Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
  • Like
Human resource development_learning___training_for_individuals___organizations_9780749443528
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Now you can save presentations on your phone or tablet

Available for both IPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Human resource development_learning___training_for_individuals___organizations_9780749443528

  • 6,848 views
Published

 

Published in Business , Education
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
6,848
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
230
Comments
1
Likes
2

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Page iHUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT
  • 2. Page iiThis page intentionally left blank
  • 3. Page iiiHUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT2nd editionLEARNING & TRAINING for individuals & organizationsEdited by John P WilsonImage
  • 4. Page ivFirst published in 1999Reprinted 2001, 2004A part from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism orreview, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, this publicationmay only be reproduced, stored or transmitted, in any form or by any means, with the priorpermission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic in accordance withthe terms and licences issued by the CLA. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside theseterms should be sent to the publishers at the undermentioned address:Kogan Page Limited120 Pentonville RoadLondon N1 9JN© Kogan Page, 1999The right of the individual authors to be identified as the authors of this work has beenasserted by them in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Act 1988.British Library Cataloguing in Publication DataA CIP record for this book is available from the British LibraryISBN 0 7494 3050 8Typeset by Saxon Graphics Ltd, DerbyPrinted and bound by Antony Rowe Ltd, Chippenham and Eastbourne
  • 5. Page vDedicationCharles Handy (1990:63) stated that, I am more and more sure that those who are in lovewith learning are in love with life. For them change is never a problem, never a threat, justanother exciting opportunity. To all those trainers, trainees, delegates, managers, HRDspecialists, consultants, advisors, researchers, lecturers and support staff who are involvedwith learning and change–may you all remain in love with learning and in love with life.
  • 6. Page viThis page intentionally left blank
  • 7. Page viiContentsList of Figures xiiiList of Tables xvList of Case Studies xviList of Contributors xixForeword by Rt HonDavid Blunkett MP xxiiiPreface xxivAcknowledgements xxviiSection One: The Role of Learning, Training andDevelopment in Organizations1. Human Resource Development John P Wilson 3Introduction and learning objectives 3Defining the terms: training, education, development, learning 4and HRDStrategic HRD 11The operating environment of the Human Resource 13departmentThe Human Resources compass 15HRD roles 19Conclusion 212. Strategy and Training and Development Sue Balderson 27Introduction and learning objectives 27The case for strategic HRD 28Strategy and strategic HRD 30
  • 8. Page viiiThe problem with strategy 33Strategy and HRD–an historical context 35Value chain analysis 35Conclusion 403. Human Resource Management John Shipton 43Introduction and learning objectives 43Origins and development of HRM 44HRM: the search for meaning 47Where is HRM coming from? 47Hard and soft HRM 49Implications for action 53Conclusion 574. Organizational Change Bland Tomkinson 61Introduction and learning objectives 61The paradox of change 62The nature of change 63Methods to make the transition 64What can go wrong? 70The role of HRD in organizational change 74Conclusion 755. The Learning Organization: A Critical Evaluation Rob Poell 77Introduction and learning objectives 77Definition and characteristics of the learning organization 78Criticism of the concept of the learning organization 84An alternative view of the learning organization 85Conclusion 866. National Economic Development and Human Resource 89Development John P WilsonIntroduction and learning objectives 89Developing the human resources of a nation 90Human development 105Conclusion 111Section Two: The Identification of Learning, Trainingand Development Needs7. The Identification of Organizational and Individual Training 117and Development Needs Richard PalmerIntroduction and learning objectives 117Defining training and development 118Undertaking a TNA 119
  • 9. Needs at the organizational level 121Needs at the departmental level 125
