1 computer fundamentals

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1 computer fundamentals

  1. 1. Computer Basics 1 Chapter One Computer Basics
  2. 2. Computer Basics 2 Computers systems come in many different sizes and shapes, according to the user’s wants and the manufacture’s style.
  3. 3. Computer Basics 3 A notebook computer, sometimes called a “laptop” is gaining popularity due to low power processor chips.
  4. 4. Computer Basics 4 But they all have commonalties.
  5. 5. Computer Basics 5 They all have monitors, as an output device, this one is a CRT (cathode ray tube).
  6. 6. Computer Basics 6 Flat screen LCD (liquid crystal display) type monitor. The same type is used in laptops
  7. 7. Computer Basics 7 A laptop monitor is built into the top cover, LCD type.
  8. 8. Computer Basics 8 A keyboard as an input device.
  9. 9. Computer Basics 9 An ergomatic keyboard.
  10. 10. Computer Basics 10 A laptop’s keyboard is built into the bottom section.
  11. 11. Computer Basics 11 A mouse, as an input device.
  12. 12. Computer Basics 12 Some keyboards have a trackball (an upside- down mouse) built into them.
  13. 13. Computer Basics 13 Laptops have a type of mouse built in. Touchpad Touchpoint
  14. 14. Computer Basics 14 A system unit.
  15. 15. Computer Basics 15 The system unit houses an array of storage and file transfer devices, located in the front panel for easy access.
  16. 16. Computer Basics 16
  17. 17. Computer Basics 17 The Main component of a System Unit is the motherboard, or system board.
  18. 18. Computer Basics 18
  19. 19. Computer Basics 19 • Most of the electronic components inside a computer are integrated circuits (ICs).
  20. 20. Computer Basics 20 A DIP (dual in-line pins) is the most common. DIPs contain specialized support circuitry.
  21. 21. Computer Basics 21 Other ICs are DIMM (dual in-line Memory Modules), Used in RAM (Random Access Memory).
  22. 22. Computer Basics 22 • RAM (Random Access Memory) –volatile memory –holds ops for more than one cycle –allows CPU to become a tool
  23. 23. Computer Basics 23 Some are used for ROM (read-only memory) BIOS (basic input/output system).
  24. 24. Computer Basics 24 • ROM (read-only memory) is nonvolatile memory –Holds program instructions after power off –Instruction set for startup –BIOS (basic input/output system)
  25. 25. Computer Basics 25 • CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) –permanent as long as battery voltage is applied –Holds PC setup –User intervention
  26. 26. Computer Basics 26 Still other ICs are PGA (pin-grid array) a square chip package used for the main processing circuitry.
  27. 27. Computer Basics 27 The largest processor package is the SEC (single edge contact) cartridge of the Pentium III.
  28. 28. Computer Basics 28 The largest feature of an IC is the lead frame package. The chip of the biggest IC is the size of your fingernail.
  29. 29. Computer Basics 29 Contained in this chip can be millions of transistors, resistors, and other electronic components.
  30. 30. Computer Basics 30
  31. 31. Computer Basics 31 •ISA (industry standard architecture). – ISA slots are an older technology, used today for some modems and other relatively slow devices. Many new computers have few or no ISA slots
  32. 32. Computer Basics 32
  33. 33. Computer Basics 33 •PCI (peripheral component interconnect). – PCI slots offer fast transfer speeds and a 64-bit data bus. These slots typically house a graphics card, sound card, video capture card, modem, or network interface card (NIC).
  34. 34. Computer Basics 34
  35. 35. Computer Basics 35 •AGP (accelerated graphics port). – Primarily used for graphics cards, and faster than a PCI slot, an AGP slot provides a high- speed data pathway that is particularly handy for 3-D graphics.
  36. 36. Computer Basics 36
  37. 37. Computer Basics 37 Expansion cards simply slide into an expansion slot. Video card
  38. 38. Computer Basics 38 Sound card
  39. 39. Computer Basics 39 A NIC (network interface card)
  40. 40. Computer Basics 40
  41. 41. Computer Basics 41 Installation of an expansion card is easy, just plug it in.
  42. 42. Computer Basics 42 Expansion cards are added to a laptop by means of a PCMCIA ( Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) slot.
  43. 43. Computer Basics 43 An external NIC (network interface card), a hard disk, or a modem (modulation-demodulation) card can be added to a laptop.
  44. 44. Computer Basics 44 To connect a peripheral device to an expansion card, you plug a cable from that peripheral device into an expansion port.
  45. 45. Computer Basics 45 CONNECTORS Connects to the Video port Monitor 15 pins
  46. 46. Computer Basics 46 CONNECTORS Connects to parallel port, which sends data simultaneously over eight data lines at speeds of 12,000 Kbps (kilobits per seconds) LPT Printer, external CD-ROM drive, external Zip, external hard drive. 25 pins
  47. 47. Computer Basics 47 CONNECTORS COM Connects to serial port, which sends data over a single data line one bit at a time at speeds of 56 Kbps. Mouse or Modem 9 pins
  48. 48. Computer Basics 48 CONNECTORS Connects to the “FireWire” port, which sends data at 400,000 Kbps Video camera, and external DVD drive
  49. 49. Computer Basics 49 CONNECTORS Scuzzy Connects to SCSI port, which sends data simultaneously over 8 or 16 data lines at speeds between 5 Mbps and 80 Mbps (Mega bits per second). Can support up to 16 devices in a “Daisy Chain”. Hard drives, scanner, CD- ROM, tape backup. 50 pins
  50. 50. Computer Basics 50 CONNECTORS Universal Serial Bus Modem, keyboard, joystick, scanner, and mouse. Connects to USB port, which sends data over a single data line at speeds of 12,000 Kbps. Supports up to 127 devices.
  51. 51. Computer Basics 51 CONNECTORS Connects to networking port, which sends data over two pairs of data lines at speeds of 10 to 100 Mbps. Intranet RJ-45
  52. 52. Computer Basics 52 • Magnetic media –Floppy disks • 3.5” • 5.25” –Hard disk –Zip Disk –Tape – used for backup Memory storage at present fall into three basic categories.
  53. 53. Computer Basics 53 • Optical storage media –CD-ROM • compact disk - read only memory –DVD • digital video disc or digital versatile disc Memory storage at present fall into three basic categories.
  54. 54. Computer Basics 54 Magnetic Media Devices
  55. 55. Computer Basics 55 CD-ROM (Compact disk - read only memory) File transfer devices
  56. 56. Computer Basics 56 File transfer devices
  57. 57. Computer Basics 57 Floppy and Zip disk capacities File transfer devices
  58. 58. Computer Basics 58 File transfer devices
  59. 59. Computer Basics 59 A hard disk is located inside the system unit. File storage devices
  60. 60. Computer Basics 60 Hard disk platters store data in the same manner as floppy disk File storage devices
  61. 61. Computer Basics 61
  62. 62. Computer Basics 62 Power on
  63. 63. Computer Basics 63
  64. 64. Computer Basics 64 A 5volt and 12volt power supply furnishes power to the system.
  65. 65. Computer Basics 65 POST (power-on self-test)
  66. 66. Computer Basics 66 If you enter advanced BIOS the boot-up can be changed to “C”
  67. 67. Computer Basics 67 Using Windows as an OS (operating System)
  68. 68. Computer Basics 68
  69. 69. Computer Basics 69 Computer Properties • Electronic machine • Speed • Accuracy and Reliability • Memory • Storage • Communication
  70. 70. Computer Basics 70 Software • Operating System • Application Software

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