Dassalami Baseline Survey Analysis

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  • 1. Baseline Survey:Dassalami Soce HealthNeeds AssessmentV e n c h e l e S a i n t D i cH e a l t h P r e v e n t a t i v e E d u c a t o rB . P . 7 7 K a r a n g S e n e g a l , W e s t A f r i c aV e n c h e l e s 2 3 @ g m a i l . c o mW e d n e s d a y , M a r c h 2 0 , 2 0 1 3
  • 2. Page 1 of 21INTRODUCTIONDassalami Soce is a village located in the Fatick region, in the rural community of Toubacoutaof the Foundiougne department. It accounts for a population of 826 Muslim habitants of thefollowing ethnicities:Mandinkas, Sereers, Peuls, Toucouleurs, Bambaras and Diolas. TheMandinkas are the predominant ethnic group in the community.The major illnesses at Dassalami are diarrhea, respiratory infections, conjunctivitis, childbirthcomplications, chickenpox, minor wounds and cephalous infections. The health hut serves morethan 1240 individuals including two surrounding villages, Saroudia and Boutilimite.Based on the current necessities of Dassalami Soce,I administered a baseline survey to men andwomen aged10-59 years old and mothers of children aged 0-5 years old from November 28th2012 to January 21st2013. The purpose of the survey was to examine the needs and trends ofliving in Dassalami,and analyze the discrepancies between thecurrent needs and resources of thepopulation. This report will provide a health overview of the results of the survey on mosquitonet usage, safe water and latrine access, handwashing knowledge, equipped handwashingstations, maternal and child health, diarrhea, mother and child nutrition, family planning andyouth development on sexual education. I anticipate the results will provide insights to mycommunityon potential programs that can be implemented to alleviate the village’shealthchallenges.METHODOLOGYA community meeting was organized to explain the purpose of the baseline surveytwo monthsbefore its implementation. The first step was the translation of the survey from French to Mandinkafrom November 3rdto November 8th2012, by using wording that minimized miscommunicationbetween the interviewer and the participants. Then, a Mandinka speaker who wasknowledgeableabout the community, Fatou Sarr, was selected to explain the questions appropriate to the literacyand educational level of the participants. Thus, we anticipated for this strategy to increase thevalidity and reliability of the answers provided on the survey. This baseline survey was the first tobe overseen in Dassalami Soce.On November 28th2012, a simple random strategy was devised to calculate the sampling size ofhouseholds that would be interviewed for the survey. Dassalami Soce accounts for 826 habitants in403 family households.The household number was then divided by 12 giving us a total of 34households to visit. But, in order to reduce selection bias and convenience sampling bias, we visitedevery third household which reduced the number to 26 households to be statistically significant atthe community level.
  • 3. Page 2 of 21The administration of the survey lasted for two months.The survey was characterized by a series ofstructured interviews including open/closed and multiple questions coupled with indirectobservations.We surveyed 133 men and women aged 10-59 years old and mothers of 65 childrenaged 0-5 years old. The average length of the interview ranged from 2 hours 75 minutes for largefamilies to 15 minutes in small families. In order to receive quality data, we were careful that ourmeeting dates never coincided with any previously or routinely scheduled activities in thecommunity, including festivities and work in the fields. We visited two to three households dailyand the interviews were scheduled at 5pm when the women and men would return from work in thefields. When exiting the interview, we counted the houses to be visited the next day and informedthe participants of our arrival.The participants were read informed consent including the following information: the purpose ofthe survey, risks to the study participant, including physical, social, and emotional, benefits to thestudy participant and community, including, if necessary, a statement that there are none,information on confidentiality of the data collected as well as the questions and questionnaires,including the use of identifiers and access to personal data, information regarding withdrawal fromthe study without any penalty and information on study procedures and duration.This was done toinform and empower family households to make a voluntary decision about whether or not toparticipate in the study.The survey questions measured specific knowledge on mosquito net usage, safe water and latrineaccess, handwashing knowledge, equipped handwashing stations, maternal and child health,diarrhea, mother and child nutrition, family planning and youth development on sexual education.The objective was to obtain an overview of the health challenges of the community and to identifywith indirect observation the causes of these challenges. Excel spreadsheets were used to enter datafor all the surveys, to identify errors or inconsistencies that might have been overlooked. It alsoensured that the correct number of data surveys was entered in the system matching the appropriatequestion codes. This facilitated the data cleaning and analysis of the survey results. Data entry wascompleted on January 31st2013.
