A Shared vision onCity Branding    In    Europe
Contents2 				      Introduction3-4			      1. Why have a city brand strategy?5-6			      2. How to build a city brand fro...
introductionU        rban development is a constantly evolving concept. Originally focused on spatial, security, andsanita...
1. WHY HAVE A CITY BRAND STRATEGY?C    ities are facing competition on an international scale. To attract inhabitants, inv...
In contrast, Karlstad developed its branding to confirm the image that people already had of thecity. In fact, it has deve...
2. HOW TO BUILD A CITY BRAND FROM A CITY IDENTITYT     here is a close link between a city brand and the identity and valu...
To strengthen its brand, the city of Zaragoza decided to use asingle slogan for all its target audiences: ‘a challenge, a ...
3. WHAT TYPE OF BRAND AND STRATEGY?W        hen developing a brand, cities need to define the strategy for the brand, incl...
The propositional brand: Aarhus wants                                  The naked brand: Manchester has been ato create a f...
4. HOW TO INVOLVE STAKEHOLDERST     he involvement of representatives not just from the city’s government, but from the pr...
The development of the ONLYLYON brand in Lyon is the resultof a partnership involving key economic and institutionalstakeh...
5. HOW TO PROMOTE THE BRANDO       nce a city brand has been developed, the next challenge is to promote and communicate i...
Events: Hosting major events can have a significantimpact on a city and its image. For events such as the OlympicGames, ev...
5. HOW TO PROMOTE THE BRANDcITY eXAMPLESAmbassador networks: For Lyon, the                                 Merchandise: Me...
Lessons learnedC    ities have a wide choice of tools at their disposal to promote their brand. The approach used will be ...
6. HOW TO MANAGE THE BRANDJ   ust as a city is constantly evolving, so the brand that reflects that city must evolve over ...
Controlling the brand: Cities controltheir brands in a variety of ways. Some cities allow everyoneto use their branding. F...
6. HOW TO MANAGE THE BRANDLessons learnedC     ity brand management can be seen as a delicate balance between ensuring eff...
conclusionC     ities today are increasingly engaging in a branding process. In the context of internationalcompetition, t...
Working group membersAarhus, DenmarkBergen, NorwayBonn, GermanyBratislava, SlovakiaBrighton, UKBristol, UKBudapest, Hungar...
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  1. 1. A Shared vision onCity Branding In Europe
  2. 2. Contents2 Introduction3-4 1. Why have a city brand strategy?5-6 2. How to build a city brand from a city identity7-8 3. What type of brand and strategy?9-10 4. How to involve stakeholders11-14 5. How to promote the brand15-17 6. How to manage the brand18 Conclusion
  3. 3. introductionU rban development is a constantly evolving concept. Originally focused on spatial, security, andsanitation issues, urban development has come to include an economic dimension, aimed at increasinga city’s attractiveness and international visibility. In a global economy, cities compete to attract talent,investors, events and tourists. To meet this challenge, cities are engaging in marketing and branding toimprove their image and position themselves on the international scene.As city branding has become a key urban development tool, city developers are faced with a multitudeof new questions: What is a city brand? How should it be developed and with whom? Whichcommunication tools should be used? How should the brand be managed?EUROCITIES established a working group on Brand Management and City Attractiveness in early2010. Chaired by the city of Lyon, and with more than 40 cities participating, the group has metin Lyon, Tampere and Valencia. These meetings have allowed city policy officers to develop theirunderstanding of city branding and to share experiences. Through a mixture of case studies, workshops,city presentations and external expert presentations, the group has discussed city brand strategy, cityidentity, brand governance and brand management, as well as practical tools for promoting a city brand.The results are presented in this good practice guide, designed to serve as inspiration for cities engagingin city branding. However, the findings presented here should not be considered as proven solutionsready for implementation in any European city. Cities are, by definition, multilayered and highlyvaried entities, where specific tailor-made policies are a prerequisite for durable long-term results. Thisguide therefore presents a collection of different solutions applied in different European cities, eachcharacterised by its own particular context.On behalf of the entire working group, it is my hope and ambition that this guide will constitute auseful resource for EUROCITIES members who are engaging in the dauntingly complex and long-termendeavor of city branding. Jean-Michel Daclin Vice-president of Grand Lyon Working Group Chair 2
