Computer Hardware
Components of a Computer-
Based Information System
(CBIS)
Hardware
Programs (Software)
Data (Database)
People
Procedures
N...
What is a computer?
an electronic device that has the
ability
to accept data, internally store and
automatically execute a...
Computer Components
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
arithmetic-logic unit
control unit
Primary Storage / Main Memory
Input D...
Input
Devices
Input
Devices
Output
Devices
Output
Devices
Communication
Devices
Communication
Devices
Control
Unit
Arithme...
Types of Storage
Primary Storage:
Internal temporary storage connected to
CPU and used to house data and
instructions for ...
Where do we put programs
and data to work on them ?
into primary storage from
input devices
secondary storage devices
comm...
How do we refer to a
location in primary storage ?
by its address
Primary Storage
0 1 2 3
4 5 6 7
8 9 10 11
12 13 14 15
16 17 18 19
00000 00001 00010 00011
00100 00101 00110 00111
01000 01...
How do we connect the
components of a computer
together ?
through a bus
Where do we store instructions
and data at the actual instant
that they are being processed ?
in registers
Buses & Registers
Control
Unit
Arithmetic /
Logic Unit
Primary Storage
Output
Devices
Input
Devices Secondary
Storage
Devi...
Bus
Data
Address
Control
Electrical
Registers
Special Purpose
Program Address (PAR) (aka Program
Counter)
Data
Address
Instruction
General Purpose
How fast can we execute
instructions ?
Millions of instructions per second
MIPS
Millions of floating point operations
per ...
How fast can we execute
instructions ?
gigahertz (GHz)
billion cycles per second
billions of instructions per second
BIPS
Timing Circuitry /
Clock
Clock
Generator
CPU
Bus
Controller
RAM, ROM, or I/O
Control
Address
Data
Random
Logic
I / O
Contr...
Unit Fraction of a Second
Time Units
millisecond one - thousandth
microsecond one - millionth
nanosecond one - billionth
p...
Primary Storage
Random-Access Memory (RAM)
Working area for various activities
Temporary holding place for
data/programs
C...
Memory / Storage Capacity
kilobyte 210
= 1,024 ≈ 1 thousand bytes
megabyte 220
= 1,048,576 ≈ 1 million
bytes
gigabyte 230
...
Levels of IC Integration
SSI
MSI
LSI
VLSI
SLSI
ULSI
GSI
Trends in Chip Technology
Capacity
Speed
Size
Cost
Input / Output
Devices
Input Devices / Media
Keyboard
Mouse / Trackball /Joystick
Touch Screen
Light Pen
Graphics Pad / Touchpad / Digitizer
Magn...
Input Devices / Media
Digital Camera
Optical Scanner
UPC
Mark Sense
OCR
Retinal / Thumb print / Image
Microfilm (CIM)
Othe...
Output Devices / Media
Monitor, VDT, VDU, CRT, Screen
text
graphics
picture element / pixel
VGA / SVGA / XGA / UXGA / ...
...
Output Devices / Media
Plotter
flatbed / drum
single color / multi-color
Speaker (Voice)
Slides / Film
Microfilm (COM)
Oth...
Input / Output Devices /
Media
Storage devices
Internal & external bus controllers
Communications ports
Modems (and commun...
Secondary Storage
Secondary Storage
Punch Cards
Paper Tape
Magnetic Tape
Magnetic Disk
Hard Disk
Diskette (“Floppy” Disk) / Zip Disk
Optical...
Punch Card
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
1
2
3
4
5...
Paper Tape
Magnetic Tape
9 — track Tape
EBCDIC code — even parity
4
6
0
1
2
P
3
7
5
A
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
A
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
C
0
1
1
1...
Disk - Top View
with Section of
Track
1
0 10
1
0
1 0 101 0101 01
0
1
0
1
0 1
CD-ROM - Side View
Secondary Storage
Magnetic Drum
Magneto-Optical Disk
Other Optical Disk
Read-Only
WORM
Rewritable
Optical Card
Microfilm /...
NOTES
On-Line versus Off-Line Devices
Peripheral versus Auxiliary
Devices
Automated Teller Machines (ATMs)
Source Data Aut...
