The Red Deer is one of the largest deer species. The Red Deer inhabits most of Europe, the Caucasus Mountains region, Asia Minor and parts of western and central Asia. The Red Deer is the fourth largest deer species behind moose, elk (wapiti), and sambar deer. It is a ruminant, eating its food in two stages and having an even number of toes on each hoof, like camels, goats and cattle.
The male Red Deer is typically 175 to 230 cm long and weighs 160 to 240 kg ; the female is 160 to 210 cm long and weighs 120 to 170 kg. Only the stags have antlers which start growing in the spring and are shed each year, usually at the end of winter. Antlers are made of bone which can grow at a rate of 2.5 cm (1.0 in) a day. During the autumn, all Red Deer subspecies grow a thicker coat of hair which helps to insulate them during the winter. Autumn is also when some of the stags grow their neck manes. It is in the autumn/winter coat that most subspecies are most distinct.
The brown bear is a large bear distributed across much of northern Eurasia and North America. It can weigh from 300 to 780 kilograms . Brown bears are massively built and heavy bodied animals. They have a large hump-like mass of muscle on their shoulders, which, coupled with their long claws, provide brown bears with a great digging ability. Brown bears have very large and curved claws, those present on the forelimbs being longer than those on the hind limbs.
They are omnivores and feed on a variety of plant products, including berries, roots, and sprouts, and fungi, as well as meat products such as fish, insects, and small mammals. Despite their reputation, most brown bears are not highly carnivorous, as they derive up to 90% of their dietary food energy from vegetable matter.
They use their agility and speed combined with extremely powerful talons to snatch up prey including rabbits, marmots, ground squirrels, and large mammals such as fox, wild and domestic cats, mountain goats, ibex, and young deer. They will also eat carrion if prey is scarce, as well as reptiles. Birds, including large species up to the size of swans and cranes as well as ravens and Greater Black-backed Gulls have all been recorded as prey. They have even been known to attack and kill fully grown roe deer.
The Ring Ouzel is omnivorous, eating a wide range of insects, earthworms, rodents, lizards and berries. It nests in bushes or amongst rocks, laying several pale blue eggs, mottled with brown, in a neat cup-shaped nest. It is territorial and normally seen alone or in pairs, although loose flocks may form on migration. When not breeding, several birds may also be loosely associated in good feeding areas, such as a fruiting tree, often with other thrushes.
The adult male is all black except for a white crescent on the breast and a yellowish bill. The wings have a silvery appearance due to white feather edgings. The male sings its loud and mournful song from trees or rocks.The female is similar but duller, and younger birds often lack the breast crescent. The juvenile has brown plumage .
The European Otter's diet mainly consists of fish. However, during the winter and in colder environments fish consumption is signiﬁcantly lower and the otters use other sources for their food supply. This diet can include birds, insects, frogs, crustaceans and sometimes small mammals, including young beavers.
Female otters are sexually mature between 18 and 24 month old and the average age of first breeding is found to be 2.5 years old. Gestation for the L. lutra is 60–64 days, litter weight when being compared to the female body mass is about 10%. After the gestation period one to four pups are born, which remain dependent on the mother for about 13 months. The male plays no direct role in parental care, although the territory of a female with her cubs is usually entirely within that of the male.
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi is a small procumbent woody groundcover shrub 5-30 cm high. The leaves are evergreen, remaining green for 1–3 years before falling. The fruit is a red berry . The leaves are shiny, small, and feel thick and stiff.
They are alternately arranged on the stems. Undersides of leaves are lighter green than on the tops. New stems can be red if the plant is in full sun, but are green in shadier areas. Older growth stems are brown. In spring, they have white or pink flowers .
A spruce is a tree of the genus Picea a genus of about 35 species of coniferous evergreen trees in the Family Pinaceae, found in the northern temperate and boreal (taiga) regions of the earth. Spruces are large trees, from 20–60 metres (66–200 ft) tall when mature, and can be distinguished by their whorled branches and conical form.
The needles, or leaves, of spruce trees are attached singly to the branches in a spiral fashion, each needle on a small peg-like structure called a pulvinus. The needles are shed when 4–10 years old, leaving the branches rough with the retained pulvinus (an easy means of distinguishing them from other similar genera, where the branches are fairly smooth) .
It ’ s a medium-sized deciduous tree growing to 10–25 m tall, with a trunk up to 1 m diameter. The bark is pale greenish-grey and smooth on young trees with dark grey diamond-shaped lenticels, becoming dark grey and fissured on older trees. The flat petiole allows them to tremble in even slight breezes, and is the source of its scientific name.
The leaves on seedlings and fast-growing stems of root sprouts are very different, heart-shaped to nearly triangular, and often much larger, up to 20 cm long; their petiole is also less flattened. The flowers are wind-pollinated catkins produced in early spring before the new leaves appear; they are dioecious, with male and female catkins on different trees.
Most maples are trees growing to 10–45 metres (30–145 ft) in height. Others are shrubs less than 10 metres tall with a number of small trunks originating at ground level. Most are shade-tolerant when young, and are often late-successional in ecology; many of the root systems are typically dense and fibrous.
The flowers are regular, pentamerous, and borne in racemes, corymbs, or umbels. They have four or five sepals, four or five petals about 1–6 mm long , four to ten stamens about 6–10 mm long, and two pistils or a pistil with two styles. Maple flowers are green, yellow, orange or red. Though individually small, the effect of an entire tree in flower can be striking in several species. Some maples are an early spring source of pollen and nectar for bees .
Blackberries are perennial plants which typically bear biennial stems ("canes") from the perennial root system. The flowers are produced in late spring and early summer on short racemes on the tips of the flowering laterals. Each flower is about 2–3 cm in diameter with five white or pale pink petals.
In its first year, a new stem, the primocane, grows vigorously to its full length of 3–6 m, arching or trailing along the ground and bearing large palmately compound leaves with five or seven leaflets; it does not produce any flowers. In its second year, the cane becomes a floricane and the stem does not grow longer, but the lateral buds break to produce flowering laterals .