Kitap el sgramer anlat- 770 sayfa

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Kitap el sgramer anlat- 770 sayfa

  1. 1. UNIT 1 1-1 THE ENGLISH VERB TENSES THE VERB "BE'............................................................................. UNIT 3 7 1-2 1-3 1-4 1-5 1-6 1-7 THE PASSIVE 144 2-2 POLITE REQUESTS with the SUBJECT T .................................. 95 2-3 POLITE REQUESTS with the SUBJECT "YOU1.................................................. 96 2-4 POLITE REQUESTS with "WOULD YOU MIND'............................ 97 94 2-5 POLITE REQUESTS with IMPERATIVES...................................... 99 2-6 NECESSITY and PROHIBITION..................................................... 100 2-7 NECESSITY: MUST; HAVE TO, HAVE GOT TO ............................ 100 2-8 PROHIBITION: MUSTN'T ............................................................ 102 2-9 LACK OF NECESSITY IN THE PAST ........................................... 103 2-10 ADVISABILITY .............................................................................. 105 2-11 SHOULD, OUGHT TO, HAD BETTER .......................................... 105 2-12 SHOULD NOT, OUGHT NOT TO, HAD BETTER NOT.................. 106 2-13 SHOULD/SHOULDN'T BE DOING OUGHT TO/OUGHT NOT TO BE DOING..................................... 107 2-14 SHOULD/SHOULDN'T HAVE DONE OUGHT TO/OUGHT NOT TO HAVE DONE................................... 107 2-15 SHOULD/SHOULDN'T HAVE BEEN DOING OUGHT TO/OUGHT NOT TO HAVE BEEN DOING....................... 108 2-16 EXPECTATIONS: BE TO and BE SUPPOSED TO ....................... 109 2-17 ABILITY: CAN and BE ABLE TO .................................................. 111 2-18 MAKING SUGGESTIONS ............................................................. 115 2-19 EXPRESSING DEGREES OF CERTAINTY ................................. 117 2-20 DEGREES OF CERTAINTY in PRESENT TIME ........................... 117 2-21 PRESENT PROGRESSIVE FORMS OF MODALS ...................... 118 2-22 DEGREES OF CERTAINTY in PAST TIME..................................... 119 2-23 PAST PROGRESSIVE FORMS OF MODALS .............................. 120 2-24 DEGREES OF CERTAINTY in FUTURE TIME ............................. 121 2-25 ADVANCED NOTES ON MODALS................................................ 122 2-26 PREFERENCE .............................................................................. 125 2-27 HABITUAL PAST: USED TO and WOULD..................................... 128 TEST YOURSELF 2 ...................................................................... 131 1-8 1-9 1-10 1-11 1-12 113 114 1-15 116 117 118 119 120 1-21 122 123 124 125 THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE........................................ USE OF THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE............................ THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE ................................................. USE OF THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE ................................... THE SIMPLE PRESENT or THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS ........ NONPROGRESSIVE VERBS......................................................... NONPROGRESSIVE or PROGRESSIVE .................................... THE SIMPLE PAST TENSE......................................................... USE OF THE SIMPLE PAST TENSE ............................................ CONFUSING VERBS.................................................................... EMPHATIC "DO"........................................................................... THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE .............................................. USE OF THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE.................................. THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE............................................. USE OF THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE ................................. THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE........................ USE OF THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS .................. PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE or CONTINUOUS ......................... THE PAST PERFECT TENSE .................................................. USE OF THE PAST PERFECT TENSE 47 PRESENT PERFECT or PAST PERFECT .................................. SIMPLE PAST and PAST PERFECT in TIME CLAUSES.............. THE PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE ............................ PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS or PAST CONTINUOUS ............ FUTURE TIME (WILL/SHALL or BE GOING TO) ...................... USE OF THE FUTURE TENSES .................................................. FUTURE TENSE in TIME CLAUSES ........................................... THE FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE........................................ USE OF THE FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE ........................... THE FUTURE PERFECT TENSE ............................................. USE OF THE FUTURE PERFECT TENSE.................................... THE FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE .................... USE OF THE FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS ....................... TENSE AGREEMENT in TIME CLAUSES..................................... TEST YOURSELF 1....................................................................... 47 49 55 56 60 60 62 64 64 66 66 67 67 69 81 UNIT 2 8 9 10 10 13 14 15 17 18 21 26 27 27 32 32 39 39 40 46 MODALS and SIMILAR EXPRESSIONS 2-1 REQUESTS.................................................................................... 95 1
  2. 2. FORMING THE PASSIVE ............................................................... POSITION OF TIME ADVERBIALS IN THE PASSIVE ................... USING "BYPHRASE' ................................................................... USING PASSIVE IN INTERROGATES........................................ INDIRECT OBJECTS AS PASSIVE SUBJECTS.............................. THE PASSIVE FORM OF MODALS............................................... STATIVE PASSIVE......................................................................... STATIVE PASSIVE WITH PREPOSITIONS ................................... THE PASSIVE WITH "GET" ........................................................... 3-10 "BY PHRASE" OR ANOTHER PREPOSITION................................ 3-11 IMPERSONAL PRONOUNS in the PASSIVE ................................ 3-12 PASSIVE WITH GERUNDS-INFINITIVES ..................................... 3-13 ITS SAID THAT.../HE IS SAID TO... ete.......................................... TEST YOURSELF 3...................................................................... 144 145 147 148 152 155 156 157 159 161 162 163 164 173 TEST YOURSELF 5 (PART TWO) .............................................. 291 UNIT 6 6-1 6-2 6-3 6-4 6-5 GERUNDS and INFINIT IVES .............................. 303 GERUNDS .................................................................................... GERUND AS SUBJECT OF A SENTENCE ,........-........................ GERUND AS SUBJECT COMPLEMENT .................................... GERUND AS DIRECT OBJECT.................................................... GERUND AS THE OBJECT OF A PREPOSITION ...................... 303 303 304 305 306 UNIT 4 "IF" and "WISH" CLAUSES .......................... ...........................................................................................187 4-1 4-2 4-3 4-4 4-5 4-6 4-7 4-8 4-9 4-10 4-11 4-12 4-13 4-14 "If' CLAUSES................................................................................. TYPE 1: TRUE IN THE PRESENT OR FUTURE ........................... TYPE 1 "IF CLAUSE ile KULLANILAN TENSE'LER .................... TYPE 2: UNTRUE IN THE PRESENT OR FUTURE ...................... TYPE 2 "If' CLAUSE ile KULLANILAN TENSE'LER...................... TYPE 3: UNTRUE IN THE PAST................................................... TYPE 3 "IF1 CLAUSE ile KULLANILAN TENSE'LER ................... OTHER TENSE COMBINATIONS IN "/F CLAUSES .................... OTHER CONDITIONALS ............................................................ "MIXED TIME" IF CLAUSES ........................................................ OMITTING "IF'............................................................................... IMPLIED CONDITIONS ................................................................. WISH CLAUSES ........................................................................ AS IF/AS THOUGH ...................................................................... TEST YOURSELF 4...................................................................... UNIT 5 5-1 5-2 5-3 5-4 5-5 5-6 5-7 5-8 5-9 187 188 188 190 191 193 193 196 202 207 209 211 213 218 221 NOUN CLAUSES and REPORTED SPEECH 234 NOUN CLAUSES WITH A QUESTION WORD ............................ 