  • 4. Page 3 of 21RESULTSMALARIA PREVENTION:MOSQUITO NET USAGEHE170: Number of individuals who slept underan ITN the previous night.The family households were asked on mosquitonet usage for each individual. Out of 85 peoplewho reported they slept under mosquito nets, themajority of responses camefrom individuals18+yrs old and mothers ofinfants aged 0-5yrsold. 71 percent of the individuals aged 18+ yrsreported they did not sleep under a mosquito netversus 55 percent who reported they slept undera bed net.39 percent of the motherswith infantsaged 0-5yrs reported their children slept undermosquito nets compared to 22 percent whoreported their children did not sleep under bednets(see table 1).Thenumber of children aged 0-5yrs old sleeping under mosquito nets is 14 times lowerthanthenumberof individuals 18+yrs old who sleep under bednets. This suggests that moreadvocacies should be taken in the healthstructures on mosquito net usage forchildren of pregnant and lactating womenyear-round. The number of children aged6-14yrs old sleeping under mosquito netsis 42 times lower than the number ofindividuals aged 18+ yrs sleeping underbednets (see table 1). The percentage ofindividuals aged 18+yrs who slept undermosquito nets is 16 times lower than theones who did not sleep under mosquitonets.This may suggests that school officialsand teachers need to emphasize more on theusage of mosquito nets in schools in villages.The results were further analyzed by gender toidentify the vulnerable groups who are notusing mosquito nets. The number of women
  • 5. Page 4 of 21who slept under bed nets is greater than men. Paradoxically, the percentage of women who didnot sleep under mosquito nets is 38 times lower than men. 88 percent of women includingpregnant women sleptunder bed nets compared to 12 percent of men (See table 2). Thepercentage of men who slept under mosquito nets is 76 times lower than women who sleptunder bed nets. This suggests that more fundingat the health structures should be allocated toorganize campaigns promoting the use of mosquito nets to women and men. Overall, of 126individuals interviewed for the survey, 67percent of households sleep under mosquito netscompared to 33percent who do not sleep under bed nets (see table 3).Next, the mothers of infants aged 0-5yrs old were asked if their childrenwho had diarrhea slept undermosquito nets. Of 104 mothers whowere interviewed about their childrenhaving diarrhea, 22 percent reportedthat the children who had diarrheaslept under bed nets as opposed to 78percent who reported their childrendid not have diarrhea and did notsleep under bednets (See table 4).Out of 104 mothers interviewed, 11children who had diarrhea slept underbed nets versus 2 children who haddiarrhea and did not sleep under bednets. Then, there were8 children whodid not have diarrhea and did notsleep under bednets. Overall, morechildren who had diarrhea slept undermosquito nets than those who didnot. The graph showing the totalcases of diarrhea for the fiscal year of2012 shows the upward and downward trend of the rate of diarrheal diseases across seasons. Thehighest peaks of diarrhea cases are seen mostly in the months of February, July and October.Those results suggest more sensitization on diarrhea and the importance of handwashing and theuse of mosquito nets to mothers during these months. This alsoindicates the financial means ofcertain families whoare able to purchase mosquito nets further creating a gap between peoplewho can or cannot afford mosquito nets for their households.
