Environmental pollution


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Environmental pollution

  1. 1. Objectives Man is one of the species who inhabit the earth.he is the only one who has interfered with various natural processes for use of both biological & physical resources to meet his multiple demands,man has polluted all the three realms of the earth-lithosphere,hydrosphere & atmosphere.it is essential for us to know about environment & its pollution.In this presentation we will be able to know about- •Environment •Primary & secondary pollutants •Biosphere •Acid rain •Ecosystem model •Ozone depletion •Atmosphere •Green house effect •Atmospheric pollution •Noise pollution
  2. 2. That which surrounds, the total sum of thecondition of the surroundings within which anorganism, or group, or an object,exists(includingthe natural as modified by human activity & theartificial).
  3. 3. Abiotic Environment Atmosphere SeaBiotic Environment
  4. 4. Atmosphere The entire part of earths land, soil, water & atmosphere in Biosphere which living organism are found is called biosphere Or The combined area lithosphere, hydrosphere of & atmosphere is known as biosphere. Hydrosphere Lithosphere Biosphere Model
  5. 5. Abiotic Solar Radiation Biotic Sun provides energy for plant photosynthesisComponent Component Climate Amount of solar radiation varies with latitude & hence effects climate. solar radiation also power weather systems Vegetation Volcanic activity ,mountain, ranges etc. Animals can also affect climate Climate interacts with geology in soil formation provides water for solar climate. Soil provides water & nutrients for plants Geology together with a physical base in which plants can root themselves. Soil Plants provides food for animals Animals alter vegetation by browsing & grazing. Human have significantly altered vegetation patterns through modification for agriculture. Vegetation gives off water vapour who helps to stabilize the climate of the earth. Climate restricts the type of plants & animals that can survive in a particular ecosystem. Water & temperature are two main climate controls. Dead plants & animals decomposes & return nutrients to the soil. Nutrients are also returned to the soil through animal excrement. Soil [provides habitat including water & air for many invertebrates addition many animals have evolved specialist cope with different soils for example the feet of camel.
  6. 6. • Our current atmosphere is a mixture of many different gases & suspended particles. It is almost same every where up to an altitude of 80 Kms.The atmosphere is divided in to 4 layers- Name of Height Temperatu Important sphere or in re Chemical layer Kms. Species (Gas) Troposphere 0-8 15 to 45 N2,O2,CO2, H2 Stratosphere 8-50 -55 to 05 O3,O2 Mesosphere 50-80 -2 to -90 N2+O2 Ionosphere 80- O2,O+,NO+ 400 Exosphere 400- H2,He 1600
  7. 7. Constituent Symbol Average concentration Source VolumeNitrogen N2 780900 Biotic 7.809× 101Oxygen O2 209400 Biotic 2-094× 101Argon Ar 9300 Radioactive 9.3× 10-1Carbon dioxide CO2 318318 Biotic & industrial 3.18× 10-2Neon Ne 18 Internalhelium He 5.2 Radioactive 5.2× 10-4Methane CH4 1.3 Biotic 1.3× 10-4Krypton Kr 1.0 Internal 1.0× 10-5Hydrogen H2 0.5 Biotic & photochemical 5.0× 10-5Water H2O 0.25 Physical 2.5× 10-5Carbon monoxide CO 0.1 Photochemical & industrial 1.0× 10-5Ozone O3 0.02 Photochemical 2.0× 10-6Ammonia NH3 0-01 Photochemical 1.0× 10-6Nitrogen dioxide NO2 0.001 Biotic & industrial 1.0× 10-7Sulpher dioxide SO2 0.002 Photochemical 2.0× 10-8
  8. 8. Is an unwanted change in thequality of earths earthsatmosphere caused by 42%emission of gases caused byemission of gases due toburning of fossilfuel,transportation,industrialinstitution etc. 21% 21% 18% 14%Source PollutionTransportation 42%Fuel 21% 05%Industries 14%Solid waste 05%disposalOther 18% Transportation Fuel Industries waste Other
  9. 9. Different Pollutants1. Gaseous waste: Oxides of nitrogen,SO2,CO2,CO.Cl,Br,I,O3 & smog.2. Complex organic chemicals: Benzene, ether.3. Acid prop lets: H2SO4, HNO34. Agrochemicals: fertilizers, pesticides,herbicixles,fungicides, rematicides,weedicides,bectrecides etc.5. Fluorides6. Metals: Mercury,lead,Cd,Zn,Fe,Ni etc.7. Solid wasre:Garbage,plastic etc.8. Radioactive waste: Nuclear reacters,uranium,nuclear explosion.9. Noise waste
  10. 10. Natural Pollutants: The pollution which comes out from naturalsources such as forest fires volcanic eruption decomposition oforganic matter & natural radioactivity.Primary Pollutants: Harmful chemical that directly enters theair as a result of human activity. These are deforestisationburning of fossil fuel industrialization warfare etc.Secondary pollutants :These result from chemical reactions between two or more air components. Formation of secondary pollutants 2SO2+O2 2SO3 2SO3+H2O H2SO4 (Secondary pollutant)
  11. 11. Solar radiation NO2,SO3,HNO3, CO,CO2,NO,Most H2SO4,H2O2,O3, Hydrocarbons, PANs,MostNO3-- & SO4-2 Most SPM Primary Pollutants Secondary PollutantsVolcano Factory
  12. 12. Environmental challenges• Green house effect: Increasing global temperature. Scientists predicting that earths temperature will increase by 3-40C by year 2030 if the pollution continues to increase at the same pace.• Ozone depletion: As ozone layer in the upper atmosphere absorbs incoming harmful ultraviolet radiation but it is now getting thinner & more UVs are reaching in to earth creating different disease like cancer& eye problems.• Photochemical smog: In 1952 London was covered by smog for 10 days .This smog was caused by fog, smoke, ash,& SO2 plus NO2.Sunlight played a great role in the formation of this smog .Though deaths occurring at that time were not directly attributed to the smog later statistics confirmed that 6,000 more people. Acid rain: is caused by oxides of nitrogen & sulphur.It increases acidity of soil & effects the growth of trees & plants. The majestic monument Taj Mahal in India is also affecting by this.