235 NOUN CLAUSES WITH "WHETHER OR NOT' ........................... 239 NOUN CLAUSES WITH "THAT' ................................................... 242 THE SUBJUNCTIVE IN NOUN CLAUSES ................................... 246 NOUN CLAUSE AS OBJECT OF THE PREPOSITION ................. 248 NOUN CLAUSES AS SUBJECT COMPLEMENT .......................... 249 TENSE RELATIONS IN NOUN CLAUSES..................................... 249 ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT NOUN CLAUSES .............. 251 QUESTION WORDS FOLLOWED by INFINITIVES........................ 252 5-10 EXCLAMATIONS ........................................................................... 253 5-11 SPECIAL EMPHASIS WITH QUESTION WORDS + ON EARTH /IN THE WORLD................................................................................. 254 5-12 "-EVER" WORDS in NOUN CLAUSES ........................................ 255 TEST YOURSELF 5 (PART ONE) ................................................ 258 5-13 REPORTED SPEECH ................................................................... 270 5-14 REPORTING STATEMENTS ....................................................... 270 5-15 REPORTING QUESTIONS ........................................................... 275 5-16 REPORTING IMPERATIVES ....................................................... 277 5-17 REPORTED SPEECH (MIXED TYPES)......................................... 279 5-18 AUXILIARY VERBS IN SHORT ANSWERS.................................... 281 5-19 TOO and EITHER ......................................................................... 281 5-20 SO and NEITHER/NOR ................................................................ 281 5-21 AUXILIARY VERBS in SHORT QUESTIONS.................................. 284 5-22 "SO" and "WOT" REPRESENTING a THAT-CLAUSE...................... 285 5-23 QUESTION TAGS ......................................................................... 287 2
  3. 3. 6-6 EXPRESSIONS + GERUND ......................................................... 6-7 THE PERFECT GERUND ............................................................ 6-8 THE PASSIVE GERUND............................................................... 6-9 INFINITIVES .................................................................................. 6-10 INFINITIVE AS SUBJECT OF THE SENTENCE ........................... 6-11 INFINITIVE AS SUBJECT COMPLEMENT..................................... 6-12 INFINITIVE AS DIRECT OBJECT ................................................ 6-13 GERUND or INFINITIVE................................................................ 6-14 INFINITIVE AFTER CERTAIN NOUNS .......................................... 6-15 INFINITIVE AFTER CERTAIN ADJECTIVES ............................... 6-16 PASSIVE INFINITIVE AND PAST INFINITIVE ............................. 6-17 INFINITIVE OF PURPOSE: IN ORDER TO .................................. 6-18 INFINITIVE WITH TOO AND ENOUGH.......................................... 6-19 VERBS OF PERCEPTION ............................................................ 6-20 INFINITIVE WITHOUT"TO"AFTER"LET" AND"HELP"........... 6-21 CERTAIN VERBS + NOUN/PRONOUN + INFINITIVE .................... 6-22 INFINITIVE AFTER QUESTION WORDS ..................................... 6-23 CAUSATIVES ............................................................................... TEST YOURSELF 6...................................................................... 314 317 317 319 319 322 323 327 332 332 334 336 337 339 341 342 343 343 348 UNIT 7 360 ADJECTIVES and ADVERBS. 7-1 ADJECTIVES ............................................................................... 7-2 THE ORDER OF ADJECTIVES ................................................... 7-3 PRESENT AND PAST PARTICIPLES AS ADJECTIVES ............... 7-4 ADVERBS ..................................................................................... 7-5 FORMING ADVERBS WITH -LY .................................................. 7-6 USE OF ADVERBS ...................................................................... 7-7 IRREGULAR ADVERBS ............................................................... 7-8 POSITION OF ADVERBS IN A SENTENCE .................................. 7-9 ADVERBS OF DEGREE ............................................................... 7-10 SENTENCE ADVERBS ................................................................. 7-11 FOCUSING ADVERBS ................................................................. 7-12 ADJECTIVE AND ADVERB STRUCTURES ................................... 7-13 TOO AND ENOUGH ................................................................... 7-14 SO... THAT, SUCH... THAT ........................................................ 7-15 COMPARATIVE ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS ............................ 7-16 COMPARISON WITH AS.... AS/THE SAME.... AS ...................... 7-17 SUPERLATIVE FORMS OF ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS............. 7-18 'TO + INFINITIVE' AFTER ADJECTIVE STRUCTURES.................. 7-19 LIKE, AS, SUCH AS ...................................................................... TEST YOURSELF 7 ..................................................................... UNIT 8 8-1 8-2 8-3 8-4 8-5 8-6 8-7 8-8 8-9 8-10 8-11 8-12 8-13 8-14 8-15 8-16 8-17 8-18 8-19 8-20 ... 423 DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES................................................... 424 RELATIVE PRONOUNS AS SUBJECT OF THE CLAUSE............... 424 RELATIVE PRONOUNS AS THE OBJECT OF A VERB................... 426 RELATIVE PRONOUNS AS THE OBJECT OF A PREPOSITION .. 427 USING "WHOSE" AND "OF WHICH'.............................................. 428 USING "WHERE' .......................................................................... 429 USING "WHEN'............................................................................. 430 USING "WHY1 ................................................................................ 431 USING RELATIVE CLAUSES TO MODIFY PRONOUNS................. 433 NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES........................................... 434 SUBJECT POSITION ..................................................................... 435 OBJECT POSITION ...................................................................... 435 POSSESSIVE ............................................................................... 435 "WHERE' IN NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES....................... 436 "WHEN' IN NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES......................... 438 EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY IN RELATIVE CLAUSES............... 438 USING "WHICH' TO MODIFY A WHOLE SENTENCE..................... 439 RELATIVE CLAUSE, NOUN CLAUSE OR ADVERBIAL CLAUSE.. 440 REDUCTION OF RELATIVE CLAUSES......................................... 443 CLEFT SENTENCES .................................................................... 451 TEST YOURSELF 8...................................................................... 457 UNIT 9 9-1 9-2 9-3 9-4 RELATIVE CLAUSES ... 360 362 363 367 367 367 368 371 372 382 384 385 385 386 390 396 402 406 407 411 NOUNS, PRONOUNS, ARTICLES and QUANTIFIERS......................................... NOUNS .......................................................................................... COUNTABLE NOUNS .................................................................. UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS................................................................ COUNTABLE OR UNCOUNTABLE................................................. 470 470 470 473 474 9-5 POSSESSIVE NOUNS ................................................................... 9-6 INDEFINITE ARTICLE: A/AN ......................................................... 9-7 DEFINITE ARTICLE: THE ............................................................. 9-8 QUANTIFIERS ............................................................................... 9-9 ANY, MANY, MUCH, SOME, A LOT OF/LOTS OF, NO .................. 9-10 FEW/A FEW, LITTLE/A LITTLE ..................................................... 9-11 MOST, SEVERAL, PLENTY OF, ENOUGH .................................... 9-12 ALL, WHOLE, NONE, HALF ......................................................... 9-13 BOTH, EITHER, NEITHER ............................................................ 9-14 QUANTIFIERS USED WITH SINGULAR NOUNS: ONE, EACH, EVERY .............................................................................. 9-15 OTHER EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY ....................................... 9-16 COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE WITH QUANTIFIERS .......... 9-17 INDEFINITE PRONOUNS .............................................................. 9-18 REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS .............................................................. 