  • 10. Page ixNeeds at occupational levels 128Needs at the individual level 130Defining the training priorities 133Conclusion 1358. Performance Management and Human Resource 137Development Alan CattellIntroduction and learning objectives 137What is performance management? 138The effectiveness of performance management 143Performance appraisal 153Conclusion 1639. Making the Most of Consultancy: Perspectives on 169Partnership David SawdonIntroduction and learning objectives 169Purpose and meaning 170Perceptions and needs 172Process and power 174Partnership 178Section Three: The Planning and Designing ofLearning, Training and Development10. Fundamentals of Adult Learning Chris Wiltsher 185Introduction and learning objectives 185Learning 186The learning process 186Levels of competence 190Adults and adulthood 192Styles of adult learning 195Why, what, how and practice 200Conclusion 20211. The Adult Learner: Theory into Practice Janet Parr 205Introduction and learning objectives 205Adult learning 206Motivation and learning 207Andragogy 208Humanist theories 209Barriers to learning 215Conclusion 21912. Reflective Practice Cheryl Hunt 221Introduction and learning objectives 221
  • 11. The reflective practitioner: Donald SchÖn 223
  • 12. Page xModels and loops 224Reflection-in-action 227Social context 230Putting reflection into practice 234Personal experience 23513. Workplace Diversity and Training–More Than Fine Words 241Joan E KeoghIntroduction and learning objectives 241Equal opportunities and managing diversity–what is the 242difference?The business case 244Training for diversity 248Is the educational approach enough? 251The law 253Towards a learning organization? 254Conclusion 254Section Four: Delivering Learning, Training andDevelopment14. Open, Distance and Flexible Learning Geoff Chivers 263Introduction and learning objectives 263From teaching to learning 264Distance learning 266Open learning 270Flexible learning 273Issues for the learner in ODFL 274Issues for ODFL providers 276The corporate open learning centre 278Conclusion 28215. Design and Use of Group-based Training Methods Colin 285Beard and Maggie McPhersonIntroduction and learning objectives 285Group training methods 287Selecting methods 288Emotion and learning 296Play and fun 301Using materials creatively 304Conclusion: the future of training methods 30416. The Selection, Design and Use of Individualized Training 307Methods Maggie McPherson and Colin Beard
  • 13. Introduction and learning objectives 307Multimedia for education 308
  • 14. Page xiMultimedia for training 311Multimedia conferencing 314Virtual reality training 316The A–Z of training methods 49017. Multilingual and Multicultural HRD A Ibarz 327Introduction and learning objectives 327Multilingual training and development 328Language in the communication age 330Language training in HRD 332English as the lingua franca 334Theories of language learning 335Teaching and training methods 337The management of language training 340The good language learner 343The new technologies 344Multicultural/cross-cultural learning 346Conclusion 34818. Management Training and Development: Problems, 351Paradoxes and Perspectives Dominic Irvine and Colin BeardIntroduction and learning objectives 351What do we mean by management? 352What do we mean by development? 359Perceptions of management training and development 363Techniques of management training and development 366Evaluating the effectiveness of management training and 368developmentKey issues to consider 369Conclusion 371Section Five: Assessment and Evaluation of Learning,Training and Development19. Evaluation and Assessment Cathie Edwards 377Introduction and learning objectives 377Key terms 379Contemporary approaches to evaluation 381Contemporary approaches to assessment 387Conclusion 39120. Total Quality Training and Human Resource Development 393Ron Chapman and John P WilsonIntroduction and learning objectives 393
  • 15. Quality 394Best practice benchmarking 399
  • 16. Page xiiQuality control and quality assurance 404Quality awards 405Total quality training and development 409Conclusion 49021. Accounting for the Human Resource Development 417Function Chris WiltsherIntroduction and learning objectives 417The need for formal accounting 418Costing 422Auditing 428Conclusion 432Section Six: Managing the Human ResourceDevelopment Function22. Managing the Human Resource Development Function 490Pete SayersIntroduction and learning objectives 435Management and leadership of the HRD function 437Control and facilitation–coaching and supportiveness 441Principles and values 443Strategic vs operational decision-making 445Further points for managers of a team of HRD professionals 451Conclusion 45223. Marketing Human Resource Development Jennifer Joy- 490Matthews, Ian Andrews and Richard FirthIntroduction and learning objectives 455Why market? 546Who and where are the customers and how do we know what 458they need?How do we reach the customers? 462How do we keep the customers? 468Evaluating the whole marketing process 469The way forward, or what you can do 47224. Supporting Learning in the Third Millennium Rita Johnston 475Introduction and learning objectives 475The nature of trends and predictions 477Life and work in the third millennium 478Society and work in the third millennium 482Learning needs in the third millennium 484The HRD manager in the third millennium 490
