What is water? Water is made of tiny molecules of hydrogen and oxygen. Each one is so small that you can’t see it even with the most powerful microscope. Pure water has no colour, no taste and doesn’t smell of anything. Water exists in three forms on the Earth: > solid (ice, hail, snow or frost) > liquid (in lakes, oceans, rain, dew, fog or mist) > gas (steam or water vapour - "invisible" water in the air).
Where can we get water? About 97% of the water on the Earth's surface is in the world's oceans . This is where you can find most of the other 3%: > Lakes > Rivers > Polar ice caps > Clouds > Rain > Stored in rocks (aquifers) > Sea ice
Why do we need water? To carry nutrients and waste in the body To lubricate joints, digestive tract and body tissues To cool the body, especially during periods of physical activity. To be used in factories, agriculture, hospitals, hotels, etc.
How much water do we need? Most people need about 6-8 glasses of water each day. Inadequate fluid intake can lead to constipation and dehydration. Caffeine-containing beverages (coffee, tea, colas, etc.) should not be drunk because caffeine actually causes you to lose water . More water may be needed during times of fever, or illness. Athletes should drink additional amounts before, during and after exercise.
What is water shortage? Water shortage happens when an area does not have enough water to meet the needs of the people who live there. A shortage is caused by too much demand , or not enough supply .
Why should we save water? Of all the water in the world, only 3% is fresh. Less than one third of 1% of this fresh water is available for human use. The rest is frozen in glaciers or polar ice caps, or is deep within the earth, beyond our reach. To put it another way , if 100 liters represents the world's water, about half a tablespoon of it is fresh water available for our use.
Here are a few ideas for educating your friends and others about the importance of water in our lives. Paint pictures, view or present performances or sing songs that convey the water conservation message Read articles or debate water related issues in your local area. Write stories about the role that water plays in your life. Discuss how water quality and quantity can impact the health of the individual and community relations. Investigate the role that water plays in various cultures. Understand the amount of water used in your school and home. Study the water cycle, understand the importance of water for life and how plants and animals adapt to different water conditions (aquatic to arid), understand the role of water in geological formations or atmospheric conditions. Investigate the development of water supply and water treatment in your local area, and how these technologies consider the environment and society in order to support economic growth Saving water through education <back
Saving water in homes Running water is required for an endless list of uses in and around the home. Imagine living in a house without running water...For some this might be a nightmare but for many it is reality. This is because some of us are not careful while using water in our homes! So, others suffer because of us.. <back
Saving water in gardens There are lots of easy and effective ways to reduce the use of precious drinking water on our gardens. Many gardens contain plants inappropriate for our environment and we tend to water far more than necessary, because we don’t know what our plants really need. We can't afford gardens that require excessive amounts of water. <back
Saving water in business There are many opportunities to reduce water used in businesses, may be in the factory, office, restrooms or canteen. HOSPITALITY Good water management in hospitality will help protect environment. FOOD PROCESSING Saving water can result in better hygiene and reduction in costs. NURSERIES Water efficiency also encourages good business practices. CONSTRUCTION Good water management in hospitality will help protect environment. TEXTILES Saving water can result in better hygiene and reduction in costs. MANUFACTURING Water efficiency also encourages good business practices. <back
Saving water in agriculture While agriculture is one of our country's most significant water users, some innovative solutions have been developed to improve water use efficiency and maintain or even increase yields. COTTON Efficient water management is vital for cotton growers to achieve high yields. RICE Rice is the main crop of India and it requires a lot of water for sowing, growing, cleaning, etc. DAIRY The dairy industry uses water for irrigation of pastures, watering stock and cleaning dairy sheds. <back
Horticulture industry includes production of fruit, vegetables, wine and ornamental plants. Horticulture production is intensive in water use. To improve water use efficiency, farmers should use irrigation methods that are appropriate to the crop They must monitor and maintain irrigation system performance and manage water usage in terms of needs of the crop and local weather conditions. Saving water in horticulture <back
A dripping tap could waste as much as 90 liters a week. B rushing your teeth with the tap running wastes almost 9 liters a minute. Rinse out from a tumbler instead. C ool water kept in the fridge means you won't have to run the tap for ages to get a cold drink. D on't use your washing machine until you've got a full load. A full load uses less water than 2 half loads. A to Z tips to save water
A to Z tips to save water E very time you boil an egg save the cooled water for your houseplants. They'll benefit from the nutrients released from the shell. F it a water saving device in your cistern and save up to three liters a flush. G row your grass a little longer. It will stay greener than a close mown lawn and need less watering. H oeing stimulates the growth of plants, reduces water loss from the soil surface and removes weeds that take up valuable water and nutrients.