9-19 SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT .................................................... 9-20 BASIC SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT ......................................... 9-21 SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT WITH EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY .................................................................................... 9-22 SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT WITH THERE IS / THERE ARE .... 9-23 COLLECTIVE NOUNS .................................................................. 9-24 NOUNS THAT ARE ALWAYS PLURAL .......................................... 9-25 SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT WITH SOME IRREGULARITIES 9-26 PRONOUN AGREEMENT ............................................................. 9-27 FORMS of "OTHER" ..................................................................... TEST YOURSELF 9 ...................................................................... 476 478 480 484 484 487 488 489 492 495 497 498 500 502 504 505 505 5Q6 507 507 507 509 510 516 UNIT 10 CONJUNCTIONS and TRANSITIONS...... 528 10-1 COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS ............................................... 10-2 CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS................................................. 10-3 SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS ............................................ 10-4 ADVERBIAL CLAUSES OF TIME.................................................... 10-5 ADVERBIAL CLAUSES SHOWING CAUSE AND EFFECT RELATIONSHIPS........................................................................... 10-6 EXPRESSING PURPOSE.............................................................. 10-7 CONCESSION AND CONTRAST .................................................. 10-8 REDUCTION of ADVERBIAL CLAUSES to MODIFYING PHRASES...................................................................................... 10-9 CONTINUING THE SAME IDEA .................................................... 10-10 INVERSION................................................................................... TEST YOURSELF 10..................................................................... 528 530 534 534 UNIT 11 PREPOSITIONS 561 566 568 575 588 11-1 PREPOSITIONS WITH TIME EXPRESSIONS................................. 11-2 AT, ON, IN ..................................................................................... 11-3 PREPOSITIONS USED WITH TIME EXPRESSIONS...................... 11-4 PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE and MOVEMENT............................... 11-5 PREPOSITION COMBINATIONS.................................................... 11-6 NOUN + PREPOSITION ............................................................... 11-7 PREPOSITION + NOUN................................................................. 11-8 PREPOSITION + NOUN + PREPOSITION.................................... 11-9 ADJECTIVE + PREPOSITION....................................................... 11-10 VERB + PREPOSITION................................................................. 11-11 VERB + OBJECT + PREPOSITION ............................................... 11-12 VERB + NOUN + PREPOSITION ................................................. TEST YOURSELF 11 (PART ONE) ............................................... TEST YOURSELF 11 (PARTTWO) .............................................. UNIT 12 PHRASAL VERBS.......................... 538 545 548 .... 588 588 592 594 598 598 601 608 609 610 611 612 621 632 643 12-1 PHRASAL VERBS: TRANSITIVE or INTRANSITIVE....................... 12-2 TRANSITIVE PHRASAL VERBS.................................................... 12-3 INTRANSITIVE PHRASAL VERBS................................................ TEST YOURSELF 12.................................................................... 643 643 644 660 APPENDIX 1 ADJECTIVE + PREPOSITION............................................ APPENDIX 2 VERB + PREPOSITION..................................................... APPENDIX 3 VERB + OBJECT + PREPOSITION................................... APPENDIX 4 COMMON PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES............................ APPENDIX 5 MINI PHRASAL VERB DICTIONARY.................................. 671 675 676 677 679
  4. 4. UNIT1 The English Verb Tenses INTRODUCTION WORD ORDER IN AN ENGLISH SENTENCE İngilizce bir cümlede sözcük dizimi, Türkçe sözcük diziminden farklıdır. Türkçe bir cümlede yüklem cümlenin sonunda yer alır ve özneyi de içinde barındırır. alışının. BEN İNGİLİZCE calışırım Özne Nesne Yüklem Subject Object Verb Yukarıdaki cümleyi, "İngilizce çalışırım." biçiminde de ifade edebiliriz ve ikinci cümlede özneyi açık olarak göremediğimiz halde, öznenin 1. tekil şahıs olduğunu yüklemdeki -m takısından anlarız. Bu durum ingilizce için geçerli değildir. Yani ingilizce bir cümlede yüklem özneyi belli etmez. Bu yüzden, cümleye özne ile başlamak zorundayız. Formüle edilmiş olarak ingilizce cümle düzeni şöyledir: Verb Yüklem Object Nesne "İngilizce çalışırım." cümlesini İngilizce'de, "J study English." biçiminde ifade edebiliriz. 1-1 THE VERB'BE" Sözcükleri rastgele bir araya getirerek cümle kuramayız. Cümle kurabilmemiz için mutlaka bir fiile ihtiyacımız vardır. "Be fiili, "come, go, study, eat, become" vb. gibi asıl fiilimiz olmadığı zaman cümle kurmamızı sağlar. "Be" fiilinin şimdiki zaman ve geniş zaman biçimi aynıdır ve bu tense'lerle "am, is, are" biçiminde kullanılır. Singular Subject Pronouns Plural Subject Pronouns I am We are You are You are He/She/It is They are I am always nervous before an exam, (general) I am nervous now, because I'm taking an exam in half an hour, (present) a) "Be" fiilini asıl fiil olarak kullanabileceğimiz başlıca üç kalıp vardır: a) be + noun I am a teacher. They are students. She is a Turk. Today is Tuesday. b) be + adjective c) be + prepositional phrase He is tall. The world is round. They are intelligent. It's very hot today. They are at home. Jane is from England. She is at the bus-stop. We are in the classroom. ELS Q 7
  5. 5. b) "Be", yardımcı fiil olarak sürerlik bildiren tense'lerle de kullanılır. I am writing now. She is reading the newspaper. They are listening to music. 1 -2 THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE FORM Affirmative I am writing now. You are reading a book. He/She/It is eating lunch. We are listening to music. You are working hard. They are discussing their financial problems. Negative I am not writing now. You are not reading a book. He/She/It is not eating lunch. We are not listening to music. You are not working hard. They are not discussing their financial problems. Interrogative Am I writing now? Are you reading a book? Is he/she/it eating lunch? Are we listening to music? Are you working hard? Are they discussing their financial problems? Olumsuz soruyu iki şekilde sorabiliriz. Am I not trying to help you? Are you not helping your mother? Is she not studying English? or or or Aren't I trying to help you? Aren't you helping your mother? Isn't she studying English? Are we not leaving for class now? Are you not watching the film? Are they not having breakfast? or or or Aren't we leaving for class now? Aren't you watching the film? Aren't they having breakfast? SPELLING OF -ING Sonu -e ile biten fiiller write writing admire admiring hope hoping hide hiding shave shaving amaze amazing dine dining ride riding Sonu -e ile biten fiillere -Ing takısı eklenirken -e düşer.* Sonu bir sesli harf +bir sessiz harfle biten fiiller TEK HECELİ FİİLLER stop stopping beg begging sit sitting run running rub rubbing set setting Bu gruba giren tek heceli fiillerde, sondaki sessiz harf çift yazılır. open opening ripen ripening begin beginning control controlling play playing buy buying enjoy enjoying Vurgu 1. hecedeyse, sondaki sessiz harf tek yazılır; 2. hecedeyse çift yazılır. -y ile biten fiillere -Ing takısı eklenirken yazımda değişiklik olmaz. Sonu -y ile biten fiiller İKİ HECELİ FİİLLER a) listen listening happen happening 3) prefer preferring refer referring study studying reply replying try trying Sonu -ie ile biten fiiller die lie tie Sonu iki sessiz harfle biten fiiller stand hold spend standing holding spending -ie -y' ye dönüşür ve -Ing eklenir. dying fying lying start find bend starting finding bending İki sessizle biten fiillere -Ing eklenirken yazımda değişiklik olmaz. * Sonu -ee biçiminde biten fiiller -Ing takısı alırken -e düşmez: see-seeing, agree-agreeing, free-freeing 8 a ELS
