3 computer basics

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  • Bus — a channel / path / "set of wires" for communications among the parts of a computer.
    internal bus vs. external bus
  • Just a few years ago, Rodney Zaks quantified these terms
    SSI - up to 10 transistors
    MSI - up to 500
    LSI - up to 20,000
    VLSI - up to 100,000
    SLSI - more than 100,000
    these figures are no longer meaningful
    At the Indiana ICIS meeting an IBM spokesperson said that IC technology costs $9.7 trillion an acre. But, we sell it in nanoacres.
  • 3 computer basics

    1. 1. Computer Hardware
    2. 2. Components of a Computer- Based Information System (CBIS) Hardware Programs (Software) Data (Database) People Procedures Networks
    3. 3. What is a computer? an electronic device that has the ability to accept data, internally store and automatically execute a program of instructions, perform mathematical, logical, and manipulative operations on data, and report the results
    4. 4. Computer Components Central Processing Unit (CPU) arithmetic-logic unit control unit Primary Storage / Main Memory Input Devices Output Devices Secondary Storage Devices I/O Devices
    5. 5. Input Devices Input Devices Output Devices Output Devices Communication Devices Communication Devices Control Unit Arithmetic-Logic Unit Primary Storage Secondary Storage Secondary Storage Central Processing Unit Bus Bus External Network Bus Bus
    6. 6. Types of Storage Primary Storage: Internal temporary storage connected to CPU and used to house data and instructions for processing Secondary storage: External permanent location for storing data and instructions when not needed by CPU Cache . . .
    7. 7. Where do we put programs and data to work on them ? into primary storage from input devices secondary storage devices communications devices
    8. 8. How do we refer to a location in primary storage ? by its address
    9. 9. Primary Storage 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 00000 00001 00010 00011 00100 00101 00110 00111 01000 01001 01010 01011 01100 01101 01110 01111 10000 10001 10010 10011
    10. 10. How do we connect the components of a computer together ? through a bus
    11. 11. Where do we store instructions and data at the actual instant that they are being processed ? in registers
    12. 12. Buses & Registers Control Unit Arithmetic / Logic Unit Primary Storage Output Devices Input Devices Secondary Storage Devices CPU
    13. 13. Bus Data Address Control Electrical
    14. 14. Registers Special Purpose Program Address (PAR) (aka Program Counter) Data Address Instruction General Purpose
    15. 15. How fast can we execute instructions ? Millions of instructions per second MIPS Millions of floating point operations per second MegaFLOPS (MFLOPS) Logical inferences per second LIPS megahertz (MHz) million cycles per second
    16. 16. How fast can we execute instructions ? gigahertz (GHz) billion cycles per second billions of instructions per second BIPS
    17. 17. Timing Circuitry / Clock Clock Generator CPU Bus Controller RAM, ROM, or I/O Control Address Data Random Logic I / O Controller Bus Driver Interrupt Controller Bus Driver Bus Driver
    18. 18. Unit Fraction of a Second Time Units millisecond one - thousandth microsecond one - millionth nanosecond one - billionth picosecond one - trillionth femtosecond one - quadrillionth
    19. 19. Primary Storage Random-Access Memory (RAM) Working area for various activities Temporary holding place for data/programs Contents retained only when computer is on Read-Only Memory (ROM) Location of startup procedures Holding place for all permanent internal instructions Contents retained when computer is on
    20. 20. Memory / Storage Capacity kilobyte 210 = 1,024 ≈ 1 thousand bytes megabyte 220 = 1,048,576 ≈ 1 million bytes gigabyte 230 = 1,073,741,824 ≈ 1 billion bytes terabyte 240 ≈ 1 trillion bytes petabyte 250 ≈ 1 quadrillion bytes exabyte 260 ≈ 1 quintillion bytes
    21. 21. Levels of IC Integration SSI MSI LSI VLSI SLSI ULSI GSI
    22. 22. Trends in Chip Technology Capacity Speed Size Cost
    23. 23. Input / Output Devices
    24. 24. Input Devices / Media Keyboard Mouse / Trackball /Joystick Touch Screen Light Pen Graphics Pad / Touchpad / Digitizer Magnetic Ink Character Reader (MICR) Microphone (Voice)
    25. 25. Input Devices / Media Digital Camera Optical Scanner UPC Mark Sense OCR Retinal / Thumb print / Image Microfilm (CIM) Other ????
    26. 26. Output Devices / Media Monitor, VDT, VDU, CRT, Screen text graphics picture element / pixel VGA / SVGA / XGA / UXGA / ... Printer dot-matrix / solid character impact / non-impact character / line / page single color / multi-color
    27. 27. Output Devices / Media Plotter flatbed / drum single color / multi-color Speaker (Voice) Slides / Film Microfilm (COM) Other ????
    28. 28. Input / Output Devices / Media Storage devices Internal & external bus controllers Communications ports Modems (and communication channels) Network interface cards (NIC) Wireless receivers / transmitters
    29. 29. Secondary Storage
    30. 30. Secondary Storage Punch Cards Paper Tape Magnetic Tape Magnetic Disk Hard Disk Diskette (“Floppy” Disk) / Zip Disk Optical Disk CD-ROM / CD-R / CD-RW DVD-ROM / DVD-R / DVD-RW / DVD+RW
    31. 31. Punch Card 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 3031 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 4041 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 5051 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 7071 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1011 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 3031 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 4041 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 5051 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 7071 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 012345678 9 A BCDE FGHI JKLM NOPQ RSTU VWXY Z .,- =()$
    32. 32. Paper Tape
    33. 33. Magnetic Tape 9 — track Tape EBCDIC code — even parity 4 6 0 1 2 P 3 7 5 A 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 A 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 C 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 S 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 I 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 S 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 9 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 8 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 9 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 M 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0
    34. 34. Disk - Top View with Section of Track 1 0 10 1 0 1 0 101 0101 01 0 1 0 1 0 1
    35. 35. CD-ROM - Side View
    36. 36. Secondary Storage Magnetic Drum Magneto-Optical Disk Other Optical Disk Read-Only WORM Rewritable Optical Card Microfilm / Microfiche (COM / CIM )
    37. 37. NOTES On-Line versus Off-Line Devices Peripheral versus Auxiliary Devices Automated Teller Machines (ATMs) Source Data Automation / POS Terminals Data Capture versus Data Entry Multimedia
    38. 38. “Kinds” of Computers
    39. 39. Computer Categories Types Analog Digital Hybrid
    40. 40. Computer Categories Purposes General / Special / Dedicated Business / Scientific
    41. 41. Computer Categories "Sizes" Micro / PC Desktop Notebook Workstations Mini Mainframe Super “Server”
    42. 42. Computer Categories "Sizes" Smart Card Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) Terminal Computers Network Computers Windows-Based Terminals Diskless Workstations
    43. 43. Computer Categories Number of Processors Single Processor pipeline processing Multiprocessor Power PC parallel processing massively parallel processing (MPP) primary & support processors
    44. 44. Determinants of Computer Power Processor Speed (Clock) Word Size Bus Registers Bus Speed Primary Storage Size Words / Bytes Primary Storage Speed
    45. 45. Determinants of Computer Power Secondary Storage Size Secondary Storage Speed Instruction Set CISC RISC ASIC Cache Size, Speed, Location

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