  • 17. Summary–the importance of sustainability 493Bibliography 495Index 519
  • 18. Page xiiiList of FiguresFigure 1.1 The role of the HRD department within the internal 14and external environmentFigure 1.2 The human resource compass 16Figure 2.1 The classic training cycle 28Figure 2.2 Business objectives within a training cycle (adapted 29from Winter, 1995)Figure 2.3 Strategy and HRD 34Figure 2.4 A strategic HRD approach 38Figure 2.5 Value chain boundaries 39Figure 6.1 The education, training and development economic 97spiralFigure 8.1 A simple model of a performance management 142systemFigure 8.2 Combining HRM and HRD 151Figure 8.3 Competence-based model of performance 152managementFigure 8.4 Appraiser preparation (from a model originally used 156by the former Bradford and Airedale College of Health–nowthe University of Bradford School of Health Studies)Figure 8.5 Appraisee preparation 157Figure 9.1 The four roles of a consultant, after Margerison 173(1995: 5)Figure 10.1 Levels of competence 190Figure 10.2 Kolbs experiential learning cycle 191Figure 10.3 Bloom et als taxonomy of learning 199
  • 19. Page xivFigure 11.1 Maslows hierarchy of needs 211Figure 11.2 Critically analysing experience 213Figure 11.3 The learning spiral 214Figure 12.1 Single-loop learning 226Figure 12.2 Double-loop learning 226Figure 13.1 The diversity progression 244Figure 13.2 Managing diversity: pressures forcing action by 245employersFigure 14.1 The teaching–learning system continuum 271Figure 15.1 Design and sequencing of training methods 292Figure 17.1 The communication process 331Figure 17.2 Factors that contribute to effective interaction 332between L1 and L2 speakersFigure 19.1 The training wheel 381Figure 20.1 The EFQM/BQF award assessment model: people, 407processes and resultsFigure 20.2 Overview of the Investors in People standard 412–13Figure 20.3 The TQM process 414Figure 22. 1 Management and leadership–two concepts linked 437in overlapping circlesFigure 22.2 The relationship between role power and personal 442powerFigure 22.3 Blanchard et als (1986) situational leadership 442with Sayers and Matthews mapping of role power andpersonal powerFigure 22.4 Three tiers of operation for HRD 445Figure 24.1 Twenty current buzzwords in training and 479development
  • 20. Page xviList of Case StudiesChapter 2Value chain for the Unipart Group of Companies 37The Unipart Group of Companies (UGC) Ltd 39Chapter 3People management and business performance 45Managing People training for oil industry engineers in East Asia/Australia 52Chapter 4Training and change in an Irish pharmaceutical company 71Chapter 5Improvement teams in a Dutch electronics company 81Work-based learning projects in a night school 83Chapter 6Bahrain model for boosting training and human resources 93Institutional development of local NGOs in Mali, West Africa 106Development in Malaysia 109
  • 21. Page xviiChapter 7Broadening the scope of TNAs in non-governmental organizations in Mali 120TNA and competences in the Prison Service 123Ford Motor Companys Employee Development and Assistance Programme 132Chapter 8The psychological contract operates in both directions 147Appraisal and training in a private hospital 154Chapter 9Consulting in a health care environment 172Post-traumatic stress disorder and bank raids 175Chapter 10Negotiation training for an NHS Trust 201Chapter 11Personal factors and learning 211Chapter 13Trecare NHS Trust: managing diversity 246Training checklist for diversity 252BT and diversity 255Chapter 14Television and training–big changes for small firms 267Offshore open learning 272Computer-based training in accountancy 280Chapter 15Negotiating public access to the UK countryside: skills practice section of a 294three-day training courseCreative training design: research methodology training 298Play and fun: coffee and Sunday papers–playing with the literature 302Visualization, reality and simulation in learning–tree-felling indoors! 303Chapter 16University library–Hartlib Papers hypermedia demonstrator project 309Liverpool John Moores University 310ESCOM CBT 312Telemedicine: The Royal College of Surgeons 316The Volkswagen Group–virtual reality training 317