  6. 6. l -3 USE OF THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE a) Bu tense ile temel olarak içinde bulunduğumuz anda yapmakta olduğumuz eylemleri anlatırız. Zamanı pekiştirmek için ise now, right now, at the moment, at present, still gibi zaman zarflan kullanırız. Mother is in the kitchen now. She is cooking dinner. - Where is your sister? - I think she is writing a letter in her room. Listen! They are talking about us. Can you hear what they are saying? b) Konuşmanın geçtiği sırada eylemi yapıyor olmasak bile, o sıralarda yapmakta olduğumuz işleri de bu tense ile anlatırız ve nowadays, these days, this term, this year, this month, this semester, at the moment ("şu sıralar" anlamında) gibi zaman zarfları kullanırız. - How many courses are you taking this term? - I'm taking five courses. - I haven't seen Peter recently. Have you? - No, but I talked to him on the phone last Saturday. He is very busy these days. He is redecorating his house by himself. c) Değişmekte olan durumları, olayları bu tense ile anlatırız. "Everything is expensive. (Her şey pahalı.)" cümlesi, fiyatların o anki durumunu anlatır. Fakat, "Everything is getting more and more expensive. (Her şey gittikçe pahalılaşıyor.)" ifadesi, fiyatların sürekli değiştiğini, yükseldiğini gösterir. It is cold. (Hava soğuk.) It is getting colder. (Hava gittikçe soğuyor.) The economic situation in Turkey is very bad. (Türkiye'nin ekonomik durumu çok kötü.) The economic situation in Turkey is getting worse. (Türkiye'nin ekonomik durumu gittikçe kötüleşiyor.) d) Bu tense'i, "always" ve aynı anlamı veren benzer zarflarla (perpetually, repeatedly, continually, forever, constantly) kullanarak, tekrarlanan eylemleri vurgulayabilir, ya da yakınma ve hoşnutsuzluk ifade edebiliriz. I'm a/ways hearing strange things about him. You're a/ways making mistakes. Be more careful. You're constantly smoking at the dinner table. Can't you go somewhere else? e) Bu tense'i, tomorrow, next week, next year, next summer gibi gelecek zaman zarflarıyla, gelecekte yapmayı planladığımız eylemleri anlatmak için de kullanırız. I'm meeting Ann next Saturday. They are giving a party next month. She is leaving Istanbul in two days. Örneklerde görüldüğü gibi, cümle yapı olarak şimdiki zamana, anlam olarak ise gelecek zamana aittir. Aynı kullanım Türkçe'de de vardır ve bu cümleleri Türkçe'ye, gelecek zaman ya da şimdiki zaman yapısında çevirmemiz mümkündür. Son örneği şu şekilde çevirebiliriz: İki gün sonra İstanbul'dan ayrılıyor. (İki gün sonra İstanbul'dan ayrılacak.) ELS Q 9
  7. 7. l -4 THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE FORM Affirmative Negative Interrogative I get up early. You go on holiday every year. He studies hard. She cleans the house herself. It stands in the corner. I don't get up early. Do I get up early? You don't go on holiday every year. Do you go on holiday every year? He doesn't study hard. Does he study hard? She doesn't clean the house herself. Does she clean the house herself? It doesn't stand in the corner. Does it stand in the corner? We keep our promises. You like animals. They help people around. We don't keep our promises. Do we keep our promises? Do you like animals? Do they help people around? You don't like animals. They don't help people around. Üçüncü tekil şahıs için (he/she/it) fiil, olumlu cümlede -s takısı alır. He reads a lot. She buys a newspaper regularly. The cat drinks only milk in the morning. Olumsuz cümlede ve soruda, yani "does" ya da "doesn't' bulunan cümlelerde fiil daima yalındır. He doesn't read a lot. She doesn't buy a newspaper every day. Does the cat drink milk in the morning? "have" fiilinin üçüncü şahıs biçimi "has" dir. Ancak, soruda ve olumsuz cümlede fiilin yalın hali "have" kullanılır. - Do you have a bath every day? - Yes, I do. (I have a bath every day.) - Does your son have a bath every day? - Yes, he does. (He has a bath every day.) - Does your father have breakfast in the morning? - No, he doesn't. (He doesn't have breakfast in the morning.) 1 -5 USE OF THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE a) Bu tense ile, genelde yaptığımız işleri, alışkanlıklarımızı anlatırız ve always, sometimes, never, often vb. sıklık bildiren zarfların yanı sıra, every day, every month, every year, every summer gibi zaman zarflarını sıkça kullanırız. - What time do you usually get up? - I usually get up at seven o'clock. - Does she always get up early? - Not a/ways. She sometimes gets up very late. - How often do you go to the cinema? - I go to the cinema every weekend/once a week/three times a year, etc. - How often does your brother write to you? - He writes to me very often. 10 a ELS
  8. 8. b) Frequency Adverbs (Sıklık bildiren zaman zarflan) always............................................................all the time (hep, her zaman) almost always/nearly always.........................almost/nearly all the time, (hemen her zaman) very often ......................................................(çok sık) usually/generally .........................................(genellikle) often/frequently ............................................(sık sık) sometimes/occasionally ...............................from lime to time (bazen, ara sıra) rarely/seldom................................................(ender, nadiren, seyrek) hardly ever/scarcely ever/almost never.........(hemen hemen hiç) never ...........................................................(hiç, hiç bir zaman, asla) Yardımcı fiil bulunmayan olumlu cümlelerde bu zarflar asıl fiilden önce, yani özne ile yüklem arasında yer alır. She a/ways sings in English. I sometimes feel depressed. They seldom go to the theatre. . . Bu zarflar "am, Is, are" dan sonra gelir. I sometimes go to work late./I am sometimes late for work. Sıklık bildiren zarfların olumsuz cümledeki yeri değişiktir. Always daima olumsuzluk eki "not" dan sonra gelir. I don't always get up early. She doesn't a/ways study very hard. They aren't always late for class. frequently, sometimes ve occasionally olumsuzluk ekinden önce gelir. I sometimes don't want to be with people. She frequently doesn't want to do her homework. They sometimes aren't ready on time. She occasionally isn't polite to the people around her. NOT€........................................................................................ Birinci tekil şahıs için bu kural geçerli değildir. Zarf, yardımcı fiil "am" ile "not" arasında yer alır. I'm sometimes not patient enough with children. usually, generally ve often her iki durumda da kullanılır. They usually don't go out on Sundays./They don't usually go out on Sundays. We often don't watch TV./We don't often watch TV. They generally aren't awake till 1 la.m./They aren't generally awake till 1 la.m. rarely, seldom, hardly ever, almost never ve never olumsuz cümlede kullanılmaz. Bu zarflar sadece olumlu cümlede kullanılır, ancak olumsuz bir anlam taşır. I hardly ever go to the theatre. (Tiyatroya hemen hemen hiç gitmem.) I'm hardly ever nervous before an exam. (Bir sınav öncesinde neredeyse hiç heyecanlanmam.) She never comes to her classes on time. She is never on time for her classes. (Derslerine asla/hiç vaktinde gelmez.) ELS Q II
  9. 9. Olumlu anlam taşıyan sıklık zarflarını (usually, generally, often, frequently, sometimes, occasionally) dilbilgisi kurallarına uygun bu kullanımlarının yanı sıra, cümlede vurguyu artırmak için, cümlenin başında da kullanabiliriz. Özellikle sometimes bu şekilde çok sık kullanılır. Sometimes I get angry easily. Occasionally I don't need to get up early. Usually they spend too much money on luxuries. Occasionally ve sometimes, cümle sonunda da yer alabilir. I go to the theatre occasionally. He is a bit lazy sometimes. Often, özellikle quite ve very ile birlikte kullanıldığında cümle sonunda da yer alabilir. We come to this restaurant quite often. Do you catch colds often? I don't watch television very often. Rarely ve seldom, özellikle only, very ve quite ile birlikte kullanıldığında, cümle sonunda yer alabilir. I eat meat very seldom. She smokes cigars quite rarefy. NOT€---------------------------------------------------------------------------, Always bu şekilde cümle başında ya da sonunda yer almaz. Olumsuz anlam taşıyan sıklık zarflan (rarely, seldom, hardly ever, scarcely ever, never] cümlenin başına geldiği zaman cümle devrik olur. I never eat fish...................................... Never do I eat fish. He rarely smokes................................... Rarely does he smoke. You seldom make mistakes................... Seldom do you make mistakes. She scarcely ever visits us.....................Scarcely ever does she visit us. Ever olumlu veya olumsuz soruda kullanılır ve hiç anlamını verir. Olumsuz cümlede hiç demek için do not ever yerine never kullanılır. - Do you ever smoke? - No, I never smoke. - Don't you ever help your mother? - Yes, I help her when I have time. c) Doğa kanunlarını, her zaman geçerliliği olan doğruları ve genellemeleri bu tense ile ifade ederiz. A diamond is a precious stone. Water consists of oxygen and hydrogen. The Earth revolves round the Sun. Plants need water in order to grow. Water boils at 100 degrees centigrade. Wood floats in water but iron sinks. d) "What do you do?" sorusu kişinin neyle uğraştığını, işini sorar. Yani "Wfoar is your job/occupation?" sorusu ile aynı anlamdadır. - What do you do? - I'm a teacher. 12 Q ELS - What does your father do? - He is an accountant.