  • 6. Page 5 of 21SAFE WATER ACCESSAND LATRINE ACCESSHE62: Safe Water Access: Number of people in household having access to clean, safe drinkingwaterHE67: Latrine Access: Number of people who have access to an improved latrineThe families were asked about theavailability of clean water andfunctional latrines in their households.Of the 52 people interviewed in 26households, there were more peoplewho did not have safe water andlatrine access. Respectively, 40percent of the population did not havesafe water access which explains the reason 100 percent of the households do not have safewater to cook with, explaining the dysentery issues and skin infections children face in thevillage (See Table 5 &6). The percentage of households who do not have latrine access is 46times higher than the ones who do have access to latrines (See table 5). Those figures imply theconstruction of new latrines for families and finding ways to clean the water source of thevillage whether it is through the installation of faucets in the community. As a result, this woulddecrease the rate of diarrhea and skin infections children have in Dassalami Soce.HANDWASHINGHE70: Handwashing-Improved Knowledge: Number of people who can identify 3 or morecritical times when they must wash their hands, and 3 examples of appropriate hand etiquette
  • 7. Page 6 of 21Family members were asked to identify key times to wash their hands with soap. Seven out offifty people aged 50+ reported two or more handwashing times. The number of handwashingtimes reported by people ranging from ages 50+ and 18-24yrs is 40 times lower to the number ofhandwashing times reported by individuals aged 25-49yrs old (see table 7). 70 percent of peopleaged 25-49yrs old reported two or more handwashing times. 100 percent of individuals aged50+ reported one or no handwashing times compared to the rest of the age groups.Thesestatistics imply there should be causeries on handwashing at the village level. We should alsoaim to target the age groups 50+ and 18-24 yrs because younger children have the tendency tolook up to older adults. If the adults do not wash their hands, the children will follow theirbehaviors and this further increases diarrheal and dysentery diseases.The results were furtherused to evaluate whetherthe people who had usedcleaning agents such assoap were able to identifythe key times to wash theirhands. 65 percent of peopleaged 25-49yrs who hadused soap for washing theirhands had the highesthandwashing reportingtimes compared to the othergroups (See table 8).Thenumber of individuals aged18-24yrs and 50+yrs whohad used soap is eight timeslower than the individualsaged 25-49yrs old.
  • 8. Page 7 of 21Moreover, the percentage of individuals aged 50+ yrs who reported two or more handwashingtimes is 86 times lower than those who reported one or no handwashing time. The percentage ofindividuals aged 18-24yrs and 50+yrs who reported two or more handwashing times is 35 timeslower to the reporting times of the individuals aged 25-49yrs (See table 8). The people aged lessthan 18 yrs old had the lowest reporting rate of using soap and handwashing times compared tothe other age groups. This further recommends that schools should be included in promoting theimportance of handwashing to children.EQUIPPED HANDWASHING STATIONSHE 72: Number of households having soap or ash or another disinfecting material) and safewater for proper handwashing at a hand washing station commonly used by family membersDuring the interview, it wasobserved that 73 percent ofindividuals in family householdsdo not have soap and safe waterfor proper handwashing at ahandwashing station compared to27 percent who do have access tosoap for proper handwashing at ahandwashing station (See table 9).MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTHHealthy Pregnancy and Safe DeliveryHE94 (Four Antenatal Visits): Number of mothers with infants <12 months reporting that theyhad four or more antenatal visits during pregnancy.Lactating and pregnant mothers were asked about the number of antenatal visits they hadattended at the nearest health hut or health post. The total number was 54 antenatal visitscombined for the 11 mothers. Out of 11 households with pregnant/lactating mothers, the averagenumber is 5 antenatal visits.Birth PlanHE96: Numbers of mothers with infants <12 months reporting they had a birth plan thatincluded arrangement for HIV testing, giving birth in a facility, exclusive and immediatebreastfeeding, and emergency transportation