“Kinds” of
Computers
Computer Categories
Types
Analog
Digital
Hybrid
Computer Categories
Purposes
General / Special / Dedicated
Business / Scientific
Computer Categories
"Sizes"
Micro / PC
Desktop
Notebook
Workstations
Mini
Mainframe
Super
“Server”
Computer Categories
"Sizes"
Smart Card
Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)
Terminal Computers
Network Computers
Windows-Based...
Computer Categories
Number of Processors
Single Processor
pipeline processing
Multiprocessor
Power PC
parallel processing
...
Determinants of
Computer Power
Processor Speed (Clock)
Word Size
Bus
Registers
Bus Speed
Primary Storage Size
Words / Byte...
Determinants of
Computer Power
Secondary Storage Size
Secondary Storage Speed
Instruction Set
CISC
RISC
ASIC
Cache
Size, S...
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3 computer basics

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  • Bus — a channel / path / "set of wires" for communications among the parts of a computer.
    internal bus vs. external bus
  • Just a few years ago, Rodney Zaks quantified these terms
    SSI - up to 10 transistors
    MSI - up to 500
    LSI - up to 20,000
    VLSI - up to 100,000
    SLSI - more than 100,000
    these figures are no longer meaningful
    At the Indiana ICIS meeting an IBM spokesperson said that IC technology costs $9.7 trillion an acre. But, we sell it in nanoacres.
  • 3 computer basics

    1. 1. Computer Hardware
    2. 2. Components of a Computer- Based Information System (CBIS) Hardware Programs (Software) Data (Database) People Procedures Networks
    3. 3. What is a computer? an electronic device that has the ability to accept data, internally store and automatically execute a program of instructions, perform mathematical, logical, and manipulative operations on data, and report the results
    4. 4. Computer Components Central Processing Unit (CPU) arithmetic-logic unit control unit Primary Storage / Main Memory Input Devices Output Devices Secondary Storage Devices I/O Devices
    5. 5. Input Devices Input Devices Output Devices Output Devices Communication Devices Communication Devices Control Unit Arithmetic-Logic Unit Primary Storage Secondary Storage Secondary Storage Central Processing Unit Bus Bus External Network Bus Bus
    6. 6. Types of Storage Primary Storage: Internal temporary storage connected to CPU and used to house data and instructions for processing Secondary storage: External permanent location for storing data and instructions when not needed by CPU Cache . . .
    7. 7. Where do we put programs and data to work on them ? into primary storage from input devices secondary storage devices communications devices
    8. 8. How do we refer to a location in primary storage ? by its address
    9. 9. Primary Storage 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 00000 00001 00010 00011 00100 00101 00110 00111 01000 01001 01010 01011 01100 01101 01110 01111 10000 10001 10010 10011
    10. 10. How do we connect the components of a computer together ? through a bus
    11. 11. Where do we store instructions and data at the actual instant that they are being processed ? in registers
    12. 12. Buses & Registers Control Unit Arithmetic / Logic Unit Primary Storage Output Devices Input Devices Secondary Storage Devices CPU
    13. 13. Bus Data Address Control Electrical
    14. 14. Registers Special Purpose Program Address (PAR) (aka Program Counter) Data Address Instruction General Purpose
    15. 15. How fast can we execute instructions ? Millions of instructions per second MIPS Millions of floating point operations per second MegaFLOPS (MFLOPS) Logical inferences per second LIPS megahertz (MHz) million cycles per second
    16. 16. How fast can we execute instructions ? gigahertz (GHz) billion cycles per second billions of instructions per second BIPS
    17. 17. Timing Circuitry / Clock Clock Generator CPU Bus Controller RAM, ROM, or I/O Control Address Data Random Logic I / O Controller Bus Driver Interrupt Controller Bus Driver Bus Driver
    18. 18. Unit Fraction of a Second Time Units millisecond one - thousandth microsecond one - millionth nanosecond one - billionth picosecond one - trillionth femtosecond one - quadrillionth
    19. 19. Primary Storage Random-Access Memory (RAM) Working area for various activities Temporary holding place for data/programs Contents retained only when computer is on Read-Only Memory (ROM) Location of startup procedures Holding place for all permanent internal instructions Contents retained when computer is on
    20. 20. Memory / Storage Capacity kilobyte 210 = 1,024 ≈ 1 thousand bytes megabyte 220 = 1,048,576 ≈ 1 million bytes gigabyte 230 = 1,073,741,824 ≈ 1 billion bytes terabyte 240 ≈ 1 trillion bytes petabyte 250 ≈ 1 quadrillion bytes exabyte 260 ≈ 1 quintillion bytes
    21. 21. Levels of IC Integration SSI MSI LSI VLSI SLSI ULSI GSI
    22. 22. Trends in Chip Technology Capacity Speed Size Cost
    23. 23. Input / Output Devices
    24. 24. Input Devices / Media Keyboard Mouse / Trackball /Joystick Touch Screen Light Pen Graphics Pad / Touchpad / Digitizer Magnetic Ink Character Reader (MICR) Microphone (Voice)
    25. 25. Input Devices / Media Digital Camera Optical Scanner UPC Mark Sense OCR Retinal / Thumb print / Image Microfilm (CIM) Other ????