I nstalling a water meter can save you water and money by monitoring how much you use. J ust taking a five minute shower very day, instead of a bath, will use a third of the water, saving up to 400 liters a week. K ettles should be filled with enough water for your needs but not to the brim. This will reduce your fuel bills too. L ag your pipes to avoid bursts and leave your heating on a low setting while you are out in cold weather to prevent pipes freezing. A to Z tips to save water
M ulch for moisture in the garden. Adding a layer of tree bark, compost, coconut husks or even newspaper keeps the sun off the soil and retains precious moisture. N o further watering is usually required for established trees and shrubs. O nce a week is all the watering your lawn needs even in the hottest weather. P urchasing a water butt will help you to collect rain water for use on the garden. A to Z tips to save water
A to Z tips to save water Q uestion your local garden centre about the water requirements of different plants. Some thrive in drier conditions. R eplacing a toilet cistern can save water. S prinklers can be wasteful. A sprinkler can use as much water in an hour as a family of four will use in a day! T rigger nozzles can save water by using it only when needed.
U se the dirty water when cleaning a fish tank on your houseplants. It's rich in nitrogen and phosphorus, which provides an excellent fertilizer. V ery 'water efficient' washing machines and dishwashers are now manufactured. Y ou'll find that they save on energy too. W ater your garden at the coolest part of the day to reduce evaporation. X eriscape means to use plants that require less water. A to Z tips to save water
A to Z tips to save water Y ou can use less water by turning the hot tap down, rather than the cold tap up, if you require cooler water. Z The end of the alphabet but not the end of water saving ideas - why don’t you tell us of any you've discovered?
Run home now to save water, before it runs out on you!
Save Walter, the fish! The teacher narrates the following story to explain how over usage of water in the world will lead to water shortage and the death of all living creatures. “There was a little gold fish called Walter and he lived in a little fish bowl. Every day his master used to remove some water from the bowl. Finally, one day there was very little water left in it. Walter struggled to breath and there was not enough place for him to move around.” Do you know how to save Walter? The answer is not to use all the water available in the world. We have to think about other living creatures too and leave enough water for them to use.
Most common reasons for increased demand Increase in world's population as more people live cities and big towns Increase in farming because farmers start growing more crops Increase in money earned because people use a lot more water in their homes for things like dishwashers and lawn sprinklers
Most common reasons for not enough supply Not enough rain or drought Changes to a river basin Wells run dry
<ul><li>How much water do we use in our homes? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The kitchen is a major consumer of water in the home, using around 10% of total household water consumption for cooking, cleaning, washing or drinking. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>15-20% of all water consumed in the home is used in laundry. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nearly 50% of all water is consumed in the bathroom, 20% of that water is flushed down the toilet. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A slowly dripping tap can waste 20,000 liters in a year. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaporation is a major cause of water loss from your swimming pool. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A lot of water is used in washing cars, bikes, cycles and garages. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grey water is typically water from baths, showers, hand basins and washing machines. It does not include water from the toilet. By recycling grey water, you can reduce domestic water consumption by up to 20%. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collecting and using rainwater can save large amounts of water. </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>Benefits of saving water in our homes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using rainwater can reduce your water bills as rainwater is free. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Your neighbours will also have enough water to use in their homes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You will never run out of water or stand in queues on the road waiting for water lorries! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By installing more water-efficient products in your home, you can save money on water and electricity bills and help the environment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Covering the swimming pool lowers the pool temperature, decreases evaporation and prevents debris from falling on the pool surface. By preventing sunlight from penetrating the water, you will also reduce the amount of chemicals needed to keep the pool clean. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By covering your vehicles when not is use, you will use less water to wash them. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Savings may be greater when grey water use is applied to residential units and apartments but it will usually require treatment. </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>Benefits of saving water in gardens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water efficient gardens can reduce your water bills and running costs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They can require less maintenance, allowing more time for other activities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water efficient gardens use plants that attract native birds, making your garden a more enjoyable, relaxing environment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A water efficient garden directs water to where it is needed, so there are no problems with runoff or erosion. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A water efficient garden contributes less to storm water flow, reducing the need for costly public storm water projects. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water efficient gardens can be healthy gardens. By using the correct products and plants, you can maintain plant life and improve soil conditions. </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>Benefits of saving water in business </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conserving water will not only save money, it will also provide an important marketing edge in a very competitive industry. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protecting our valuable water resources is an important part of maintaining that competitive advantage. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Save water and protect our environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Save on water bills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhance relationships with staff, customers and the local community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhance your organization’s reputation as an attractive environmentally responsible employer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Save on energy bills by reducing hot water usage </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>Benefits of saving water in business (cont.d) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensuring that there is more water available for local streams, wetlands, and their natural inhabitants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reducing impact on local water supplies and systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced pumping needs which will reduce annual energy costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased infrastructure requirements such as maintenance and upgrades of equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced environmental risks associated with wastewater, by making wastewater treatment more cost effective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preparation of your company for future water restriction and increased water prices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water recycling and runoff management allows further use of water for free. </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>Benefits of saving water in agriculture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase productivity- efficient water use leads to greater returns per hectare. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve whole farm efficiency and sustainability. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent deep drainage that results from over-watering. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saving money through reduced water costs and more effective use of fertilizers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If pumps are being used - lower energy requirements for pumping less water will lower costs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreases demand on local water supply. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow farmers to maximize irrigated area when water is limited. </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>Benefits of saving water in horticulture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased savings through reduced water and pumping costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced fertilizer application </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower energy requirements for pumping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced amount of drainage water and surface runoff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Additional water for expansion or trading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less impact on environment </li></ul></ul>