  10. 10. "What do you do?" sorusunu bir zaman zarfıyla kullanırsak, "sözü edilen zamanda ne yaparsın" anlamına gelir. - What do you do at the weekends? - I usually meet friends. - What does your father do in the evening's? - He reads his newspaper or watches television. e) "Why don't......?" kalıbı birine öneri getirirken kullanılır. - I have a headache. - Why don't you take an aspirin? - We have nothing to eat at home. - Why don't we go out for dinner? f) Sinema, tiyatro gibi etkinliklerin başlama ve bitiş saatlerini, ders programlarını ya da uçak, tren, otobüs tarifelerini belirtirken, geniş zamanı gelecek zaman anlamıyla kullanabiliriz. The buses start at 6 a.m. and stop at 12 a.m. every day. (simple present) The train to Ankara leaves at 9 a.m. tomorrow and arrives there at 6 p.m. (future) Our classes usually begin at 9 and finish at 12. (simple present) . My class begins at 9 tomorrow and finishes at 12. (future) ğ) Gazete manşetlerinde, normalde past tense ile aktarılması gereken (olmuş, gerçekleşmiş) olaylar. Simple Present Tense ile aktarılır. A live bomb blows up a shopping centre in Israel.(=blew up) A coach collides with a train in India: hundreds killed and hundreds more wounded. (=collided) 1-6 THE SIMPLE PRESENT or THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS Şimdi bu iki tense'i karşılaştıralım. a) Konuşmanın geçtiği anda ya da o sıralarda yapmakta olduğumuz işleri Present Continuous ile (I am doing); genelde yaptığımız işleri, alışkanlıklarımızı ise Simple Present ile (/ do) ifade ettiğimizi belirtmiştik. Father is in his room now. He is resting, (now) Father always rests in his room in the afternoon, (simple present) I want to concentrate on my studies, so I'm not playing volleyball this year. I usually play volleyball at the weekend. I don't play on weekdays. ELS Q 13
  11. 11. b) Live ve work fiilleri ile sürekli oturduğumuz/çalıştığımız yeri ifade ediyorsak, geniş zaman kullanılır. - Where do you five? - I live in Istanbul. - Where does your father work? - He works for a construction company. Ancak, geçici olarak ikamet ettiğimiz/çalıştığımız yeri şimdiki zamanla belirtiriz. I moved to istanbul last week, and I'm living with a friend for the time being. His company sent him abroad for a month, and now he is working in Kuwait. c) Bazı fuller sürerlik bildiren tense'lerle (/ am doing, I was doing, I have been doing, etc.) kullanılmazlar. Bu fuller, konuşma sırasında bizzat yapılmakta olan bir eylem (action) bildirmezler, durum ifade ederler. "I'm writing now." ifadesinde, write fiili bir eylem bildirir. Yani benim şu anda yapmakta olduğum bir işi ifade eder. "/ know English." ifadesinde ise know fiili bir eylem bildirmez. Yani, kişinin yapmakta olduğu bir işi değil, statik bir durum bildirir. Durum bildiren fiillerin Simple Present ve Present Continuous için kullanımları aynıdır. When I get up in the morning, I want to drink coffee, (simple present) I'm very thirsty. I want to drink something, (now) People need money in order to live, (simple present) I need some money. Can you lend me some? (now) 1 -7 PROGRESSIVE (CONTINUOUS) TENSE'LERLE KULLANILMAYAN FİİLLER ı. DÜŞÜNMEYE İLİŞKİN FULLER (MENTAL STATE) think * realize understand suppose notice feel believe recognize doubt imagine know remember forget mean want need prefer 2. DUYGU BELİKTEN FULLER (EMOTIONAL STATE) love dislike loathe hate appreciate fear like detest envy mind care desire 3. SAHİPLİK BİLDİREN FiiLLER (POSSESSION) possess have * own belong 4. DUYU FİİLLERİ (SENSE PERCEPTIONS) taste * see * 5. hear smell* DİĞER DURUM BİLDİREN FULLER look * owe be * seem cost exist appear* weigh * advise promise refuse contain wish forgive feel * consist of include sound * Yanında yıldız olan fiiller, farklı bir anlam taşıdıkları zaman, sürerlik bildiren tense'lerle kullanılabilirler. 14 Q ELS
  12. 12. 1-8 NONPROGRESSIVE or PROGRESSIVE NONPROGRESSIVE PROGRESSIVE think "sanmak, zannetmek' think "düşünmek" I think she is a student. I think they will visit us next week. I'm thinking about going abroad next year. She is thinking about her family. see "görmek' see "görüşmek" Right now, I'm looking out of the window, and I see lots of people in the street. The doctor is seeing his patient now. The manager is seeing the applicant now. smell "kokmak" smell "koklamak' This perfume smells very nice. These flowers smell awful. Look! Mother is smelling the flowers. Why are you smelling the milk? taste (bir nesnenin tadından söz ediyorsak) taste "tadına bakmak' This soup tastes awful. I can't eat it. (Çorbanın tadı berbat.) The dinner looks bad but tastes delicious. (Yemeğin görüntüsü kötü ama tadı güzel.) Look! The judges are tasting my dish right now. I can't wait to hear the result. feel (bir nesnenin bize verdiği duyguyu ifade ederken; "sezinlemek, ummak" anlamında) feel "hissetmek" This pillow feels very hard. (This pillow is very hard./Bu yastık çok sert.) I feel (that) something bad will happen. (Kötü bir şeylerin olacağını hissediyorum.) 1 feel better now./I'm feeling better now. (Şimdi kendimi daha iyi hissediyorum.) look look "bakmak' "gibi görünmek' You look ill. You'd better go home. That ladder doesn't look safe. Why are you looking out of the window? appear "gibi görünmek" appear "(ortaya) çıkmak' The teacher appears to be in a bad mood today. She appears to be bored with the film. The comedian is appearing nightly at the Broken Door club. weigh (bir nesnenin ağırlığını söylerken) weigh "tartmak" The baby weighs six kilograms. The butcher is weighing the meat now. ' be (genel bir durum ifade ederken am, is, are) be (konuşma anında bir değişimi ifade ederken am/is/are being) You are very rude. (Çok kabasın.) (Kişinin genelde kaba biri olduğunu belirtir.) You are being rude. (Kabalaşıyorsun.) (Kişinin konuşma sırasında kaba davrandığını belirtir. "Kabalık" kişinin genel bir özelliği olmayabilir.) have (sahiplik bildiriyorsa) have (eylem bildiriyorsa) I don't have much money now. She has two brothers. She is having breakfast now. Father can't come to the phone. He is having a shower right now. NOTC Sahiplik bildiren "have/has" I have two sisters. = I don't have any brothers. = She has a car. = She doesn't have a bike. = Do you have any nephews?= Yes, I do. No, I don't. Does she have a boat? = Yes, she does. = No, she doesn't. = "have got/has gol" biçiminde de kullanılır. I have got two sisters. I haven't got any brothers. She has got a car She hasn't got a bike. Have you got any nephews? Yes, I have. No, I haven't. Has she got a boat? Yes, she has. No, she hasn't. ELS Q IS