  • 9. Page 8 of 21Skilled Birth AttendantHE97: Number of mothers with infants <12months reporting that their births were attended by askilled attendantThese motherswere askedabout the birthplan they used before the arrival of their newborns. Out of the 11 mothers with infants less than12 months old, 82 percent planned for arrangement for HIV Testing, giving birth in a facility,exclusive and immediate breastfeeding and emergency transportation compared to 18 percent ofwomen who planned some of these or none before the birth of their newborns (See table 10).When the data was examined by age group to assess the groups of mothers who did or did nothave a birth plan, 67 percent of women aged 25-49yrs had a birth plan versus 100 percent of therest of the women whodid not have a birth plan (See table 11). This further suggests that healthstructures should ensure the complete coverage of pregnant women during and after thepregnancy due to lack of information and financial means.The age group 18-24yrs old had the lowest percentage among the other groups to have a birthplan. The percentage of women aged 25-49 yrs old who answered that they planned forarrangement for HIV Testing,giving birth in a facility, exclusiveand immediate breastfeeding andemergency transportation is 33
  • 10. Page 9 of 21times lower than the ones who reported planning some or none of these tasks before the birth oftheir infants. Those results recommend more causeries and campaigns, especially with women intheir early twenties, to help them have a birth plan during their pregnancy. Dassalami Soce hasa health hut and 100 percent of the births are attended by a skilled birth attendant, the matroneand the health agent (ASC) of the community (See table 12). Overall, more women in their mid-twenties and early fifties did not have a birth plan prior to giving birth than the rest of thewomen who had a birth plan.IMPROVED CHILD HEALTHNewborn Care- Knowledge of symptoms requiring urgent care: Number of women who are ableto identify 2 or more signs or symptoms indicating the need to seek immediate care for thenewbornThe mothers were then asked if they could identify symptoms that would require them to bringtheir infants to the health post or health hut. About 76 percent of women aged 25-49yrsidentified three or more symptoms which would lead them to seek immediate care for theirnewborns versus 80 percent who only reported one symptom or no symptom that would leadthem to seek immediate care for their newborns. The age group 15-17yrs had the lowestreporting rate of three or more danger signs to seek care for their newborns compared to theother age groups (See table 13). The percentage of women aged 25-49yrs old who reported threeor more symptoms which would lead them to seek immediate care for their newborns is 4 timesless than those who either reported one or no symptoms. In conclusion, more mothers reportedless than two symptoms that would signal them to take their children to the health post or healthhut.Post-natal Visits: Number of mothers of infants <12 months reporting that their infant received apost-natal visit from a trained health worker within two days of their birth
  • 11. Page 10 of 21Mothers were asked if they hadreceived post-natal visits within twodays of the birth of their infants. 75percent of mothers aged 18-24yrsold with infants less than 12 monthsold reported that they did not receivea post natal visit from a trainedhealth worker within two days oftheir birth compared to 25 percent ofmothers aged 25-49yrs. Moremothers aged 25-49yrsreported they received a post-natal visit from a trained health workerwithin two days of the birth of their children compared to 14 percent of mothers aged 18-24yrsold. More mothers from the age group 25-49yrs reported that they received a post-natal visitfrom a trained health worker within two days of the birth of their children compared to 25percent of mothers who reported they did not receive a visit (See table 14). This problem couldbe alleviated if they increase the number of matrones in the health facilities to help mothersprepare for the birth of their infants.About 75 percent of mothers aged 18-24yrs reported that they did not receive a post natal visitfrom a trained health worker within two days of the birth of their children compared to 14percent of mothers who reported that they received a visit. Of 11 mothers interviewed, 7 statedthat their infant received a post-natal visit within two days of birth compared to 4 mothersreporting their infant did not receive a post-natal visit from a trained health worker (See table14).In general, more mothers reported post-natal visits within two days of the birth of theirchildren than those who did not receive any visit from a trained health worker.DIARRHEAHE140: Number of children aged 0-59 months who had diarrhea since the last reporting period,whose mothers reported that they received either oral rehydration therapy, or increased fluidsand those they continued to give them foodORS Solution IntakeThe mothers who answeredthat their children haddiarrhea were asked if thechildren received OralRehydration Drink (ORS).