  4. 4. 1. WHY HAVE A CITY BRAND STRATEGY?C ities are facing competition on an international scale. To attract inhabitants, investors, businesses and tourists, a city needs to beknown and positioned on the global map of attractive cities. A city brand strategy is an essential tool in the creation of a successful citybrand that will attract potential newcomers. Successful city branding can stimulate: increased competitiveness, resulting in a positive impact on investment, jobs, inhabitants, visitors and events; higher returns on investment in real estate, infrastructure and events; coherent city development, as the physical, social, economic and cultural aspects combine to deliver the brand promise; pride in the city as the inhabitants, businesses and institutions experience a new sense of purpose and direction.With new logos and new promotional campaigns, branding and marketing can play an important role in city development. But thequestions remain - what should the brand strategy be and what messages does the city wish to communicate?cITY eXAMPLESIn the 1980s and 1990s, Genoa saw significant changes, evolving from an industrial port into a city oftourism, services and advanced technology. In 2007, Renzo Piano, internationally renowned architectand responsible for the regeneration of the port area in Genoa, was asked to work on a new imagefor the city. He developed the idea that Genoa can be defined as an urban laboratory: a growing andchanging city that cares about its historic and artistic heritage, but is open and ready for innovation;a city which changes with its people through urban planning, to make it a place of meeting, growthand inclusion.The result is the Genoa Urban Lab logo, which has become a significant element in the city’sbranding: a simple but evocative design, characterised by the strong presence of the name Genoa,with a single colour signifying warm communication. The slogan is easy to understand and can beread at different levels: from reflecting a changing town that is experimenting with new dynamicsthrough to a laboratory that is planning for people with new urban solutions.3
  5. 5. In contrast, Karlstad developed its branding to confirm the image that people already had of thecity. In fact, it has developed its brand and logo from it’s traditional image in Sweden: ‘quality of life’.The guiding principles of this message are: an attractive growing city; a focus on people to ensure acity for everyone and a green and sustainable city. Since 1989, Karlstad’s logo has been a smiling sun,underlining its sunny position and disposition.Lessons learnedC ities often strive to develop a brand which differentiates their own city from other cities. By capturing the spirit of the city andits characteristics, branding allows a city to show its distinctive strengths, to communicate a clear message, and to attract investors,firms, tourists and events at both a local and international level.A clear city brand helps inhabitants as well as people elsewhere to understand a city’s character. For example: a brand can help to establish a new image for the city, by highlighting the city’s vision for the future; or a brand can confirm a city’s existing image, strengthening the positive points, and distracting from any negative points.Agreeing a city brand strategy as part of the brand development work is useful in: allowing cities to develop a long term vision for themselves - by thinking about what the city is, what the city wants to be, and how it wants to get there; helping cities to focus on how they wish to develop in the future; encouraging cities to think beyond their current situation in order to create new opportunities; creating a dynamic environment that will attract and retain collective or individual talents. 4
  6. 6. 2. HOW TO BUILD A CITY BRAND FROM A CITY IDENTITYT here is a close link between a city brand and the identity and values that characterise that city. A brand is built on a city’s existingstrengths: the elements that constitute the city, such as the visual, economic, psychological, and symbolic elements, as well as the aspectsthat differentiate the city from others. These characteristics are at the core of the brand strategy, the brand statement and the brandpositioning. But how should a city decide its statement and positioning? How should a city ensure a close connection between its ownidentity and the brand it wishes to develop? And how should the target audience be identified?cITY eXAMPLESIn Brighton, a significant effort has been made to develop a brand that is closely connected with key aspects of the city’s identity. As aresult, brand guidelines have been developed, including a colour palette reflecting those colours perceived to evoke the characteristicsof the city: cyan: sea, sky, calming; magenta: culture, health, femininity; purple: royal, spiritual; black: stylish, timeless.The tone of voice that reflects Brighton and its inhabitants is defined by a number of key words: energetic: to get people excited about the city; personal: speak as we would to a friend; free thinking: happy to be ourselves; informal: chat as we would over a coffee; direct: no jargon, get to the point.The brand guidelines also define the type of imagery to be used by organisations in conjunction with Brighton’s branding.5
