Cognitive psychology consciousness


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Cognitive psychology consciousness

  2. 2. Topics• Consciousness: Explicit and implicit memory – Research with primes – Neuro• Cognitive studies – Sleep and Amnesia – Modern theories of consciousness – Baars’• global workspace theory – Functions of consciousness09/17/12 Dr.V.Veera Balaji Kumar
  3. 3. Definition• Consciousness is the awareness of environmental and cognitive events such as the sights and sounds of the world as well as of one’s memories, thoughts, feelings and bodily sensations.09/17/12 Dr.V.Veera Balaji Kumar
  4. 4. • Consciousness is seen as a continuum ranging from alert attention to dreaming or drug-induced states• States that differ dramatically from normal consciousness are called altered states09/17/12 Dr.V.Veera Balaji Kumar
  5. 5. History of consciousness• Dualism is the notion that the mind and body are separate• Materialism is the notion that mind and body are not separate• Mentalism - believing that conscious soul was the basis of all reality.• Physicalism – idea that all conscious experience can be explained by neurons or psychologically by observable stimuli (inputs) and responses (outputs).09/17/12 Dr.V.Veera Balaji Kumar
  6. 6. • Pinker argues consciousness can be broken down into three issues:• Sentience (feelings)• Access (ability to report on the content and product of rational thought)• Self-knowledge (ability to recognize one’s experiences are unique)09/17/12 Dr.V.Veera Balaji Kumar
  7. 7. The Sleep-Wakefulness Cycle• Humans and other animals seem to have an internal 24-hour biological clock based on what are referred to as circadian rhythms
  8. 8. The Sleep-Wakefulness Cycle• Jet lag is one example of a disruption to the circadian rhythm that may effect performance
  9. 9. Sleep as Restorative• Core sleep repairs the effects of waking wear and tear on cerebral functions• Optional sleep fills the time from the end of core sleep until waking
  10. 10. Sleep Cycles• Kleitman and Dement studied the sleep- wakefulness cycle using an electroencephalogram (EEG)• During an 8-hour sleep period, people go through five full cycles of five stages of sleep
  11. 11. Sleep Stages• The most dramatic finding of early research was rapid eye movement (REM) sleep• REM involves high-frequency, low amplitude brain-wave activity
  12. 12. Figure 4.14 EEG Activity during Sleep
  13. 13. Sleep Stages• The first four stages of each cycle are non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep• REM occurs only after the first four stages of each cycle
  14. 14. Sleep Stages• Stage 1 is light sleep• Brain waves are of low amplitude and are fast, with mixed frequencies• In stage 1, the person can be awakened easily
  15. 15. Sleep Stages• Stage 2 involves low-amplitude, nonrhythmic brain-wave activity, and deeper sleep• Stage 3 sleep involves brain waves that are slower and higher in amplitude than stage 2• Stage 3 includes some low frequency, high amplitude delta waves
  16. 16. Sleep Stages• Stage 4 is the deepest type of sleep, and over 50% of the waves are delta waves• Sleepers take about 30 to 40 minutes to go through the four stages of NREM sleep• Sleepers then go from stage 4, back through stages 3, 2, and 1
  17. 17. Sleep Stages• REM has been called paradoxical sleep because of its contradictory nature• Sleep cycles develop before birth and continue to change into adulthood
  18. 18. Sleep Stages• Newborns spend nearly half their time in REM• From age 1 to age 10, the ratio of REM sleep to stage 4 sleep drops dramatically• In later adulthood, people have trouble sleeping through the night, and experience a decrease in REM sleep
  19. 19. Research with primes• Peoples’ ability to recognize a word was measurably enhanced if they had a single experience with that word or even a related word.• Why ?• Your level of consciousness for that word would be elevated, greater than if you had not read that word before.09/17/12 Dr.V.Veera Balaji Kumar
  20. 20. Explicit and implicit memory• Explicit memory – refers to conscious recall of information – for e.g. when you are answering a question on an examination.• Implicit memory – refers to memory that is measured through a performance change related to some previous experience. It is revealed when previous information facilitates task performance and does not require conscious recall of those experiences. 09/17/12 Dr.V.Veera Balaji Kumar
  21. 21. Watch JELLY09/17/12 Dr.V.Veera Balaji Kumar
  22. 22. Watch POPULATION09/17/12 Dr.V.Veera Balaji Kumar
  23. 23. Watch COLLEGE09/17/12 Dr.V.Veera Balaji Kumar
  24. 24. Watch UNIVERSITY09/17/12 Dr.V.Veera Balaji Kumar
  25. 25. Subliminal priming• Richard Nisbett and Lee Ross (1980) at university of Michigan showed subjects words that were associated such as OCENAN & MOON, asked them to free-associate (whatever came to their mind).• The primes had an effect on subsequent performance even when the subject was unaware of the cause.• Subliminal priming – effect of a prime that is presented below the sensory threshold, level of conscious awareness. 09/17/12 Dr.V.Veera Balaji Kumar
  26. 26. Watch SUN09/17/12 Dr.V.Veera Balaji Kumar
  27. 27. Watch WORK09/17/12 Dr.V.Veera Balaji Kumar
  28. 28. 09/17/12 Dr.V.Veera Balaji Kumar