  13. 13. EXERCISE 1: Use either the Simple Present or the Present Progressive of the verbs given In parentheses. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 16 Q ELS A: What....................you (do) ......................here in the kitchen? B: I (taste) ..................................the soup to see if it (have) .................................... enough salt. A: .....................you (know) ...........................the woman who (talk) .............................to Peter over there? B: No, I (not recognize) ..................................her, but I (suppose) ...................................that she is his guest from Germany. A: Hi! How are you? B: Fine! Why.....................you (whisper) ........................................? A: The baby (sleep) ..................................and I (try) .................................... not to wake her. B: Oh. Which room ............... she (s7eep) ..........................in? A: Upstairs, in my bedroom. B: Well, I (not think) ..................................we (be) .................................... close enough to disturb her, anyway. A: Why..............you (take) ...................your umbrella? It (not, rain) ............................. B: I (always, take) ...................................it. Just in case! A: But it (never, rain) ..................................here in July. B: Oh, well. You (never, know) .....................................Today might be different! Nearly everybody in this town (work) ................................... at the local car factory. In fact, the company (rely) ..................................on the townspeople for its workforce, so, to stop them looking elsewhere, it (pay) ..................................really well and (provide) ..................................lots of extra facilities. Currently, it (build) ...................................a play-centre for the children of the working mothers. I (7ook) ...................................like our mother and my sister (take) ...................................after our father, but our brother (not resemble) ...................................either of them. Prices (rise) ...................................so quickly nowadays that we (even, consider) ...................................selling our car just to keep up. Mum (weigh) ..................................herself again because she (try) ................................... to lose weight in time for her holiday next month. My brother (weigh) .......................................about 70 kg, but he (seem) ...................................heavier because he (a/ways, wear) .................................... such bulky clothes. These cultivated roses (look) ..................................so beautiful, but they (not smell) ...................................at all. Our guests (arrive) .................................. shortly, and Sarah (still, wrap) ...................................the presents. Jack is lucky. He (listen) ....................................to Brahms's music live at the Albert Hall at this very moment while we (sit) ..................................here in the office listening to the BBC orchestra on the radio. This powdered pudding is strawberry flavour, but actually, it (not taste) ..................................fruity at all. The Earth (get) ..................................warmer and warmer, which (raise) ...................................the sea-level. What lovely quality this baby outfit is! It (feel] .................................. nice and thick. A: You (look) ....................................very worried. I (hope) .................................... nothing bad has happened! B: Well, I've broken Grandma's favourite mug, and now I (think) ................................. about how to explain it to her. Don't worry about your dog. The vet (feel) ..................................his legs to check that nothing is broken.
  14. 14. 18. A: Why..................you (sniff] ..........................like that? B: I (try) ....................................to decide what perfume you (wear) ...................................at the moment. A: Oh, it's Givenchy - lan's present for Christmas. B: It (smell.....................................wonderful. 19. A snake's skin (look) .....................................slimy, but it (not, fee/) ...................................slimy at all. 20. The conditions these Afghan refugees (endure)..............................................in these troubled times are appalling. 21. At the moment, the judge (see) ....................................both the Defendant's lawyer and the Claimant's lawyer privately in his chamber. 22. A: ...................you (think) ..........................you (have) .....................................any chance of winning this chess match? B: Yes, I (see).....................................a number of good moves that I can make from this position. 1-9 THE SIMPLE PAST TENSE FORM Affirmative Negative Interrogative I studied English. I didn't study English. Did I study English? You worked hard. He/She came lale. It rained hard yesterday. You didn't work hard. He/She didn't come late. It didn't rain hard yesterday. Did you work hard? Did he/she come late? Did it rain hard yesterday? We enjoyed the party. We didn't enjoy the party. Did we enjoy the party? You helped a lot. They got up early. You didn't help a lot. They didn't get up early. Did you help a lot? Did they get up early? Olumlu cümlede, fiillerin past tense biçimi, olumsuz cümlede ve soruda ise fiillerin yalın hali kullanılır. l lived in İzmir for five years. She didn't study hard enough to pass the exam. Did you stay home yesterday? Kısa cevapta did ve didn't kullanılır. Did you go to the cinema last week? Yes, we did. (Yes, we went to the cinema last week.) Did you visit your friends yesterday? No, I didn't. (I didn't visit my friends yesterday.) ELS a 17
  15. 15. 1-10 USE OF THE SIMPLE PAST TENSE Bu tense'i geçmişte yaptığımız eylemleri, olaylan ve durumlan anlatırken kullanırız. Yesterday, last night, last week, last summer, halfan hour ago, ten days ago, two years ago vb. bu tense ile sıkça kullanılan zaman zarflarıdır. I became a teacher eight years ago. Where did you go on holiday last summer? He didn't play football last Sunday because he was ill. She left the country a few months ago. a) Düzenli (regular) fiillerin past biçimi, fiilin yalın haline -ed eklenerek elde edilir. Present: want Past: wanted b) stay stayed study studied shave shaved "Be" fiilinin past biçimi "was, were" biçimindedir. I lived in a village when I was a child. She was late for work yesterday, so her boss was angry with her. We weren't at home last night. c) Düzenli fiillerin -ed takısını almasıyla ilgili yazım kurallan şöyledir: I) Çoğu düzenli fiil -ed alır. talk - talked walk - walked govern - governed seem - seemed roar - roared roam - roamed ü) Bir sessiz + bir sesli + bir sessiz harften oluşan kısa fiillerde, sondaki sessiz harf çift yazılır. grab - grabbed stop - stopped beg - begged ban - banned slim - slimmed rob - robbed ü!) Sonu -e ile bitenler sadece -d takısı alır. gaze - gazed stare - stared like - liked smile - smiled hate - hated save - saved IV) Sonu bir sessiz harf + y ile bitenlerde -y, -l olur, ondan sonra -ed eklenir. try - tried cry - cried apply - applied dry - dried fry - fried study - studied -y den önce bir sesli harf varsa yazımda değişiklik olmaz. play - played pray - prayed 18 Q ELS delay - delayed decay - decayed betray - betrayed spray - sprayed