  7. 7. To strengthen its brand, the city of Zaragoza decided to use asingle slogan for all its target audiences: ‘a challenge, a city’.This pro-active slogan emphasises that if you have a challenge,Zaragoza is the city for you, and that the city is united by the wayit welcomes a challenge. The rationale behind this slogan is that itenhances the brand image and brand values of the Zaragoza citybrand. This unique tagline answers two needs: it brings citizenstogether in a common purpose and it attracts businesses andinvestment to Zaragoza.Lessons learnedT here is a very close link between a city’s identity and its brand. At best, a city brand reflects the city’s core values and characteristics.The brand message may also point to future aspirations and perspectives, while at the same time being rooted in the true story of thecity. Cities need to be aware of the risk of creating too wide a gap between the brand message and reality. Ideally, cities should be ableto first demonstrate a characteristic, then communicate it.To be successful, city branding is often a long-term process, and should involve key local stakeholders, in a highly structured process.This allows all stakeholders to take responsibility for each stage, and also enables sufficient time to develop a brand that truly reflects acity’s identity and values.In building a brand, it is important to agree on the target audience, one or several, and to prioritise these targets along with anytimescales. It is also vital to prepare a schedule for the process; and if the process is ongoing, this allows a city to focus on differenttargets at different stages. The many different components that can be linked to a city brand can be thought of as part of a ‘brandingtool box’: they can be soft elements, such as slogans, colours, tone of voice or words, or hard elements, such as landmark buildings orurban planning actions. 6
  8. 8. 3. WHAT TYPE OF BRAND AND STRATEGY?W hen developing a brand, cities need to define the strategy for the brand, including the key messages, the objectives, and thetarget audiences. With a brand deeply rooted in a city’s identity, there are several branding options. For example: the fully architectured brand: the brand has a logo and a slogan with a precise meaning that creates an image and is highly memorable; the propositional brand: the brand is a statement of, and a proof of, the positioning of the city; the naked brand: the brand is the city itself, and the marketer has to change people’s perceptions of the city.Whatever brand selected, it is important to keep the message simple, and based on the true strengths of the city.cITY eXAMPLESThe architectured brand: Before the The brand has been used to promote Munich for the 2006 Football2006 Football World Cup, Munich decided to build a city brand World Cup, for the city’s anniversary celebrations, and to promotefor use in a variety of ways. The city began by defining a set Munich as an international city with a policy of sustainability.of requirements for the brand: for example, it should be quick Munich decided to use both English and German versions of theto create, self-explanatory, cover all facets of the city, build on slogan: the local language makes it easier for citizens to be part ofrecognised symbols, be intelligible to an international audience, the promise, while English ensures a wider understanding of thebe suitable for public relations and media relations, use the city message and an international dimension.as a medium, work in all kinds of media, and allow for partnerintegration. The selected brand slogan: ‘Munich loves you‘ reflects these requirements. Design features and imagery were then generated to capture Munich’s core characteristics: quality of life and leisure time; excellent networks, economic and scientific; hospitality, tolerance and a cosmopolitan outlook; dynamic with high-achieving sports.7
  9. 9. The propositional brand: Aarhus wants The naked brand: Manchester has been ato create a flexible brand which can convey different aspects of pioneer in the branding process. In its evolution from an industrialthe city. However, like most cities, there are challenges involved. past to a knowledge-based, creative present, the city has achievedFor example, the overall theme could be: ‘a modern knowledge a renaissance with new values, new events and new partnerships,city’, with several sub-brands showing that the city is more all beneath ambitious, consistent leadership. The idea of a nakedthan simply knowledge. It may be difficult for a large group brand is based on the understanding that the brand of a city isof stakeholders to agree to one unique brand and one unique the city itself: Manchester. The role of the brand ‘gatekeeper’ isstrategy. If a small group of main stakeholders takes the decisions, to understand the values of the brand and to communicate themother partners may be alienated and may therefore not support effectively in order to change the assumptions and perceptionsthe brand. However, if the decision-making group is too big, that are associated with the city in the minds of the targetdecisions may take longer, and the brand may become too broad audience. The city’s values and brand promises are embodied inin scope to create sufficient impact. Choosing between a focused the name itself and can be verified by simply walking through thebrand or a broader inclusive brand is a challenge that most cities city’s streets, meeting Mancunians and doing business in the city.face when developing their brand. Lessons learnedW hatever the brand strategy or the type of brand, a city needs to deliver on its brand promise. A city brand may be built on onesimple message that focuses, for example, on a particular aspect such as tourism; or the brand may deliver several messages. In eithercase, it is vital that the city can provide the benefits and experiences associated with the chosen branding, to deliver the promise andensure brand credibility.For the development of a city brand, different types of brand strategies are emerging: the umbrella brand strategy, which delivers a flexible brand that can convey different aspects of the