2. The production of woody plants combined with pasture is referred to Silvipasture system. The trees and shrubs may be used primarily to produce fodder for livestock or they may be grown for timber, fuel wood, and fruit or to improve the soil.
3. i) Protein bankii) Livefence of fodder trees and hedgesiii) Trees and shrubs on pasture
4. In this Silvipastural system, various multipurpose trees( proteinrich trees ) are planted on or around farmlands and range landsfor cut and carry fodder production to meet the feedrequirement of livestock during the fodder deficit period inwinter. Example: Acacia nilotica, Albizia lebbeck, Azadirachtaindica, Leucaena leucocephala, Gliricidia sepium, Sesbaniagrandiflora
5. In this system, various fodder trees and hedges are plantedas live fence to protect the property from stray animals orother biotic influences. Example: Gliricidia sepium, Sesbaniagrandiflora, Erythrina sp, Acacia sp.
6. In this system, various tree and shrub species are scattered irregularly or arranged according to some systemic pattern to supplement forage production. Example:Acacia nilotica, Acacia leucophloea ,Tamarindus indica, Azadirachta indica.
7. Increased income opportunities through diversification of production Enhanced wildlife habitat Soil-improvement: Planning a silvopastoral system Productivity in Fodder tree plantation : Fodder Production in Farming Systems Forage Production on Terrace Riser/Bunds
8. A silvopastoral system, in addition to producing forage for livestock, may produce sawtimber, pulpwood, posts and poles for fences and other structures, and non-timber forest products such as nuts, fruit, honey, maple sugar, mushrooms, fodder, and materials for crafts. Livestock on silvopasture can be domestic mammals or domestic birds ,Wildlife such as deer will also benefit from silvopasture and can bring in income from hunting. Animal species provide a wide range of products including wool, feathers, leather, meat, milk, and eggs.
9. Cover and food for wildlife is provided by structural and species diversity of the tree and shrub overstory. Forest/grassland edges attract a variety of species such as deer and upland game birds. Plant species may be manipulated through carefully managed grazing and timber harvesting to attract desirable wildlife species like variety of species of deer, Indian gaur,etc..,
10. Trees hold nutrients in an efficient, closed cycling system. Their deeper roots tap nutrients from lower soil levels that are inaccessible to forage species, and nitrogen-fixing trees can raise the nutrient levels of pasture soils. Roots combat the compaction of soil and cut soil and organic matter losses to erosion, thereby improving soil structure and soil biological activity.
11. Shade and reduced wind velocity raise the moisture level of soils by reducing evaporation. Trees planted in a living snow fence can raise soil moisture by harvesting and distributing snow. Some species can remedy soil toxicities that limit livestock forage production, such as salinity.
12. Well-planned location and spatial pattern of tree plantings can meet many needs in a silvopastoral system. In addition to deciding which species will provide the desired products, the agroforester must consider how the pattern of trees affects wildlife habitat, ease of livestock handling, forage and tree growth and competition, snow distribution, and microclimate.
13. The integrated approach of growing grasses and fodder crops under silvipasture and agroforestry systems is one of the major alternatives to augment fodder and fuel wood production. The experiments conducted at VPKAS Almora revealed that Digitaria decumbans; Pennisetum clandestinum and Chloris gayana were the promising grass species, which can be grown successfully under pine and deodar plantations. The performance of local grass species was the poorest.
14. Grass species Forage yield (t/ha) Pine trees Deodar treesPangola 14.01 13.66Rhodes 4.78 3.06para 0.48 2.06guinea 0.41 2.04Kikyu - 6.42Local 0.25 0.22
16. Every household in the hills rear different kinds of animals for various purposes but for maintaining the milch animals it is essential to put some part of the cultivable land under forage crops. Following approaches are being proposed in view of their wider acceptability by the farming communities.
17. A non-competitive land use system for the forage production in the hills is to grow improved grasses on terrace bunds and risers. There is added advantage to produce forge without any fertilizer or manure since it is available from the cropped terrace. The field experiments conducted in U.P. hills reveal that growing grasses on terrace riser was found significantly beneficial for increasing the grain yield of rice and wheat over control. The performance of different improved grass species was statistically similar but superior to local species.
18. • Anonymous, 1991. Effect of nitrogen levels and harvesting stages on the grain and fodder yield of maize. Annual Prog. Report Dept. of Agronomy, HPKV, Palampur 18:205-06.• Anonymous 1997. Annual Report Cropping Systems Research, Department Agronomy, HPKV, Palampur.• http://forest.mtu.edu/pcforestry/resources/studentprojects/silvo pasture.html• B.S.Chundawat & S.K.Gautam.Textbook of agroforestry