  • 12. Page 11 of 21Out of the infants aged 0-59 months, the age groups most affected with diarrhea were the infantsaged 0-5 months and 24-59 months. The number of mothers who reported most that their infantsdid not have diarrhea were infants aged 24-59 months. The infants aged 24-59 months weregiven more ORS solution compared to the other age groups. The infants most affected withbouts of diarrhea and who were not given ORS was aged 0-5 months. The infants aged 0-5months and 24-59 months had the highest percentage of having diarrhea compared to the otherage groups (See table 15). The mothers of the infants aged 24-59 months who had diarrhea hadthe highest percentage of ORS intake compared to the other age groups. The second highestgroup compared to the infants aged 24-59 months who had high percentage of diarrhea and toreceive ORS were infants aged 12-23 months (See table 15). This would suggest healthstructures to allocate more resources to relais in villages to hold causeries with mothers ongiving ORS to children with diarrhea. As a result, it would decrease infant mortality rate causedby dehydration.Breastfeeding FrequencyThen, the mothers were asked how frequently they breastfed their children when they haddiarrhea. This was not applicable to the children aged 24-59 months because they stoppedbreastfeeding. Coincidentally, the mothers with children aged 24-59 months had the highestnumber of children who did not have diarrhea. The mothers who continued to breastfeed theirchildren during diarrhea were less across all age groups. In 31 percent of the infants aged 0-5months who had diarrhea, 50 percent of the mothers responded they breastfed them at the samerate or they increased breastfeeding than usual (See table 16).In 15 percent of infants aged 6-11months who had diarrhea, 100 percent of the mothers reported they breastfed less than usualcompared to 23 percent of children aged 12-23 months who had diarrhea, and 50 percent of theirmothers reported they breastfed them more than usual.
  • 13. Page 12 of 21Water IntakeSubsequently, the mothers were asked about the water intake of their children during diarrhea.The children aged 24-59 months were given more water than usual compared to the other agegroups. The number of mothers who reported that they gave water to their children was less forinfants aged 0-5 months, 6-11 months and 12-23 months (See table 17). In 31 percent of infantsaged 0-5 months who had diarrhea, 50 percent of mothers reported the infants received the sameamount of water because most of them were breastfed. These children received water from thebreastmilk. In 23 percent of children aged 12-23 months who had diarrhea, 50 percent ofmothers reported they received less or the same amount of water than usual. In 31percent ofchildren aged 24-59 months who had diarrhea, 57 percent of mothers reported the childrenreceived more water than usual.
  • 14. Page 13 of 21Food IntakeThesequestionswere followed by inquiries on the amount of food children received during diarrhea. In 31percent of infants aged 0-5 months who had diarrhea, 67 percent of mothers reported theygavethem the same amount of food as usual. In 15 percent of infants aged 6-11 months who haddiarrhea, 33 percent of mothers reported they gave them less food than usual (See table 18). In23 percent of infants 12-23 months who had diarrhea, 33 percent of mothers reported they gavethem less or the same amount of food as usual. In 31percent of children 24-59 months who haddiarrhea, 57 percent of mothers reported they gave them more food than usual.VaccinationsHE142: Number of children aged 12-23months who completed their WHO requiredimmunizations (BCG, DPT3, OPV3, and one measles vaccine) by 12 months of ageIn total, there are 52 children aged 12-23 months who have had the WHO requiredimmunizations (See table 19). Nevertheless, the percentage of children vaccinated is still in thelow ten percent in Dassalami Soce. This may imply that the health structures should ensure full
  • 15. Page 14 of 21health coverage of children. If they are going to organize vaccination campaigns, the health staffshould adapt information on the vaccinations based on the educational level of families.FAMILY PLANNINGContraceptive KnowledgeHE99: Number of women who are able to identify at least two methods of modern contraceptionWomen were asked about theirknowledge on methods ofmodern contraception. Out of17 women who were asked toidentify at least two methodsof modern contraception, 53percent of them were able toidentify them versus 29 percentwho did not identify any methods of modern contraception (See table 20). This further suggeststhe need to engage women more in causeries on family planning and facilitate their access tothese methods of contraception such as birth control pills.The responses were viewed bygender and it was found that100 percent of womendid notknow any methods of moderncontraception. 78 percent ofmen could identify at least twomethods of moderncontraception compared to 22percent of women.Furthermore, 75 percent of women could not identify at least two methods ofmodern contraception compared to 25 percent of men (See table 21).Overall, the percentage ofwomen who could not identify at least two methods of modern contraception was 50 timeshigher than men; and the percentage of men who could identify at least two methods of moderncontraception was56 times higher than women.When the results are viewed byage, it was found that 55 percentof youths less than 15 yrsold didnot report any methods ofcontraception followed by adults