city, such as its economic, touristic and cultural aspects; the glocal brand strategy, which consists of a global statement combined with a local positioning, based on clear local aspects; the global brand strategy, which focuses on the brand as a global reference, such as the name of the city, enriched with elements of design that reflect the values of the city, its energy, pulse and positioning.Developing a brand strategy from scratch can be challenging. It requires a significant communications programme to bring stakeholderstogether, prior to the brand creation. Media planning is a key success factor in reaching stakeholder target audiences. In addition,strong city assets have to be defined, described in detail, and suggested for inclusion, because the brand strategy is more about evokingan attractive environment than providing a set of clear promises. The real test for the brand will be the feelings and responses of thetarget audience while they are actually in the city. 8
  10. 10. 4. HOW TO INVOLVE STAKEHOLDERST he involvement of representatives not just from the city’s government, but from the private sector, tourism and civil society,is fundamental to constructing and maintaining a successful city brand. This stakeholder involvement needs to meet a number ofrequirements: partnership: the stakeholder representatives need to work together using a partnership approach, to ensure buy-in and brand credibility; leadership: the stakeholders partners need strong leadership to overcome any internal differences and to ensure progress and effective decision making; continuity: continuity is fundamental in both the partnership and in the leadership, to ensure a long-term strategy and brand durability; shared vision: stakeholders must share a vision for the future of the city if they are to formulate a clear brand strategy; action-based implementation: to implement the brand strategy and create the brand, stakeholders must agree an appropriate set of actions at each stage.cITY eXAMPLESFor the city of Tampere, the involvement of key stakeholders was decisions on the branding;crucial in the highly structured brand-building process launched bythe city in June 2010. This six month process is structured around a steering group to test and comment on the work six stages: online, using intranet tools, and also in dedicated workshops; planning the process and naming the participants; analysing the region’s current situation; a users group to comment on the work, share ideas and structuring the brand identity; keep others informed about the brand work; structuring the communication strategy; designing the branding; an influence group to spread the word about the branding work being undertaken; this group consists using the brand. of representatives from across society, including decision makers, business people, academics, city A number of working groups, involving key local stakeholders, representatives, politicians, artists and athletes.were established to work on the process: These groups meet at least once a month and use various tools for a project group, including representatives from the analysis, such as benchmarking, research data, and mega trends city of Tampere and its region’s marketing unit, a that look at the ways people want to live. The most critical points consultancy agency, and a communications agency; in this project have been planning the process and deciding what this group manages and monitors the process, with aspects to include or exclude. representatives of the Tampere region making final 9
  11. 11. The development of the ONLYLYON brand in Lyon is the resultof a partnership involving key economic and institutionalstakeholders from the Lyon metropolitan region. The originalreason for developing the ONLYLYON brand was to streamlinethe city’s international marketing activities. These were previouslyundertaken by numerous local stakeholders in an un-coordinatedway, resulting in a multitude of brands and logos that blurredthe city’s message. To create a coherent approach to internationalmarketing, 12 economic and institutional stakeholders from theLyon region decided to develop ONLYLYON.Today, these partners all apply the ONLYLYON brand to theirinternational communication efforts and also generally, in theirmarketing strategy. The success of the ONLYLYON brand is to alarge extent due to clear leadership within the partnership, whichensured an efficient decision-making process, a shared vision forthe city amongst members of the partnership, and subsequentlythe will to implement the brand. Lessons learnedD the top-down process, where an agreed shared vision is projected for the city and the assets are adjusted eveloping a city brand can be a complex process involving gradually, step by step;a large number of local stakeholders each with their own agendaand their own vision of the city. A closely managed process the bottom-up process, where all aspects of the city that appears to be a prerequisite for successful city branding that can serve as ingredients for the brand are collected all stakeholders buy into. In addition, the active involvement of together and projected;stakeholders appears to be particularly important for the successof a city brand, in particular to: the survey process, which researches what people feel best characterises the city and projects the most ensure an inclusive and legitimate city branding process; commonly identified aspects; share responsibilities and costs; the expert approach, which leaves brand development in the hands of recognised professionals; encourage long-term commitment and durability for the brand. the global co-produced process, in which citizens are engaged in a mass pooling of ideas that are used to Findings from the working group show that there are several ways build the brand.to build a successful city brand, depending on the local politicaland structural context: 10