  13. 13. Solar Radiation H2SO4 (Sulphuric Acid) + Acid Rain water HNO3 (Nitric Acid) SO2 & NOXFactories, LakeTransportation Sea SEA
  14. 14. Methane Carbon 50% Carbon Dioxide Earth Dioxide Earth A Methane 18% Nitrous oxide Chlorofluoroc 14% Ozone arbons This natural balance may be Ozone 12%Green house gases in naturalcondition insulates the earth against distorted by Green House Nitrous oxide 06%extreme of temperature by limiting Effect as gases such as carbon dioxide have built up Contribution of different gasesboth incoming solar radiation & in the atmosphere trapping to cause green house effectescape of reradiated heat in tospace. more heat Some reradiated Less reradiatedsun sun heat escapes in heat escapes in to space to space More reradiatedInfra-red Some reradiated heat reflectedradiation heat reflected back to earth back to earth SurfaceSurfaceTemperature Temperature Atmospherenormal Atmosphere increases
  15. 15. Ultraviolet Radiation NO Nitric Oxide O2 Molecular NO2 Oxygen H2O Nitrogen OWater dioxide Atomic Oxygen HydrocarbonsHNO3 O3 PANs AldyhydesNitric Acid Peroxyacyl Ozone (e.g. Formaldehyde) nitrates Photochemical Smog
  16. 16. Ultraviolet rays from Sun Chlorofluorocarbons The Ozone layer in are entering in to stratosphere atmosphere releasing blocks these chlorine. The chlorine harmful UV rays than break down the ozone Oxygen ozone Whole in Ozone layerchlorine The chlorine released from CFCs break down the ozone molecule. More ultraviolet radiations are reaching in to earths surface as there is a whole in ozone layer.
  17. 17. Noise pollutionThis era has rightly been called as the era of noise.because heavy industrialization we are exposed to a high level of noise all around us. Noise has become a very important stress factor in modern life.it leads many health hazards.Some of the sources of noise pollution are aircraft,automobiles,factories,loudspeakers& pop& Rock-n-Roll music in clubs. Noise produces following health problems- 1)Auditory fatigue 2)Deafness or impaired vision 3)Rise in blood pressure, pulse rate 4)Headache 5)Nausea 6)Disturbed sleep 7)Emotional disturbances
  18. 18. Very High above than High Approximate 80db Pleasant below than 80dB 100db Heavy Traffic Quit Conversation Jet take off Loudspeaker Loud Conversation Ticking Clock Sports car Quit Raining Space vehicle launch
  19. 19. Noise Source Noise Noise Source Noise Scale ScaleBreathing 10db Traffic noise 60-90dbWinds in trees 20db Sports car 80-90dbQuit conversation 20-30db Heavy truck 90-100dbTicking clock 10db Motor cycle 105dbHouse in quiet 35db Thunder storm 110dbstreetRadio music 50-60db Beat music (Electrically 120db amplified)Loud conversation 60db Air craft noise 90-120dbOffice noise 60db Jet take off 120dbChildren play 60-80db Jet engine 140dbLawn mower 60-80db Space vehicle launch (From 140-170db a short distance)Vacuum cleaner 80db
  20. 20. ConclusionWe know that certain environmental conditions like air,water,& foodare essential for man,s survival.apart from their availability theirquality & quantity must be assured according to man,s natural &acquired capacity for sustenance progress in industrialization hasbrought environmental hazards such as air water & noisepollution.These have caused many health problems & diseases.As it has been said- we do not inherit the environment from ourforefathers,we borrow it from future generation. Stockholm conference of 1972 proclaims that: The protection & improvement of human environment is a majorissue which affects the well being of people & economic developmentthroughout the world&it is duty of all governments & people tocommon efforts for the preservation & improvement of environmentfor the benefit of all people & their prosperity
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