  • 22. Page xviiiChapter 17A successful language learning experience 333Knoll Pharmaceuticals 341Chapter 18Outdoor management development programmes 367British Trust for Conservation Volunteers 370Chapter 19Evaluation of training using the focus group method, Kirkpatricks four 384levels and the CIRO frameworkChapter 20Benchmarking structured managerial training and development at 401Dairygold, IrelandChapter 23David Matthews: freelance outdoor pursuits instructor and trainer 457Pinderfields & Pontefract Hospitals NHS Trust 461The Biotechnological and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) 467International Youth Hostel Federation (IYHF)–Hostel 2000 470Case study revisited: David Matthews, outdoor pursuits instructor and 473trainer
  • 23. Page xixList of ContributorsIan Andrews runs a successful training and consultancy business developing solutions topeople-based issues in a broad range of organizations. A member of the IPD, he offersbusiness realism gained from fifteen years working with all levels in organizations, andcurrent academic thinking through his association with Sheffield Business School.Colin Beard is a senior lecturer at Sheffield Hallam University. He is a writer and trainerspecializing in HRD, particularly environmental training, management training, creativity andinnovation. He has developed and launched the worlds first Outdoor ManagementDevelopment Masters Degree. He is a Fellow of the IPD.Sue Balderson is a principal lecturer at De Montfort Universitys graduate School ofBusiness. Previously an HRD practitioner in the NHS, Sue is now involved with nationalmanagement education and development programmes in that sector, as well as workingwith some blue chip private sector companies.Alan Cattell is the Staff Development Manager and a Lecturer at the University of BradfordSchool of Health Studies. He is also Chair of the North Yorkshire Branch of the Institute ofPersonnel and Development.
  • 24. Page xxRon Chapman worked originally as a refractory engineer and has been involved in diversefields of training from the installation of refractory materials in Africa to hotel managementin Cornwall. He came to the University of Sheffield in 1995 and worked closely withProfessor Chivers in the adult learning field.Geoff Chivers is Professor of Continuing Education at the University of Sheffield. He hasplayed a leading role in university-level continuing vocational education for 25 years. He isparticularly concerned with the relationship between formal and informal learning, and therole of open and distance learning.Cathie Edwards is a lecturer in Continuing Education at the University of Warwick. Shewas formerly Course Director for the MEd in Training and Development at the University ofSheffield. Her current research interests include cross-cultural issues in collaborativenetworked learning, and learning assessment and evaluation.Richard Firth has experience and qualifications in construction. He has worked in the NHSadvising on organizational training issues and supporting change. Since 1996 he has beenmanaging the training for a large, acute, NHS Hospital and working as a freelancedeveloper with organizations from the public and private sectors.Cheryl Hunt originally trained as a psychologist and has taught in education and training.She has developed a module on reflective practice for use in continuing professionaldevelopment, and published widely. She is currently Honorary Secretary of the StandingConference on University Teaching and Research in the Education of Adults.A Ibarz is a lecturer in modern languages at the Division of Adult Continuing Education,the University of Sheffield. His research interests include learner autonomy, assessment,and the teaching and learning of languages on-line.Dominic Irvine is a Senior Consultant for Pembroke Management Development. Dominichas worked with numerous multinational companies, public sector and voluntaryorganizations. He has a background in research in both human resource development andstrategic management. Dominic has also worked in the leisure industry in a variety ofdifferent countries.Jennifer Joy-Matthews is Course Leader for the MSc in Human Resource Managementand Human Resource Development at Sheffield Business School. She has designed anddelivered training events in the UK, Central America and the Pacific Rim. Jenny is currentlyresearching issues around cognition. She is a Fellow of the IPD.