  12. 12. 5. HOW TO PROMOTE THE BRANDO nce a city brand has been developed, the next challenge is to promote and communicate it to the identified target groups. Forthis purpose a number of tools exist, including press relations, advertising, events, social media and ambassador networks. Since thechoice of media is closely linked to the message and is therefore never neutral, cities should choose their communication strategy withcare. Another point is that some targets respond better to social media, for example, while others respond more to traditional forms ofadvertising.cITY eXAMPLESPress relations: Tampere decided to developits press relations to obtain coverage of the city in targetedmagazines and newspapers. In 2009, with the help of the FinnishTourist Board and public relations agencies, the city invited 90overseas journalists from various papers, magazines, radio andTV stations for a 3-day thematic discovery trip. These journalistswere chosen from countries with direct flights to Tampere’sAirport. The PR agencies took care of the inviting process, whilethe airlines, the Finnish Tourist Board, GoTampere Ltd, the VisitTampere Region Project and other companies shared the costs.Local services were discounted because the visits were considereda marketing investment. This approach proved extremely cost-effective. With 100 media organisations involved, the city’smessage reached an audience of some 88 million people; and Advertising: Vilnius invests in pure advertising, bothmore than 73,000 mm of column space was generated. The in foreign mass media and through printed brochures and byinvestment by GoTampere and Visit Tampere Region was worth taking part in international tourism fairs. Focusing its campaignsapprox. €68,000, giving a price of 0.07cents per contact. If on the city’s main marketing priorities, Vilnius works with airlineTampere had purchased the equivalent media space, it would have magazines, specialist travel magazines, high-profile overseascost approx. €310,000. newspapers and international TV channels. Statistical data shows that tourism from countries where Vilnius is strongly advertised is increasing every year. The city also arranges visits for foreign tour operators and media representatives: an impressive 340 journalists visited Vilnius in 2009. However, although these visits are cost- efficient, tangible results can be slow to materialise. 11
  13. 13. Events: Hosting major events can have a significantimpact on a city and its image. For events such as the OlympicGames, even the bidding process itself brings together thosestakeholders that are crucial to a city’s brand development.Successful delivery of a major event can help improveinternational perceptions of a city and generate significantpositive awareness. For example, Manchester won the bid to hostthe 2002 Commonwealth Games on the back of two bids for theOlympic Games. These helped strengthen the partnerships in thecity and focused attention on the city’s existing assets and thoseit needed to develop. The Commonwealth Games were such asuccess that the positive perception of Manchester they generatedcan still be measured today. Part of the legacy of those Games wasa recognition that working in partnership and being genuinelyambitious are both vital to the development of a powerful citybrand.Events also offer an opportunity to communicate focusedmessages about the city and its attractiveness to vast numbers ofpeople in the city’s target audience. When Oslo hosted the 2010Eurovision Song Contest, the host broadcaster NRK became thefirst organisation to integrate the local tourist office VisitOSLOinto the production. In close cooperation with NRK and thecity, VisitOSLO produced a programme of social events for theartists, the press and the Eurovision delegations. By creating thebest possible working environment for everyone involved in theproduction, the event generated an enormous amount of positivepress coverage worldwide, supporting Oslo’s image as a city ofcontrasts in culture and nature, and a Scandinavian centre ofarchitecture and design. 12
  14. 14. 5. HOW TO PROMOTE THE BRANDcITY eXAMPLESAmbassador networks: For Lyon, the Merchandise: Merchandise can be used to integrateONLYLYON Ambassador networks programme is based on the stakeholders into a city’s Ambassador programme and spread theidea that the citizens of Lyon are its best representatives, and city’s image across the world, in the form of viral advertising items.are therefore the city’s most valuable asset. By combining the In Ghent, the department for city promotion and sports not onlyindividual efforts of so many people, the city’s Ambassador produces general merchandising materials for the city, bearingprogramme can make a real difference in raising the profile of the slogan ‘Ghent: So Much City’, it has also taken the lead byLyon on the international scene. The objective of the Ambassador providing city service teams with coordination and administrativeprogramme is two-fold: to help stimulate buy-in from local follow up when service teams are purchasing sector-specificcitizens and to spread the word internationally. promotional materials, such as ‘Ghent sport’.Social Media: Millions of people now regularly usesocial media such as FaceBook, YouTube and Twitter, and thenumbers are constantly growing. This can have an importantimpact on how cities choose to communicate, and somecities are already capitalising on social media dynamics. Forexample, in autumn 2007, Tampere invited its citizens to entera competition to create a two-minute video on ‘My Tampere’,hosted on YouTube. The idea was to highlight their views andexperiences and to use the videos to promote the city. 50 videoswere downloaded, the jury selected four winners, and the mostinteresting videos have been transferred to a DVD distributedby Creative Tampere. 13