  • 16. Page 15 of 21aged 25-49 yrs old. Out of all the age groups, 89 percent ofadults aged 18-24yrs were the onlyones to identify one or more methods of contraception compared to youthsaged less than 15 yrsold (See table 22). Overall, the percentage of adults aged 18-24 and 25-49yrs who could identifyat least two methods is 78 times higher than those who are less than 15 yrs old. Then, thepercentage of youths less than 15 yrs old who did not report any methods of contraception was10 times higher than those who are 25-49yrs old.Warning Signs during PregnancyHE91: Number of mothers who are able to identify 2 or more warning signs during pregnancyindicating the need to seek immediate care with a providerOut of the 48 mothers who were asked to identify warning signs during their pregnancy thatbrought them to the hospital, 76 percent of mothers aged 25-49yrs reported 2 or more warningsigns where they sought immediate care with a provider compared to 24 percent of mothers aged18-24yrs (See table 23). 50 percent of mothers aged 25-49yrs reported one or no warning signsduring their pregnancy indicating the need to seek care compared to 33 percent of mothers aged18-24yrs. Of all the age groups, the mothers aged 15-17 yrs had the lowest percentage ofreporting one or no warning signs during their pregnancy. Overall, the percentage of mothersaged 18-24 yrs who reported two or more warning signs during their pregnancy are 9 timeslower than those who either reported one or none.NUTRITIONNutritional Diversity
  • 17. Page 16 of 21HE7: Number of adults who reported eating at least 3 servings of fruits and vegetables and oneprotein/animal source of food (egg, dairy, meat, fish, poultry, lentils, beans) in the day precedingthe assessmentWhen women and men were asked if theyate at least 3 servings of fruits and vegetables and oneprotein/animal source of food (egg, dairy, meat, fish, poultry, lentils, beans) in the day precedingthe assessment, 87 percent of females reported not eating at least 3 servings of fruits andvegetables and one protein source compared to 13 percent of men (See table 24). In contrast, 75percent of females reported eating at least 3 servings of fruits and vegetables and one proteinsource compared to 25 percent of men. Overall, more women than men reported not eating atleast 3 servings of fruits and vegetables and one protein/animal source of food (egg, dairy, meat,fish, poultry, lentils, beans) in the day preceding the assessment and 100 percent of females didnot know if they consumed at least 3 servings of fruits and vegetables and one protein/animalsource of food. These statistics perhaps recommend that the health structures should be moreinvolved in showing the importance of the nutritional values in food for women and men at thecommunity level.Out of 79 people interviewedin 26 households, 67 percentof them reported they ate atleast three servings offruits/vegetables and oneportion of protein/animalsource of food (egg, dairy,meat, fish, poultry, lentils,beans) in the day precedingthe assessment versus 29 percent who reported not eating these servings of food.IMPROVED INFANT AND YOUNG CHILD FEEDING PRACTICES
  • 18. Page 17 of 21Exclusive BreastfeedingHE112: Number of infants <12 months of age with a mother reporting their child wasexclusively breastfed (may have received vitamins, minerals, medicines or ORS, but no otherfood or liquid including water) for the first six monthsOut of 48 mothersinterviewed on exclusivebreastfeeding for childrenless than 12 months old, 32answered that these infantsneeded breast milk only and13 answered that infants lessthan 12 months of ageneeded breast milk and otherfood for the first six months.Respectively, 58 percent of mothers stated that infants aged 6-12 months needed breastmilk onlyand 42 percent of mothers stated that infants aged 0-5 months needed breastmilk only (See table26). Out of 13 mothers who were interviewed, 100% of mothers stated that infants aged 0-5months needed breastmilk only. Overall, the percentage of mothers who believe infants 0-5months need breastmilk and other food is 58 times higher than the mothers who believe infants0-5 months only need breastmilk. No mothers reported that infants 6-12 monthsneededbreastmilk and other food.Weaning Practices KnowledgeHE114: Improved Knowledge: Number of women who are able to identify three optimalcomplementary feeding practices using locally available foodsWhen mothers were asked to identify complementary feeding practices for their children, 77percent of mothers aged 25-49 yrs reported two or more complementary feeding practices using
