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Women And Democracy In The Philippines
 

Women And Democracy In The Philippines

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    Women And Democracy In The Philippines Women And Democracy In The Philippines Presentation Transcript

    • Women and the Democracy Project Prof. Lourdes Veneracion-Rallonza, PhD Department of Political Science Ateneo de Manila University
    • Points of Inquiry recurring patterns/practices of Philippine politics and how these have neglected women from the narrative of the country’s political history; political participation of women both in the realms of formal and informal power within the context of the experience of democracy in the Philippines; and feminist inferences on the connection between the democracy project in the Philippines and women’s political participation
    • Discursive Significance mitigate politics of exclusion feminist re-reading of the Philippine democracy to include all arenas where women are located and have contributed - traditional (i.e. involvement in the revolutionary/anti- colonial struggle, suffragist movement, civil society actions, electoral politics) - non-traditional political domain (i.e. exercising gendered roles daughters, wives, mothers) weaving women’s stories along with the depiction of institutional structures, the societal practices and norms
    • Patterns in Philippine Politics The Philippine political system, though democratic, is characterized as largely elitist. It operates on a clientelist tradition where the patron-client system figures prominently. The breeding ground and the strongest root of this clientelism is the family – more specifically, the political families reigning in dynastic continuity and clustered into clans. Political families largely form the elite base of Philippine politics and their major instruments are both political and economic power (Veneracion-Rallonza 2003)
    • Interestingly, it is the very practice of elite democracy, familial/kinship politics, and patron-client system that enabled women to struggle and negotiate space for their inclusion in the practice of politics, both through the use of informal and formal power. (Veneracion-Rallonza 2008)
    • Formal Politics/Power: Contesting the State Suffragist Movement National Political Party of Women Malayang Kilusan ng Bagong Kababaihan (MAKIBAKA) Association of Women in Theology (AWIT) Kapisanan ng mga Madre sa Kamaynilaan Women in Media Now (WOMEN) Samahan ng Kababaihang Manggagawa sa Pilipinas Kilusang Manggagawang Kababaihan Alliance of Women for Action towards Reconciliation (AWARE) Samahan ng Malayang Kababaihan GABRIELA
    • Formal Politics/Power: Political Space and Dynamics within the State (Electoral Politics) VOTERS TURNOUT RATES BY SEX 1947-1992 100.00 90.00 80.00 70.00 60.00 Men (%) % 50.00 Women (%) 40.00 30.00 20.00 10.00 - 47 49 51 53 55 57 59 61 63 65 67 69 70 71 78 80 81 82 84 86 87 88 92 95 98 01 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 20 YEAR Figure 9.1 (p.224)
    • Formal Politics/Power: Political Space and Dynamics within the State (Electoral Politics) Number of Women in the Philippine Senate and House of Representatives from 1946 to 1987 Position Number of Women Elected Number of Positions to be Filled Election Year 1946 Congresswoman 1 8 1947 Senator 1 8 1949 Congresswoman 1 100 1953 Congresswoman 1 102 1955 Senator 1 8 1957 Congresswoman 1 102 1961 Senator 1 8 Congresswoman 2 104 1963 Senator 1 8 1965 Senator 1 8 Congresswoman 6 104 1967 Senator 2 8 1967 Senator 0 8 Congresswoman 3 109 1971 Senator 1 8 1978 IBP M ember 9 165 1984 M ambabatas Pambansa 10 181 1987 Senator 2 23 Total 63 1284 Table 9.1 (p.225)
    • Formal Politics/Power: Political Space and Dynamics within the State (Electoral Politics) Women Elected to Public Office Executive Branch: National 1987-1992 1992-1998 1998-2004 2004-2010 Woman Man Woman Man Woman Man Woman Man President 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 Vice President 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 Women Elected into Public Office, Legislative Branch: National 8th Congress 1987- 9th Congress 1992- 10th Congress 11th Congress 1998- 12th Congress 2001- 13th Congress 2004- 1992 1995 1995-1998 2001 2004 2007 W M W M W M W M W M W M Senators 2 22 4 20 4 20 4 20 3 19 4 19 Representatives 19 195 23 192 23 192 27 193 36 175 37 200 TOTAL 21 217 27 212 27 212 31 213 39 194 41 219 % 9% 91% 11% 89% 11% 89% 13% 87% 17% 83% 16% 84%
    • Formal Politics/Power: Political Space and Dynamics within the State (Electoral Politics) Women Elected into Public Office: Executive at the Local Government Level 8th Congress 9th Congress 10th Congress 11th Congress 12th Congress 13th Congress[1] 1987-1992 1992-1995 1995-1998 1998-2001 2001-2004 2004-2007 EXECUTIVE W M W M W M W M W M W M Governor 4 69 5 68 9 67 13 62 15 59 15 64 Vice Governor 8 66 No Data No Data 13 89 9 69 10 67 6 73 Mayor 118 1460 101 1459 129 1469 233 1374 241 1394 293 1366 Vice Mayor 96 1495 No Data No Data 132 1465 179 1428 192 1356 232 1377 Sub Total 226 3090 106 1527 283 3090 434 2933 458 2876 546 2880 % 7% 93% 6% 94% 8% 92% 13% 87% 14% 86% 16% 84% [1] Data based on the COMELEC tally as of March 2005. To date, there are still some areas where the final count has not been declared.
