Defining The State And The People


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Defining The State And The People

  1. 1. Conceptualizing the STATE and the PEOPLE Prof. Lourdes Veneracion-Rallonza, PhD Department of Political Science Ateneo de Manila University
  2. 2. Some philosophical constructs on the ‘state’…  PLATO: arises out of man’s lack of self-sufficiency  ARISTOTLE: man, a political animal, is intended to live in a state (polis)  ST. THOMAS AQUINAS: the state is given by God to aid man in his pursuits of eternal life  MACHIAVELLI: basically a power system, an instrument of the prince to have, maintain and expand power  HOBBES: a product of a contract and with the parties’ consent  LOCKE: an institution agreed upon by free, equal, independent, and rational men in order to secure the natural rights of men  ROUSSEAU: the only thing that can legitimize the chains that men have acquired, and it is only through the state that men could have true freedom
  3. 3. Historical Predecessors of the modern state…  CITY STATE: a small polity located in the Mediterranean during the time of ancient Greece (e.g. Athens, Sparta)  EMPIRE: internally fragmented & ethnically heterogeneous, being composed of numerous culturally distinct tribal societies which converges on the center city (e.g. Roman)  PATRIMONIAL STATE: organization of royal (i.e. ruled by the king)household in w/c the structure of authority developed w/ the territorial expansion of royal jurisdiction
  4. 4.  MEDIEVAL STATE: transformation of feudalism into rule by centralized, medieval states; power centers were the king & the church  ABSOLUTIST STATE: transformation of political space into the idea of territoriality (e.g. England, France)  LIBERAL CONSTITUTIONAL STATE: 19th century development where the state is founded on the consent of the rule; state’s power must be legitimated
  5. 5. The State…  After the institutionalization of the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648, it became the dominant political organization in international politics.  A legal concept; as a physical entity, its basically a place that has the following elements: People Territory Government sovereignty
  6. 6. The importance of national interest…  Variable national interests  Fixed national interests: Well-being security existence
  7. 7. What defines the ‘people’?  Culture or the sense of belongingness/identity consciousness as powered by religion, language, customs/traditions and historicity.  Citizenship or the sense of valuing the people in the society (rights) and the sense of obliging them to return something back to society (duties)
  8. 8. Citizenship as Rights: Human Rights are…  HR are inherent to or part of the human person;  HR are inalienable, thus, they cannot be taken away from anybody; and  HR are universal; they are not limited by boundaries and are recognized by humankind
  9. 9. Basic Principles of Human Rights…  Equality – all persons are equal regardless of sex, religion, race, creed, political belief, etc.  Collective rights – HR enjoyed by the whole society  State guarantee – the government has the responsibility of protecting and defending HR
  10. 10. Classification  Civil rights or those granted to private individuals for the purpose of securing the enjoyment of their right to happiness  Social & Cultural rights pertain to a person’s freedom to benefit from her/is capacity for learning and transferring knowledge to succeeding generations
  11. 11. Classification  Economic rights are intended to ensure the well-being and economic security of the individual  Political rights pertain to rights to participate actively in governance
  12. 12. Citizenship as Duties: Basic duties of citizens…  Love of country  Defense of the (Philippine) state  Upholding the Constitution and obeying the laws  Contribution to the development and welfare of the country  Cooperation with duly-constituted authorities  Responsible exercise of rights and respect the rights of others  Election of good leaders in government
  13. 13. How is citizenship acquired?  Modern law recognizes three distinct ways of acquiring citizenship: 1. Jus sanguinis - or Law of the Blood. Under this principle, children acquire the citizenship of their parents. 2. Jus soli - or Law of the Soil. Under this principle, children acquire the citizenship of the place of birth. 3. Naturalization - the legal act of adopting an alien as a citizen.
  14. 14. Distinguishing between citizenship and nationality  Citizenship bound to  Nationality bound to a territorial state group of people  Implies symbiotic  Implies the politico- relationship between cultural (historicity, people and state language, tradition)  A practice, a form of relationship between belonging, resting on a state and the people set of legal, social &  Serves as a legal identity participatory from w/c no rights need entitlements (w/c may be arise but obligation might conferred irregardless of nationality)