  15. 15. Lessons learnedC ities have a wide choice of tools at their disposal to promote their brand. The approach used will be defined by the targetaudience and of course the resources available. A number of trends can be identified in terms of how cities currently promote theirbrands: traditional media such as newspapers, magazines, radio and TV, are still very much part of the mix; approaches vary from traditional press relations to obtain editorial coverage in targeted newspapers, magazines or TV channels, to pure advertising, right through to promoting a city’s ranking in national or international city comparison tables; specific events, where cultural, sporting or economic activities are hosted, are useful in promoting the city’s message to a specific target group; Ambassador networks are helping to spread city messages across the globe and are also useful in gaining brand support from members of the local community, by giving them Ambassador status; social media increasingly offers the opportunity to communicate with younger target audiences who may be harder to access through more traditional media; merchandising tools can still be a very efficient way of promoting the city brand to a large audience. 14
  16. 16. 6. HOW TO MANAGE THE BRANDJ ust as a city is constantly evolving, so the brand that reflects that city must evolve over time. A city brand provides an efficientmeans of illustrating the development and dynamics of a city while at the same time representing continuity and clarity. Successfulbrand management helps to ensure the brand remains true to the brand strategy, while at the same time allowing the brand to adaptto change.The way city brands are managed can vary significantly, depending on the city’s geographical and political organisations, the scale ofthe partnership involved in the branding process, and the degree of consensus amongst stakeholders. This raises the question of the roleof political will and leadership in the brand management process, how best to ensure a strong and controlled brand management, andhow city rankings are used in this process.cITY eXAMPLESCity brand management depends on the city’s people, especially Manchester has created a dedicated body known as Marketingits leaders. They can provide guidelines, support concept Manchester, responsible for city brand management anddevelopment, and reassure the different partners. To gather promotion on a national and international stage. The organisationall the stakeholders together, and develop and maintain a aims to develop Manchester into a leading leisure, learningcomprehensive view of the city, requires a network of leaders to and business destination for domestic and international visitors,manage the process. This traditionally includes mayors, university enhance the national and international reputation of the city andprincipals, and senior executives of the city’s companies and promote sustainable economic development and growth. Visitassociations. These are the people who will guarantee the delivery Manchester is the tourist board for the city-region and is a divisionof the marketing promise, and they need to enjoy strong political of Marketing Manchester.leadership. This has certainly been the case for the more complexexamples such as Genoa and Lyon. Civil servants also need tobe closely involved to make sure that political leaders deliverthe brand message in the right way. In addition, continuity ofleadership personnel is required to protect the long-term strategyfor the brand, and to overcome any short-term political objectiveslinked to electoral terms. 15
  17. 17. Controlling the brand: Cities controltheir brands in a variety of ways. Some cities allow everyoneto use their branding. For example, Ghent allows its logo to bedownloaded by anyone, from the city’s website. Others have amore restrictive policy. For example, Munich authorises the use ofits branding on corporate advertising or at specific events, on acase by case basis. The city of Utrecht adopts another approach tobrand control, through its free monthly ‘cultural Sunday’ events,which are open to everyone. All artists taking part in these eventscan use Utrecht’s ‘cultural Sundays’ branding to promote theiractivities at these events. In this way, the city and some of itsstakeholders can be promoted in a carefully controlled way, atevents that are organized and controlled by the city.City ranking: The city ranking process and resultsare increasingly used in city brand management as well as by themedia. In the context of international competition between cities,city rankings can provide a more accurate guide to the reality ofa city than personal perceptions of a city. The ranking process canhelp a city understand both its current positioning and its futuredirection. In particular, city ranking can be useful for: benchmarking practices and strategies, to identify good practice and provide inspiration for the branding process; identifying new aims and objectives for a city; highlighting newly emerging criteria that the city may need to focus on, in order to deliver its brand promises. 16
