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Diversity Of Synaptic Signaling Among Individual Cortical Neurons
 

Diversity Of Synaptic Signaling Among Individual Cortical Neurons

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    Diversity Of Synaptic Signaling Among Individual Cortical Neurons Diversity Of Synaptic Signaling Among Individual Cortical Neurons Presentation Transcript

    • Diversity of synaptic signaling among individual cortical neurons Synapses are points of contact between nerve cells and their targets where presynaptic signals are converted into postsynaptic signals Electrical synapses (gap junctions) ) • Direct (ionotropic receptors) • Indirect (metabotropic receptors)
    • Topics
      • • Reticular Theory vs. Neuronal Doctrine
      • • Soups and Sparks
      • • Quantal Transmission
      • • The Calcium Hypothesis
      • • Activity-Dependent Plasticity
      • • Direct (ionotropic receptors) • Indirect (metabotropic receptors
      Chemical synapses (releasing neurotransmitter
    •  
    •  
    •  
    •  
      • The Calcium Hypothesis
      • Inward movement of a positively charged
      • Ca compound, or of the calcium ion itself,
      • constitutes the essential links in the
      • ‘ electro-secretory’ coupling process of the
      • axon terminal
      • Katz & Miledi, 1967
    • Mechanisms of STP
      • 1. Action potential
      • 2. Calcium channels
      • 3. RRV
      • 4. Calcium level
      • 5. Reserve vesicle pool
      • 6. Metabotropic receptors
      • 7. Ion channels
      • 8. Pumps
      • 9. Internal stores
      • 10. Postsynaptic receptors:
      • desensitization
      • saturation
      • unblocking
      • Mechanisms of STP
      • Rozov, Burnashev, Sakmann & Neher, 2001
      • Target specific short-ter
      • Summary:
      • 1. STP is a diverse phenomenon
      • depends on both pre- and
      • postsynaptic cell types
      • 2. STP can reflect pre- or
      • postsynaptic mechanisms
      • 4. The residual calcium
      • hypothesis (mostly) explains
      • facilitation
      • 5. Depression may be related to
      • vesicle depletion but (in general)
      • is poorly understood
      • 6. STP may allow frequencydependent
      • routing of activity in
    • Chemical Synaptic Transmission is
      • :
      • 􀂾 Quantal
      • 􀂾 Probabilistic
    • Fundamental Neuroscience - second edition Squire, Bloom, McConnell, Roberts, Spitzer, Zigmond Academic Press, 2003 http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/neurok.html http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/chnt1.html Explore the Brain and Spinal Cord The Neuron http://www.indstate.edu/thcme/mwking/home.html http://www.indstate.edu/thcme/mwking/nerves.html
    • Life cycle of a neurotransmitter
    • The process of chemical neurotransmission can be divided into five steps 1. Synthesis of the neurotransmitter in the presynaptic neuron 2. Storage of the neurotransmitter and/or its precursor in the presynaptic nerve terminal 3. Release of the neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft 4. Binding and recognition of the neurotransmitter by target receptors 5. Termination of the action of the released transmitter
    • Axon Terminal Spine Dendrite Action potential Ca2+ Diffusion of Neurotransmitters Across the Synaptic Cleft Neurotransmitter Mobilization and Release Electrical Trigger for Neurotransmission
    • The synapse
    • Passing information between neurons Gap junctions -electrical transmission fast both directions Chemical transmission slower - unidirectional integrative amplifies and regenerates the signal
    • Chemical synapse Axon-dendrite Axo-axonic Axon-soma
    •