  • 25. Page xxiRita Johnston is Senior Lecturer in Education Management at the University of Bath. Shehas taught and researched human resource management on five continents and co-authored two books. She designed and Directed the first taught Masters Degree in Trainingand Development in the UK, for which she received a National Training Award.Joan E Keogh is a consultant in the areas of job evaluation and payment systems. Shelectures in employment law, including discrimination at Sheffield Hallam University, DeMontfort University, and the University of Sheffield. She is a member of ACAS and wasawarded the OBE for services to Industrial Tribunals.Maggie McPherson has a background in software training and holds a MSc in IT &Learning. She was responsible for the development of the Hybrid Manager MA ITManagement programme, and currently manages all aspects of the course offered by theDepartment of Information Studies at the University of Sheffield.Richard Palmer has twenty-five years HR experience within the food, aerospace andengineering industry. He has worked extensively in training and Total Quality and haswritten a book of training activities for Total Quality. He has a first degree in Business andLanguages and a Masters in Training and Development.Janet Parr lectures in Education, Training and Development at the University of Sheffieldon a distance learning Masters Degree, offered in the UK, Eire and Singapore. She beganher studies as a mature student and is passionately interested in the experiences of maturewomen students at all levels of learning.Rob Poell is Assistant Professor of HRD at the University of Nijmegen, The Netherlands.His specific interest is in Workplace Learning. In 1999 the Academy of HRD granted him theMalcolm S. Knowles Dissertation of the Year Award for his PhD thesis Organizing Work-Related Learning Projects: A Network Approach.David Sawdon is an independent training consultant, mental health social worker, and anassociate tutor with the Master of Education, Training and Development. These differentemployment roles provide complementary perspectives and experience, and he hasparticular interests in the management of diversity, quality assurance, team developmentand action learning.Pete Sayers is Staff Development Adviser at the University of Bradford. He started hiscareer as a teacher of English as a Second Language and helped organizations with inter-cultural communication and implementing equal opportunities policies. He operates as aninternal consultant assisting the University through a period of complex change.
  • 26. Page xxiiJohn Shipton, after a career in human resource management as both a practitioner andhigher education lecturer, is now a freelance consultant and tutor. His recent researchinterests are in the area of small firm development. He is a past Vice President of IPM andis a Companion of IPD.Bland Tomkinson is currently Director of Staff Development at UMIST, having previouslybeen Head of Personnel. Bland has held a variety of jobs in the public sector, starting inOperational Research with the Air Ministry and with the RIPA, progressing to highereducation via Corporate Planning in a local authority.John P Wilson is a lecturer in Human Resource Management at the University of Sheffield,where he directs the UK MEd in Training and Development. He has worked extensively inthe UK and abroad including two years in Sweden, and four years for an oil company inSaudi Arabia.Chris Wiltsher has worked in adult education and training since 1981. He has abackground in philosophy and his main interests are in issues of concepts and theirapplication. Having qualifications in finance, he is also interested in the problems offinancial measurement for developmental processes, such as training.
  • 27. Page xxiiiForewordIn the coming years, human capital will play an increasingly significant role in successfulorganizations and prosperous countries. People who invest time in learning earn more andincrease their chances of being in work. Organizations committed to learning are moresuccessful too. Developing a learning society is, therefore, central to our future.Human resource development professionals help promote learning so that individuals andgroups at work can perform to their full potential. I therefore welcome this book as animportant contribution to knowledge and understanding in the important field of humanresource development. I hope it will provide a platform upon which human resourcedevelopment professionals can successfully build in their work.Rt Hon David Blunkett MPSecretary of State for Education and Employment
  • 28. Page xxivPrefaceHuman Resource Development is a growing and influential discipline which is increasinglycritical to the survival and success of all organizations. This is illustrated by the concepts ofThe Learning Organization and Knowledge Organization, which demonstrate the essentialrequirement of developing all people within organizations. Furthermore, with the spread ofinformation and world-wide communications, competitive advantage based on technologymay only be maintained for short periods of time before competitors catch up. The onlysource of sustainable competitive advantage is to learn faster and more creatively thanother competing organizations, and that will only be achieved through swift and effectiveHRD strategies.The core principle of this book is to integrate both theory and practice within a virtuouscircle. Theory may be generally viewed as refined best practice, which is then fed back tothe operational level and continually tested and evaluated, thereby enhancing thetheoretical underpinnings of the discipline. Theory without practice remains just that–theory. It needs to be applied, which is why this book contains a significant number of casestudies to illustrate the application of theory to practice. It was John Ruskin, the Victorianphilosopher and naturalist who stated that, What we think, or what we know, or what webelieve is, in the end, of little consequence. The only consequence is what we do.The objective of this book is to encourage learning in individuals and organizations througha pragmatic consideration of the underlying theories and their practical application. Thebook is divided into six sections which are built around the traditional training cycle.
