternal rechargeable lithium-ion battery.Power Supply AdapterInput: 100~240 VAC 50/60 Hz 0.2 AOutput: 5VDC / 0.5ACharging Time4 hours to full charge (using AC adapter, instrumentturned off).Total Run Time (single battery charge)Minimum 24 hours @ 5 minute time base at 100 mL/minflow rate.Operation Environment0 ~ 40 °C operating, non-condensing.Aethalometer®microAeth® Model AE51Product SpecificationsSpecifications are subject to change without notice.
11-Nov – Strange because of large # of ships and small BC levels12-Nov – Strange because of # of ships and large BC levels13-Nov – Looks good15-Nov – Strange because of large # of ships and very small BC levels16-Nov – Looks good (mostly)17-Nov - Strange because of # of ships and large BC levels
4 Cruise ships total between 11/13/10 and 11/14/10.
No cruise ships between 11/22/10 and 11/23/10.
No cruise ships since 11/27/10.
Cruise Control: Cruise Ships Influencing the City of Venice
Cruise Control <br />The Impacts of cruise ships on the city of Venice.<br />Shane<br />Bellingham<br />Cortney<br />Davis<br />Chris <br />O’Brien<br />Erin <br />Saari<br />
Ships vs. Passengers Europe<br />2009<br /><ul><li> Ships increased 40%
Passengers increased 194%</li></ul>5 million Passengers<br />2000<br />1.7 million Passengers<br />85 Ships<br />119 Ships <br />
Air Quality Conclusions<br />BC >> @ night and morning<br />BC levels directly correlate with the presence of cruise ships and ferries<br /><ul><li>Levels are significantly higher but would not violate OSHA regulations</li></li></ul><li> Impact:<br />Vibrations<br />Hydrodynamics<br />Mobility<br />Air Quality<br />Levels would not violate US regulations<br />Buses most popular 39%<br />Boats most advertized<br />4.5 times increase in BC level<br />Phone not sensitive enough<br />Vibrations present<br />Confirmed ISMAR<br />
https://sites.google.com/site/ve10ships/<br />Email:email@example.com<br />Venice Project Center<br /><ul><li>Address: San Polo 1932/A Fondamenta de le Tette Venice, 30125 ITALY