Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
1 computer fundamentals
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.


Saving this for later?

Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime - even offline.

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

1 computer fundamentals


Published on

Published in: Technology, Business

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

No notes for slide


  • 1. Computer Basics 1 Chapter One Computer Basics
  • 2. Computer Basics 2 Computers systems come in many different sizes and shapes, according to the user’s wants and the manufacture’s style.
  • 3. Computer Basics 3 A notebook computer, sometimes called a “laptop” is gaining popularity due to low power processor chips.
  • 4. Computer Basics 4 But they all have commonalties.
  • 5. Computer Basics 5 They all have monitors, as an output device, this one is a CRT (cathode ray tube).
  • 6. Computer Basics 6 Flat screen LCD (liquid crystal display) type monitor. The same type is used in laptops
  • 7. Computer Basics 7 A laptop monitor is built into the top cover, LCD type.
  • 8. Computer Basics 8 A keyboard as an input device.
  • 9. Computer Basics 9 An ergomatic keyboard.
  • 10. Computer Basics 10 A laptop’s keyboard is built into the bottom section.
  • 11. Computer Basics 11 A mouse, as an input device.
  • 12. Computer Basics 12 Some keyboards have a trackball (an upside- down mouse) built into them.
  • 13. Computer Basics 13 Laptops have a type of mouse built in. Touchpad Touchpoint
  • 14. Computer Basics 14 A system unit.
  • 15. Computer Basics 15 The system unit houses an array of storage and file transfer devices, located in the front panel for easy access.
  • 16. Computer Basics 16
  • 17. Computer Basics 17 The Main component of a System Unit is the motherboard, or system board.
  • 18. Computer Basics 18
  • 19. Computer Basics 19 • Most of the electronic components inside a computer are integrated circuits (ICs).
  • 20. Computer Basics 20 A DIP (dual in-line pins) is the most common. DIPs contain specialized support circuitry.
  • 21. Computer Basics 21 Other ICs are DIMM (dual in-line Memory Modules), Used in RAM (Random Access Memory).
  • 22. Computer Basics 22 • RAM (Random Access Memory) –volatile memory –holds ops for more than one cycle –allows CPU to become a tool
  • 23. Computer Basics 23 Some are used for ROM (read-only memory) BIOS (basic input/output system).
  • 24. Computer Basics 24 • ROM (read-only memory) is nonvolatile memory –Holds program instructions after power off –Instruction set for startup –BIOS (basic input/output system)
  • 25. Computer Basics 25 • CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) –permanent as long as battery voltage is applied –Holds PC setup –User intervention
  • 26. Computer Basics 26 Still other ICs are PGA (pin-grid array) a square chip package used for the main processing circuitry.
  • 27. Computer Basics 27 The largest processor package is the SEC (single edge contact) cartridge of the Pentium III.
  • 28. Computer Basics 28 The largest feature of an IC is the lead frame package. The chip of the biggest IC is the size of your fingernail.
  • 29. Computer Basics 29 Contained in this chip can be millions of transistors, resistors, and other electronic components.
  • 30. Computer Basics 30
  • 31. Computer Basics 31 •ISA (industry standard architecture). – ISA slots are an older technology, used today for some modems and other relatively slow devices. Many new computers have few or no ISA slots
  • 32. Computer Basics 32
  • 33. Computer Basics 33 •PCI (peripheral component interconnect). – PCI slots offer fast transfer speeds and a 64-bit data bus. These slots typically house a graphics card, sound card, video capture card, modem, or network interface card (NIC).
  • 34. Computer Basics 34
  • 35. Computer Basics 35 •AGP (accelerated graphics port). – Primarily used for graphics cards, and faster than a PCI slot, an AGP slot provides a high- speed data pathway that is particularly handy for 3-D graphics.
  • 36. Computer Basics 36
  • 37. Computer Basics 37 Expansion cards simply slide into an expansion slot. Video card
  • 38. Computer Basics 38 Sound card
  • 39. Computer Basics 39 A NIC (network interface card)
  • 40. Computer Basics 40
  • 41. Computer Basics 41 Installation of an expansion card is easy, just plug it in.
  • 42. Computer Basics 42 Expansion cards are added to a laptop by means of a PCMCIA ( Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) slot.
  • 43. Computer Basics 43 An external NIC (network interface card), a hard disk, or a modem (modulation-demodulation) card can be added to a laptop.
  • 44. Computer Basics 44 To connect a peripheral device to an expansion card, you plug a cable from that peripheral device into an expansion port.
  • 45. Computer Basics 45 CONNECTORS Connects to the Video port Monitor 15 pins
  • 46. Computer Basics 46 CONNECTORS Connects to parallel port, which sends data simultaneously over eight data lines at speeds of 12,000 Kbps (kilobits per seconds) LPT Printer, external CD-ROM drive, external Zip, external hard drive. 25 pins
  • 47. Computer Basics 47 CONNECTORS COM Connects to serial port, which sends data over a single data line one bit at a time at speeds of 56 Kbps. Mouse or Modem 9 pins
  • 48. Computer Basics 48 CONNECTORS Connects to the “FireWire” port, which sends data at 400,000 Kbps Video camera, and external DVD drive
  • 49. Computer Basics 49 CONNECTORS Scuzzy Connects to SCSI port, which sends data simultaneously over 8 or 16 data lines at speeds between 5 Mbps and 80 Mbps (Mega bits per second). Can support up to 16 devices in a “Daisy Chain”. Hard drives, scanner, CD- ROM, tape backup. 50 pins
  • 50. Computer Basics 50 CONNECTORS Universal Serial Bus Modem, keyboard, joystick, scanner, and mouse. Connects to USB port, which sends data over a single data line at speeds of 12,000 Kbps. Supports up to 127 devices.
  • 51. Computer Basics 51 CONNECTORS Connects to networking port, which sends data over two pairs of data lines at speeds of 10 to 100 Mbps. Intranet RJ-45
  • 52. Computer Basics 52 • Magnetic media –Floppy disks • 3.5” • 5.25” –Hard disk –Zip Disk –Tape – used for backup Memory storage at present fall into three basic categories.
  • 53. Computer Basics 53 • Optical storage media –CD-ROM • compact disk - read only memory –DVD • digital video disc or digital versatile disc Memory storage at present fall into three basic categories.
  • 54. Computer Basics 54 Magnetic Media Devices
  • 55. Computer Basics 55 CD-ROM (Compact disk - read only memory) File transfer devices
  • 56. Computer Basics 56 File transfer devices
  • 57. Computer Basics 57 Floppy and Zip disk capacities File transfer devices
  • 58. Computer Basics 58 File transfer devices
  • 59. Computer Basics 59 A hard disk is located inside the system unit. File storage devices
  • 60. Computer Basics 60 Hard disk platters store data in the same manner as floppy disk File storage devices
  • 61. Computer Basics 61
  • 62. Computer Basics 62 Power on
  • 63. Computer Basics 63
  • 64. Computer Basics 64 A 5volt and 12volt power supply furnishes power to the system.
  • 65. Computer Basics 65 POST (power-on self-test)
  • 66. Computer Basics 66 If you enter advanced BIOS the boot-up can be changed to “C”
  • 67. Computer Basics 67 Using Windows as an OS (operating System)
  • 68. Computer Basics 68
  • 69. Computer Basics 69 Computer Properties • Electronic machine • Speed • Accuracy and Reliability • Memory • Storage • Communication
  • 70. Computer Basics 70 Software • Operating System • Application Software