    26. 26. Output Devices / Media Monitor, VDT, VDU, CRT, Screen text graphics picture element / pixel VGA / SVGA / XGA / UXGA / ... Printer dot-matrix / solid character impact / non-impact character / line / page single color / multi-color
    27. 27. Output Devices / Media Plotter flatbed / drum single color / multi-color Speaker (Voice) Slides / Film Microfilm (COM) Other ????
    28. 28. Input / Output Devices / Media Storage devices Internal & external bus controllers Communications ports Modems (and communication channels) Network interface cards (NIC) Wireless receivers / transmitters
    29. 29. Secondary Storage
    30. 30. Secondary Storage Punch Cards Paper Tape Magnetic Tape Magnetic Disk Hard Disk Diskette (“Floppy” Disk) / Zip Disk Optical Disk CD-ROM / CD-R / CD-RW DVD-ROM / DVD-R / DVD-RW / DVD+RW
    31. 31. Punch Card 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 3031 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 4041 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 5051 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 7071 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 3031 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 4041 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 5051 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 7071 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 012345678 9 A BCDE FGHI JKLM NOPQ RSTU VWXY Z .,- =()$
    32. 32. Paper Tape
    33. 33. Magnetic Tape 9 — track Tape EBCDIC code — even parity 4 6 0 1 2 P 3 7 5 A 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 A 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 C 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 S 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 I 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 S 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 9 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 8 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 9 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 M 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0
    34. 34. Disk - Top View with Section of Track 1 0 10 1 0 1 0 101 0101 01 0 1 0 1 0 1
    35. 35. CD-ROM - Side View
    36. 36. Secondary Storage Magnetic Drum Magneto-Optical Disk Other Optical Disk Read-Only WORM Rewritable Optical Card Microfilm / Microfiche (COM / CIM )
    37. 37. NOTES On-Line versus Off-Line Devices Peripheral versus Auxiliary Devices Automated Teller Machines (ATMs) Source Data Automation / POS Terminals Data Capture versus Data Entry Multimedia
    38. 38. “Kinds” of Computers
    39. 39. Computer Categories Types Analog Digital Hybrid
    40. 40. Computer Categories Purposes General / Special / Dedicated Business / Scientific
    41. 41. Computer Categories "Sizes" Micro / PC Desktop Notebook Workstations Mini Mainframe Super “Server”
    42. 42. Computer Categories "Sizes" Smart Card Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) Terminal Computers Network Computers Windows-Based Terminals Diskless Workstations
    43. 43. Computer Categories Number of Processors Single Processor pipeline processing Multiprocessor Power PC parallel processing massively parallel processing (MPP) primary & support processors
    44. 44. Determinants of Computer Power Processor Speed (Clock) Word Size Bus Registers Bus Speed Primary Storage Size Words / Bytes Primary Storage Speed
    45. 45. Determinants of Computer Power Secondary Storage Size Secondary Storage Speed Instruction Set CISC RISC ASIC Cache Size, Speed, Location
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