    • Formal Politics/Power: Political Space and Dynamics within the State (Electoral Politics) Women Elected into Public Office: Legislative at the Local Government Level 8th Congress 9th Congress 10th Congress 11th Congress 12th Congress 13th Congress[1] 1987-1992 1992-1995 1995-1998 1998-2001 2001-2004 2004-2007 LEGISLATIVE W M W M W M W M W M W M Provincial Board 62 564 68 579 76 601 93 629 120 607 102 514 City/Municipal Council 1305 11101 1644 11408 1840 11423 2141 10570 2198 10457 1718 8283 Sub Total 1367 11665 1712 11987 1916 12024 2234 11199 2318 11064 1820 8797 % 10% 90% 12% 88% 14% 86% 17% 83% 17% 83% 17% 83% TOTAL 1593 14755 1818 13514 2199 15114 2668 14132 2776 13940 2366 11677 % 10% 90% 12% 88% 13% 87% 16% 84% 17% 83% 17% 83% [1] Data based on the COMELEC tally as of March 2005. To date, there are still some areas where the final count has not been declared.
    • Formal Politics/Power: Political Space and Dynamics within the State (Electoral Politics) Trending of Women Elected into Public Office: Executive and Legislative at the National and Local Levels 17% 13th Congress 2004-2007 83% 17% 12th Congress 2001-2004 83% TOTAL NATIONAL & LOCAL 16% 11th Congress 1998-2001 84% Women Men 13% 10th Congress 1995-1998 87% 12% 9th Congress 1992-1995 88% 10% 8th Congress 1987-1992 90%
    • Formal Politics/Power: Political Space and Dynamics within the State (Electoral Politics) Party-list system -1998, six groups under category of ‘women sector’ (Woman Power, Abanse Pinay!, Ang Bagong Pilipina, Babayi, National Councl of Women in the Philippines, & Gloria’s League of Women) participated; only Abanse Pinay! won a seat in Congress - 2001, women as party-list representatives did not come from a women’s political party (Akbayan and Bayan Muna) - 2004, two groups ran under the banner of women’s concerns (Gabriela Women’s Party & Abanse Pinay!); Gabriela ranked 7th while Abanse Pinay ranked 33rd Dividing rather than consolidating the ‘women’s vote’
    • Formal Politics/Power: Political Space and Dynamics within the State (Politics of Law- Making) Women-Related Bills Filed in the Bicameral Legislature: Comparison of the 11th and 12th Congresses 11th Congress[1] 12th Congress[2] Senate 101 or 6.2% (out of 1627) 197 or 6.7% (out of 2957) House of Representatives 108 or 1.4% (out of 7706) 168 or 2.3% (out of 7389) TOTAL 209 or 2.2% 365 or 3.5% [1] The bills reflected here are those that were filed during the 1 st regular session of the 11th Congress covering 1 July 1998 to 3 June 1999. For this period, a total of 9,333 bills were filed from the Senate and the House of Representatives. [2] The bills listed here are those filed for the whole duration of the 12 th Congress or from 2001 to 2004. A total of 10,346 bills were filed in the bicameral legislature.
    • Formal Politics/Power: Political Space and Dynamics within the State (Politics of Law- Making) Tabulation of Women-Related Legislations Passed into Law: From the 8th to the 12th Congress: By Categories 8th Congress 9th Congress 10th Congress 11th Congress 12th Congress Total per 1987-1992 1992-1995 1995-1998 1998-2001 2001-2004 Category Education/Training 2 2 - - - 4 Girl-Child - 1 - - 1 2 Health 3 5 - - 1 9 Human Rights 2 - 2 2 3 9 Institutional Mechanisms 2 - - - - 2 Media - - 2 - - 2 Violence Against Women 2 2 2 1 1 8 Women in Armed Conflict - - - - - - Women in Poverty/Economy/Work 6 5 4 - 1 16 Women in Power and Decision- 1 1 - 1 3 Making Total per Congress 18 16 10 3 8 55
    • Formal Politics/Power: Political Space and Dynamics within the State (Interface of Electoral Politics and Law-Making) Women in National Legislature vis a vis Pro-Women Laws: From the 8th to the 12th Congress 20% 30 18% 25 16% 14% 20 12% Women in National 10% 15 Legislature 8% Pro-Women Laws 10 6% 4% 5 2% 0% 0 8th Congress 1987- 9th Congress 1992- 10th Congress 1995- 11th Congress 1998- 12th Congress 2001- 1992 1995 1998 2001 2004
    • Formal Politics/Power: Political Space and Dynamics within the State (Politics of Critical Engagement) Women’s groups/organizations - socio-civic oriented (Francisco 1998) - activist oriented (Francisco 1998) - sector, issue, ideology, and research/resource organizations (Reyes 1992) Challenge of diversity
    • Informal Politics/Power: Political Participation thru Women’s ‘Traditional’ Role Ceremonial ‘duties’ of wives Standing by ‘my man’ Heir of the ‘political torch’ Anti-thesis to male dictator
    • Some Feminist Reflections nominal participation of women in the electoral exercise; women in power is not equivalent to empowerment of women in society; men are trapped in women’s bodies; and women’s organizations have not escaped the sorry state of Philippine politics