  16. 16. d) Düzensiz (irregular) fiillerin past biçimi ise tabloda görüldüğü gibidir. AN ALPHABETICAL LIST OF IRREGULAR VERBS SIMPLE FORM SIMPLE PAST PAST PARTICIPLE SIMPLE FORM SIMPLE PAST PAST PARTICIPLE arise bet bid bet bid arisen been borne /born beaten/beat become begun bent bet* fling bear beat become begin bend arose was, were bore beat became began bent forbid forecast forget forgive forsake freeze flung flew forbade/forbid forecast forgot forgave forsook froze bid get got flung flown forbidden forecast forgotten forgiven forsaken frozen gotten * bind bite bleed blow break breed bring broadcast build burst bound give gave went ground grew hung given gone ground grown hung had had heard heard hidden cast catch choose cling come cost creep bled blew broke bred brought broadcast built burst bought cast caught chose clung came cost crept bound bitten/bit bled blown broken bred brought broadcast built burst bought cast caught chosen clung come cost crept cut cut cut deal dealt dealt dig do dug did dug draw drew eat ate fall feed feel fight find fell done drawn eaten fallen fed fed felt fought found felt fought found fit* fled be buy fit flee bit fit fled fly go grind grow hang have hear hide hit hold hurt keep know hid hit hit held hurt kept knew laid held hurt kept known laid lead leave lend led led left lent left lent let lie let lay let light lose make mean meet mislay mistake lit/lighted lost made meant lay lain lit/lighted lost made meant met met pay mislaid mistook paid mislaid mistaken paid put put put quit read quit read quit * read rid rid rid ELS G 19
  17. 17. SIMPLE FORM SIMPLE PAST PAST PARTICIPLE ride ring rise rode rang rose ridden rung risen run ran say see said seek sell send sought sold sent set set shake shed shine shoot show shrink shut sing shook shed shone /shined shot showed shrank/shrunk shut sang sit sat sleep slide slit speak speed spend spin spit split spread spring slept slid slit spoke sped /speeded spent spun/span spit/ spat split spread sprang/sprung saw SIMPLE FORM stand steal stick run sung said stink seen strive sought strike sold string sent swear set sweep shaken swim shed swing shone/shined take shot teach shown/showed tear shrunk tell shut think sung throw sat thrust slept understand slid undertake slit upset spoken wear sped/speeded weave spent weep win spun spit/ spat wind split withdraw spread wring sprung write SIMPLE PAST PAST PARTICIPLE stood stole stuck stung stank/stunk strove struck strung swore swept swam swung took taught tore told thought threw thrust understood undertook upset wore wove wept stood stolen stuck stung stunk striven struck/ stricken strung sworn swept swum swung taken taught torn told thought thrown thrust understood undertaken upset worn woven wept won won wound withdrew wrung wrote wound withdrawn wrung written * Bu fiiller için American English ve British English arasındaki farklılıklara dikkat ediniz. American British bet - bet - bet fit - fit - fit get - got - gotten quit - quit - quit bet - bet - bet ör bet - betted - betted fit - fitted - fitted get - got - got quit - quitted - quitted American'English'de düzenli olan bazı fiiller British English'de düzensizdir. American: burn-burned, dream-dreamed, kneel-kneeled, lean-leaned, smell-smelled, spill-spilled, etc. British: bum-burnt, dream-dreamt, kneel-knelt, lean-leant, smellsmell, spill-spilt ZO Q ELS
  18. 18. d) Düzensiz (irregular] fiillerin past biçimi ise tabloda görüldüğü gibidir. AN ALPHABETICAL LIST OF IRREGULAR VERBS SIMPLE SIMPLE PAST SIMPLE SIMPLE PAST FORM PAST PARTICIPLE FORM PAST PARTICIPLE arise be bear beat become arose was, were bore beat became began bent arisen been fling fly flung borne/born forbid beaten/beat forecast forget forgive forsake flung flew forbade/forbid forecast forgot forgave forsook froze got gave went given gone ground grown hung begin bend bet bid bet bid bind bite bleed blow bound bit bled blew broke bred . brought broadcast build burst buy cast catch choose cling come cost creep cut deal dig do draw eat fall fight find fit Hee freeze get * ' bound bitten/bit bled blown broken bred brought give go grind broadcast built burst bought cast caught chose clung came cost crept cut dealt dug did drew ate fell break breed bring feed feel become begun bent bet * bid broadcast built burst bought hide fed fell . fought found fit cast caught chosen clung come cost crept cut dealt dug grow hang have hear hit hold hurt keep know lay lead leave lend let lie light flown forbidden forecast forgotten forgiven forsaken frozen gotten * ground grew hung had heard had heard hid hit held hurt kept knew laid hidden hit held hurt kept known laid led left lent let lain lit/lighted lost made meant met mislaid drawn eaten fallen make mean meet mislay led left lent let lay lit/lighted lost made meant met mislaid fed felt mistake pay mistook paid mistaken paid fought found fit* put put put quit read quit quit * read rid read rid done fled lose rid , ELS G 19
  19. 19. 1-11 CONFUSING VERBS a) raise, raised, raised (transitive) The supermarket raised its prices twice last week. c) arouse, aroused, aroused (transitive) The man's peculiar behaviour aroused the police's suspicion. e) set, set, set (transitive) We set the chair at the head of the table. ğ) lay, laid, laid (transitive) We laid the carpet after we'd painted the walls. 1) bind, bound, bound (tie up) He bound the dog to the fence with a long rope. k) find, found, found I found your pen on top of the fridge. m) grind, ground, ground (crush into powder) In the past people ground wheat into flour using large stones. o) wind, wound, wound (twist, turn) He wound the string into a tight ball. q) fall, fell, fallen She fell as she was getting off the bus. s) see, saw, seen They saw an accident while driving to work. u) hang, hung, hung (suspend something) They hung a flag from the window for Republic Day. b) rise, rose, risen (intransitive) Prices rose three times last week. d) arise, arose, arisen (intransitive) Their suspicion arose because of the man's peculiar behaviour. f) sit, sat, sat (intransitive) My father sat at the head of the table. h) lie,* lay, lain (intransitive) I lay on the sofa after dinner and went to sleep. J) bound, bounded, bounded (1. border 2. jump) Luxembourg is bounded by Belgium, Germany and France. The dog was bounding across the field. 1) found, founded, founded (establish) Mao Tse-Tung founded the People's Republic of China. n) ground, grounded, grounded (compli to stay on the ground) The authorities grounded the plane for safety checks. p) wound, wounded, wounded (injure) The gun shots wounded several people. r) fell, felled, felled (cut down) They felled the tree because it was getting too big. t) saw, sawed, sawed/sawn (cut with a saw) He sawed the wood into equal lengths. v) hang, banged, hanged (kill someone by hanging) The leader of the Pakistani military coup, General Zia ul-Huq, hanged President Bhutto in 1979.