  • 19. Page 18 of 21locally available foods compared to 23 percent of mothers aged 18-24yrs. The percentage ofmothers aged 15-17 yrs who reported one or no complementary feeding practices was 60 timeslower than the mothers aged 18-24yrs and 25-49yrs (See table 27).Of all the age groups, mothers aged 25-49 yrs had the highest percentage in identifying two ormore complementary feeding practices for their children. Next, the percentage of mothers aged18-24 yrs who identified two or more complementary feeding practices was 17 times lower thanthe ones who reported one food or none. It is suggested that more sensitization should be done atthe community level to incite men and women to cultivate a variety of foods. This increases thechoices of foods they provide to their children. Also, it would be recommended to reach out toNGOs who may work on nutrition projects in respective regions.Under 5 Nutrition KnowledgeHE118: Number of women who are able to identify at least two foods that provide essentialnutrients needed during childhood (<5years old) for good child developmentWhen the mothers were asked about the nutrient foods they could give their children, the womenaged 25-49yrs had the highest percentage of identifying two or more foods that provide essentialnutrients needed during childhood (<5 years old) for good child development. 33 percent ofwomen aged 15-17yrs and 18-24 yrs reported one type of food or none that provide essentialnutrients needed during childhood (See table 28). The women aged 25-49 yrs reporting on foodsthat provide nutrients were 58 times higher than those who are 18-24yrs old. Finally, thepercentage of women aged 18-24yrs who have identified two or more foods that provideessential nutrients was 12 times lower than the ones who reported one food or none.
  • 20. Page 19 of 21YOUTH DEVELOPMENTYouth Improved KnowledgeHE42: Number of youth who can identify at least one behavior to prevent unwanted pregnancyor prevent STIsOut of 25 adolescents who were interviewed about behaviors to prevent unwanted pregnancyand STIs, 91 percent of youths aged 18-24yrs old identified one or more behaviors to preventunwanted pregnancy or prevent STIs. The percentage of youths aged 18-24 yrs old whoidentified one or more behaviors was 81 times higher than the youths aged less than 15 yrs oldand 15-17yrs old. 100 percent of youths less than 15 yrs old did not identify one or morebehaviors to prevent unwanted pregnancy or prevent STIs. Overall, the percentage of youths lessthan 15 yrs old who identified one or more behaviors was 95 times lower than the ones who didnot report any behaviors. This may suggest more causeries to encourage parents to openly talkabout sex education to their children. It also would be helpful to value sexual education startingfrom elementary schools and to continue organizing campaigns on the subject toward youngadults.
  • 21. Page 20 of 21When the results were examined by gender, it was found that 70 percent of females identifiedone or more behaviors to prevent unwanted pregnancy/STIs compared to 30 percent of men. Bycontrast, 80 percent of females could not identify behaviors that prevented unwantedpregnancy/STIs compared to 20 percent of men. The percentage of men who reported one ormore behaviors was 10 times higher than those who did not report behaviors; andthe percentage of women who reported one or more behaviors to prevent unwantedpregnancy/STIs was 10 times lower than those who did not report any behaviors. Thesequestions concluded the baseline survey administered in Dassalami Soce.CONCLUSIONIn many Senegalese communities, men, women and adolescents continue to be marginalizedgroups in the access to health services. I administered this survey with the successfulcollaboration of my community, Dassalami Soce, to gain an understanding on the discrepanciesbetween the health needs and resources available to the population.The survey measuredspecific knowledge on mosquito net usage, safe water and latrine access, handwashingknowledge, equipped handwashing stations, maternal and child health, diarrhea, mother andchild nutrition, family planning and youth development on sexual education. The results pointedout to potential programs and/or training that can be put in place to alleviate the community’sdrawbacks. Some future suggestions could be to reinforce the health structures to provideessential information on the prevention of health diseases, primarily targeting the women andyouths of rural communities.I hope permanent solutions are found to these endemic healthproblems with the continued collective work of health authorities, to attain the country’s healthobjectives in the international realm.