  18. 18. 6. HOW TO MANAGE THE BRANDLessons learnedC ity brand management can be seen as a delicate balance between ensuring effective control and encouraging innovation andcreativity.The success and style of city brand management depends on various elements: maturity of the stakeholders: the maturity and experience of the city stakeholders will determine their ability to support the necessary planned activities. A less experienced stakeholder team will be more successful with a limited and very structured branding approach, based on simple practical messages within a precise framework. Meanwhile a city with a greater collaborative experience will be able to successfully manage a more complex ’toolbox’ approach , for example, encompassing a variety of sub-brands; maturity of the strategy: in general, as city brand strategies mature, sub-brands can be successfully added, for example, to support innovative policies, or for different sectors or activities. This allows city branding to strengthen the unity of a city by including a whole range of activities and sectors within the city’s overall positioning, vision and values. As a city’s brand strategy matures, a city’s branding can evolve from a mid-term communication campaign to a long-term asset that crystallizes the city’s identity; experience of the leading team: the leading team has to go beyond its own specific interests to build an overall frame of reference for the brand, where each public policy can be supported without diluting the overall branding. The leading team should ideally combine a wide range of skills: from marketing and communication skills through to organisational skills and a good understanding of economics; return on experience: it is vital to collect and learn from regular evaluation of a city’s branding activities. It is important to be able to measure the success of these activities, in order to evaluate and improve them over time as brands should be flexible and adapt to changing circumstances; specific goals assigned: brand managers can develop and assign new goals for the brand, as the city changes over time. New brand goals can support the transformation of a city, help to reinforce the city’s governance, and make the city more attractive to its target audience by further improving the city’s image. New goals can also increase social cohesion through pride in the city, and generate a new pulse through new projects and events.17
  19. 19. conclusionC ities today are increasingly engaging in a branding process. In the context of internationalcompetition, they want to differentiate themselves from other cities. A clear city brand can help the cityto become better known, both globally and to their own citizens, and thereby attract newcomers andinvestment.The main conclusions to be drawn from the experiences of the EUROCITIES working group on brandmanagement and city attractiveness are:- ‘Mind the gap’ - There is a strong link between a city’s identity and its brand. A city brand shouldencompass the city’s core values, characteristics and aspirations. The brand message points to a futureperspective, while at the same time being rooted in the true story of the city. However, cities should bewary of stretching the gap between the brand message and reality: instead, “first demonstrate it, thencommunicate it!”- ‘No shortcuts’ - Stakeholder involvement is an important element in successful brand development.A wide variety of stakeholders should be involved to ensure continuity and shared vision. At thesame time clear leadership is necessary. Once the brand has been developed, cities can promote thebrand in numerous ways: from traditional press relations, advertising and targeted events, to settingup ambassador networks, using social media and producing tailor-made merchandise. In addition,the organisation in charge of promoting the brand needs to ensure brand management and brandgovernance.And finally, there is no single formula for success - each city must create and manage their brand in theway that is best for their situation, but the chances of success will be greater if they are proactive andaware of the experiences of others. 18
  20. 20. Working group membersAarhus, DenmarkBergen, NorwayBonn, GermanyBratislava, SlovakiaBrighton, UKBristol, UKBudapest, HungaryBursa, TurkeyDublin, IrelandGenoa, ItalyGhent, BelgiumGothenburg, SwedenGlasgow, UKHeraklion, GreeceIzmir, TurkeyKarlstad, SwedenKharkov, UkraineKatowice, PolandLublin, PolandLyon, FranceMadrid, SpainMalmo, SwedenManchester, UKMunich, GermanyNantes, FranceNetwerkstad Twente, The NetherlandsOslo, NorwayRotterdam, The NetherlandsRennes, FranceReykjavík, IslandSintra, PortugalStrasbourg, FranceTampere, FinlandTbilisi, GeorgiaUtrecht, NetherlandsVienna, AustriaVilnius, LithuaniaWarsaw, PolandZaragoza, SpainAlgoé (Business Partner)IBM (Business Partner) EUROCITIES 1 Square de Meeûs Published B-1000 Brussels by EUROCITIES Brussels Office Tel: +32 2 552 0888 Fax: +32 2 552 0889 © EUROCITIES 2010 e-mail: info@eurocities.eu www.eurocities.eu

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