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1 computer fundamentals

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  • 1. Computer Basics 1 Chapter One Computer Basics
  • 2. Computer Basics 2 Computers systems come in many different sizes and shapes, according to the user’s wants and the manufacture’s style.
  • 3. Computer Basics 3 A notebook computer, sometimes called a “laptop” is gaining popularity due to low power processor chips.
  • 4. Computer Basics 4 But they all have commonalties.
  • 5. Computer Basics 5 They all have monitors, as an output device, this one is a CRT (cathode ray tube).
  • 6. Computer Basics 6 Flat screen LCD (liquid crystal display) type monitor. The same type is used in laptops
  • 7. Computer Basics 7 A laptop monitor is built into the top cover, LCD type.
  • 8. Computer Basics 8 A keyboard as an input device.
  • 9. Computer Basics 9 An ergomatic keyboard.
  • 10. Computer Basics 10 A laptop’s keyboard is built into the bottom section.
  • 11. Computer Basics 11 A mouse, as an input device.
  • 12. Computer Basics 12 Some keyboards have a trackball (an upside- down mouse) built into them.
  • 13. Computer Basics 13 Laptops have a type of mouse built in. Touchpad Touchpoint
  • 14. Computer Basics 14 A system unit.
  • 15. Computer Basics 15 The system unit houses an array of storage and file transfer devices, located in the front panel for easy access.
  • 16. Computer Basics 16
  • 17. Computer Basics 17 The Main component of a System Unit is the motherboard, or system board.
  • 18. Computer Basics 18
  • 19. Computer Basics 19 • Most of the electronic components inside a computer are integrated circuits (ICs).
  • 20. Computer Basics 20 A DIP (dual in-line pins) is the most common. DIPs contain specialized support circuitry.
  • 21. Computer Basics 21 Other ICs are DIMM (dual in-line Memory Modules), Used in RAM (Random Access Memory).
  • 22. Computer Basics 22 • RAM (Random Access Memory) –volatile memory –holds ops for more than one cycle –allows CPU to become a tool
  • 23. Computer Basics 23 Some are used for ROM (read-only memory) BIOS (basic input/output system).
  • 24. Computer Basics 24 • ROM (read-only memory) is nonvolatile memory –Holds program instructions after power off –Instruction set for startup –BIOS (basic input/output system)
  • 25. Computer Basics 25 • CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) –permanent as long as battery voltage is applied –Holds PC setup –User intervention
  • 26. Computer Basics 26 Still other ICs are PGA (pin-grid array) a square chip package used for the main processing circuitry.
  • 27. Computer Basics 27 The largest processor package is the SEC (single edge contact) cartridge of the Pentium III.
  • 28. Computer Basics 28 The largest feature of an IC is the lead frame package. The chip of the biggest IC is the size of your fingernail.
  • 29. Computer Basics 29 Contained in this chip can be millions of transistors, resistors, and other electronic components.
  • 30. Computer Basics 30
  • 31. Computer Basics 31 •ISA (industry standard architecture). – ISA slots are an older technology, used today for some modems and other relatively slow devices. Many new computers have few or no ISA slots
  • 32. Computer Basics 32
  • 33. Computer Basics 33 •PCI (peripheral component interconnect). – PCI slots offer fast transfer speeds and a 64-bit data bus. These slots typically house a graphics card, sound card, video capture card, modem, or network interface card (NIC).
  • 34. Computer Basics 34
  • 35. Computer Basics 35 •AGP (accelerated graphics port). – Primarily used for graphics cards, and faster than a PCI slot, an AGP slot provides a high- speed data pathway that is particularly handy for 3-D graphics.
  • 36. Computer Basics 36
  • 37. Computer Basics 37 Expansion cards simply slide into an expansion slot. Video card
  • 38. Computer Basics 38 Sound card
  • 39. Computer Basics 39 A NIC (network interface card)
  • 40. Computer Basics 40
  • 41. Computer Basics 41 Installation of an expansion card is easy, just plug it in.
  • 42. Computer Basics 42 Expansion cards are added to a laptop by means of a PCMCIA ( Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) slot.
  • 43. Computer Basics 43 An external NIC (network interface card), a hard disk, or a modem (modulation-demodulation) card can be added to a laptop.
  • 44. Computer Basics 44 To connect a peripheral device to an expansion card, you plug a cable from that peripheral device into an expansion port.
  • 45. Computer Basics 45 CONNECTORS Connects to the Video port Monitor 15 pins
  • 46. Computer Basics 46 CONNECTORS Connects to parallel port, which sends data simultaneously over eight data lines at speeds of 12,000 Kbps (kilobits per seconds) LPT Printer, external CD-ROM drive, external Zip, external hard drive. 25 pins
  • 47. Computer Basics 47 CONNECTORS COM Connects to serial port, which sends data over a single data line one bit at a time at speeds of 56 Kbps. Mouse or Modem 9 pins
  • 48. Computer Basics 48 CONNECTORS Connects to the “FireWire” port, which sends data at 400,000 Kbps Video camera, and external DVD drive
  • 49. Computer Basics 49 CONNECTORS Scuzzy Connects to SCSI port, which sends data simultaneously over 8 or 16 data lines at speeds between 5 Mbps and 80 Mbps (Mega bits per second). Can support up to 16 devices in a “Daisy Chain”. Hard drives, scanner, CD- ROM, tape backup. 50 pins
  • 50. Computer Basics 50 CONNECTORS Universal Serial Bus Modem, keyboard, joystick, scanner, and mouse. Connects to USB port, which sends data over a single data line at speeds of 12,000 Kbps. Supports up to 127 devices.
  • 51. Computer Basics 51 CONNECTORS Connects to networking port, which sends data over two pairs of data lines at speeds of 10 to 100 Mbps. Intranet RJ-45
  • 52. Computer Basics 52 • Magnetic media –Floppy disks • 3.5” • 5.25” –Hard disk –Zip Disk –Tape – used for backup Memory storage at present fall into three basic categories.
  • 53. Computer Basics 53 • Optical storage media –CD-ROM • compact disk - read only memory –DVD • digital video disc or digital versatile disc Memory storage at present fall into three basic categories.
  • 54. Computer Basics 54 Magnetic Media Devices
  • 55. Computer Basics 55 CD-ROM (Compact disk - read only memory) File transfer devices
  • 56. Computer Basics 56 File transfer devices
  • 57. Computer Basics 57 Floppy and Zip disk capacities File transfer devices
  • 58. Computer Basics 58 File transfer devices
  • 59. Computer Basics 59 A hard disk is located inside the system unit. File storage devices
  • 60. Computer Basics 60 Hard disk platters store data in the same manner as floppy disk File storage devices
  • 61. Computer Basics 61
  • 62. Computer Basics 62 Power on
  • 63. Computer Basics 63
  • 64. Computer Basics 64 A 5volt and 12volt power supply furnishes power to the system.
  • 65. Computer Basics 65 POST (power-on self-test)
  • 66. Computer Basics 66 If you enter advanced BIOS the boot-up can be changed to “C”
  • 67. Computer Basics 67 Using Windows as an OS (operating System)
  • 68. Computer Basics 68
  • 69. Computer Basics 69 Computer Properties • Electronic machine • Speed • Accuracy and Reliability • Memory • Storage • Communication
  • 70. Computer Basics 70 Software • Operating System • Application Software