  • 29. Page xxvSECTION ONE: THE ROLE OF LEARNING, TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT INORGANIZATIONSChapter One begins by exploring the meaning of terms including training, education, anddevelopment thus providing the basis for a consideration of the strategic role of HRD, and adiscussion of HRM, with which it is strongly interlinked. Learning is another word for changeand Chapters Four and Five investigate the role of HRD in encouraging and supportingorganizational development. The final chapter of this section discusses the integration ofeducation and training and how they are used at national levels to encourage economicdevelopment.SECTION TWO: THE IDENTIFICATION OF LEARNING, TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENTNEEDSThe identification of training needs provides information at individual, occupational andorganizational levels for learning interventions. Similarly, performance management may beused as a mechanism for specifying and indicating developmental requirements. It is theidentification of training and development needs which often requires people to operate asinternal or external consultants and this is discussed in Chapter Nine.SECTION THREE: THE PLANNING AND DESIGNING OF LEARNING, TRAINING ANDDEVELOPMENTHow people learn and how their environment influences the learning process arefundamental considerations in the design and development of programmes for adults.Developing the skills of people to become reflective practitioners in their operational areashas proved to be a successful dimension of professional development. The final chapter inthis section investigates the issue of diversity, an area often addressed by training, and onewhich trainers need to apply to their work.SECTION FOUR: DELIVERING LEARNING, TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENTThe days of chalk and talk are mercifully much rarer than they were. Now with theavailability of Information Technology, not to forget the most useful open, distance andflexible learning
  • 30. Page 1Section One:The Role of Learning, Training and Development inOrganizations
  • 31. Page 2This page intentionally left blank
  • 32. Page 31Human Resource DevelopmentJohn P WilsonINTRODUCTION AND LEARNING OBJECTIVESHuman Resource Development (HRD) is a title which represents the latest evolutionarystage in the long tradition of training, educating and developing people for the purpose ofcontributing towards the achievement of individual, organizational and societal objectives.Unfortunately, along with its partner Human Resource Management (HRM), it has attracteda certain amount of criticism for its insensitive depiction of people as replacement partsserving the mechanistic requirements of the organization. For many lay people HRD andHRM are visualized in a similar manner to the way in which Charlie Chaplin was swallowedby the giant cogs in the machine and dehumanized in the 1936 film Modern Times.HRD, as with the title HRM, makes individuals sound rather like the nuts and bolts of anorganization that can be interchanged and dispensed with at will. To give it a more humanface Drucker suggested the term biological HRD to emphasize the living nature of thepeople within the organization; however, Webster (1990) suggests that this term gives theunfortunate impression of a washing powder.This apparently clinical approach to the involvement of people within an organization hasdeveloped as a result of numerous factors which we will consider shortly. To contextualizethis development we will first investigate some of the component elements which constituteHRD. We will begin first with definitions of training, education, development and learning
  • 33. Page 4and use these as a basis for a definition of HRD. We will then consider how HRDcontributes to strategic issues and how the various elements interrelate with HRM. Inconclusion, there is a consideration of the roles and practical competencies required ofthose in HRD.Having read this chapter you will:• understand and be able to differentiate between training, education,learning, development and HRD;• understand the relationship between HRM and HRD;• know the elements of the Human Resource Compass; and• be aware of the competencies (USA) and the competences (UK) associatedwith training and development.DEFINING THE TERMS: TRAINING, EDUCATION, DEVELOPMENT, LEARNING ANDHRDTrainingThe historical antecedents of training have contributed towards the current perception oftraining. In many crafts and guilds the purpose of training was to enable indenturedapprentices to work for a period of years under the supervision of a master craftsperson.Eventually, the apprentices learned the skills required of that occupation and would producea complex piece of work, a masterpiece, incorporating much of what they had learned.This would then enable them to become members of the specific guild. Hence, today, wehave the term Masters degree which illustrates that the person is, or should be, fullyconversant with that area.An often referred source of definitions has been the Manpower Services Commissions(1981:62) Glossary of Training Terms which defines training as:a planned process to modify attitude, knowledge or skill behaviour through learningexperience to