  20. 20. ' Lie "yalan söylemek' anlamındaysa, düzenli bir fiildir: She fled to us about her coming late. ELS Q XI
  21. 21. EXERCISE 2; Choose the correct word in parentheses. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 22 Q ELS He (bound/bounded) the package with string so that it wouldn't come undone in the post. Fewer difficulties than expected (arose/aroused) during the meeting. Siddhartha Gautama, who came to be known as Buddha, (found/founded) Buddhism, one of the major religions of Asia. Obviously not many of the students understood the teacher's question, because only a few (raised/rose) their hands to answer. The nurses (laid/lay) the patient gently on the bed so the doctor could examine him. After the ship (ground/grounded] itself on the rocks, the crew had to abandon it. Because of her conscientious attitude, she has (raised/risen) rapidly to a senior managerial position. You've (seen/sawn) more off one leg than the others, so now the table won't stand up properly. The silly girl (wound/wounded] her scarf round her neck so tightly that she nearly strangled herself. The townspeople were so outraged that they (hung/hanged) the accused man before he had even had a proper trial. Look, your daughter's crying! I think she's just (fallen/felled) off her bicycle. After cutting and polishing the sapphire, the jeweller (set/sat) it in a gold necklace. He accidentally (wound/wounded) his leg while chopping wood. The doorman took Robert's coat and (hanged/hung) it on the coat stand by the reception desk. At yesterday's race, one rider was thrown from his horse when it bolted at the second jump, and the animal (bound/bounded) around the rest of the track without a jockey. Marie (grounded/ground) some almonds, then added sugar and eggs to prepare the marzipan paste for the wedding cake. In February 1998, they ceremoniously (laid/lay) the foundations of the new airport in Istanbul. On our last summer holiday, we (laid/lay) in the sun most of the time and only (saw/sawed) a few of the tourist attractions. The butcher (rose/raised) his eyebrows in surprise when he heard the news. Sir Isaac Newton came up with his ideas about gravity after an apple (fell/felled] from a tree onto his head. As he had not written the directions clearly, Mark only (found/founded) the craft shop after almost an hour of walking around. The genuine 16th-century Ottoman tiles (arose/aroused) the interest of several buyers in the auction room. As the chairman (rose/raised) to speak, the room immediately became silent. The drummer (sat/set) at the back of the stage behind the rest of the group. Doubts (aroused/arose) about the man's real identity because of his strange accent and his nervous behaviour.
  22. 22. EXERCISE 3: Complete the sentences with the Simple Past forms of the Irregular verbs In the list. Use each verb only once. arise creep dig hold feed 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. fall feel spring forbid hide slide forgive keep lay lie As a child, I................................caged birds, but now I don't, as I no longer like seeing them in captivity. The meeting should have been quite short, but the question of finance ..............................., so it took longer than expected. I................................into the house really quietly last night in the hope that my parents wouldn't notice how late I was. I................................him for borrowing the car without my permission, but not for lying about it when I first asked. I'm sorry I didn't turn up last night, but I.................................down on my bed for a few minutes' rest and accidentally went to sleep! They................................the party at a friend's house because theirs wasn't big enough. His father.................................him from listening to rock music in the house as he insisted on playing it so loudly. She................................. the table for ten people, but in fact, only six of the invited guests came. I was late for work this morning because my daughter..................................my car keys from me and then couldn't remember where they were. He.................................badly when he was playing football and fractured his ankle. My neighbour was furious when our dog................................. a big hole in his flowerbed. It's not surprising that he.................................so ill this morning. He drank far too much wine last night. She must have been waiting for an important call, because the minute she heard the phone ringing, she.................................to her feet and rushed to answer it. My wife was so angry with me for being late that she..................................my dinner to the dog! As he ................................slowly off his chair and collapsed into a heap on the floor, I realized he was drunk. ELS Q »3
  23. 23. EXERCISE 4: Complete the sentences with the Simple Past forms of the irregular verbs in the list Use each verb only once. bear bet bind deal eat 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. fight freeze grow leave ride seek shed tear throw wind My brother and I.................................like cat and dog when we were children, but now we get on quite well. The children are upset because they accidentally.................................their ball over the neighbour's wall and they won't be able to get it back until he comes home. I can't believe that the first time you.................................a bike was when you were twenty! The kidnappers.................................his arms and legs to a chair so that he couldn't move. It was so cold last night that the locks on my car literally.................................... I've only ever been to the horse races once; I.................................on three horses and they all won! Unfortunately, I.................................my shirt on a nail when I was trying to put up some shelves. My grandmother used to live in a little cottage with a beautiful, flowering, climbing plant which.................................up the walls and round the windows. Unable to find sufficient investors, the company.................................the cost of the expansion itself. During the first month of her diet, she.................................over three kilos. When he.................................school, he chose to start working immediately rather than continue his studies. You................................all the bread at breakfast, so if you want a sandwich now, you'll have to buy some more. You.................................the cards without shuffling the pack, so you'll have to start again. As a child, whenever she was unhappy, she.................................comfort from her grandmother. I'm certain I.................................the clock last night, so I have no idea why the alarm didn't go off. EXERCISE 5: Complete the sentences with the Simple Past forms of the Irregular verbs In the list Use each verb only once. bend burst choose cost broadcast 1. 2. 3. 4. 24 ü forecast draw flee fly grind lead light mistake mislay shake The weathermen.................................a sunny day this morning, but so far it's done nothing but rain. He.................................his key, so he had to break a window to get in. We................................to Antalya because it was faster, but came back by bus because of the price. The little girl had only had her balloon for five minutes when it.................................. so her mother had to buy her a new one.
  24. 24. 5. It................................more than expected to redecorate the house, but fortunately, we had some money saved. 6. In order that we'd have no problems finding the house, he.................................a map for us. 7. Even though I.................................him several times, he wouldn't wake up. 8. The rebels................................over the border as the government's troops approached. 9. Television companies from all around the world.................................the unique event. 10. I walked up to a complete stranger yesterday, and said, "Hello," because I ................................him for a friend of mine. 11. We................................the blue fabric, as the brown wouldn't go with anything in our house. 12. In the village we visited, the people.................................wheat to make flour using the traditional method. 13. Because he didn't have any matches, he.................................his cigarette using the electric stove. 14. The plumber................................the pipe to fit into the space under the sink. 15. Five minutes before the end of the match, our team..................................by 3 goals to 2 and looked certain to win, but the other side equalized just before the final whistle. EXERCISE 6: Complete the sentences with the Simple Past forms of the Irregular verbs In the list. Use each verb only once. shrink bite forget hang hurt 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. lose ring rise sell shine spin undertake wear weave withdraw The telephone................................about fifteen times before it was answered. Can you remember where you were when you.................................your purse? For the interview, she.................................a grey suit and matching shoes. He.................................his leg badly and had to take a few days off work. The minute I.................................the washing out, it started to rain. The company................................its support when they heard the news of the scandal. I was really upset when my new jumper.................................after only the first wash. Because the sun.................................in my eyes so strongly, I found it impossible to see anything. In the past, people.................................wool by hand. As he.................................to his feet, we could clearly see his look of anger. It's not my fault that we.................................the camera - you didn't think about it either. When the dog.................................her, you should have taken her straight to the doctor. They................................the car because they needed the money for their business. The skill with which the women.................................the carpets was incredible. Because of the unreliability of the post, he.................................to deliver the package himself. ELS Q 25
  25. 25. EXERCISE 7: Complete the sentences with the Simple Past forms of the verbs In the list. Some of the verbs are regular and some are irregular. Use each verb only once. bleed play buy climb strike 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. fall swear fell see attend sweep saw slip miss split After we.................................... to the top, we were able to appreciate just how spectacular the view was. I.................................... Mary in town yesterday, but it was so crowded that I don't think she noticed me. When he.....................................for the second time, I warned him not to use such bad language. I only.....................................the dress because I thought I could wear it to work. He....................................football professionally when he was younger. I enjoyed living and working overseas immensely, but the only problem was that I ...................................my family and friends so much that I always wanted to go home. At least three people ....................................on the ice as they walked down the road. The contractors..................................... over half of the trees to make way for the new road. The wound looked very serious but can't have been, as it hardly ...................................at all. During the tennis match, he.....................................the ball so hard that it went right out of the court. You should have measured the space before you ....................................the wood as, now, the shelves aren't big enough. I only.....................................the balcony ten minutes ago, but now it's covered in leaves again. Fortunately, he wasn't injured when he.....................................off the ladder. As my father's job involved a lot of travelling, I..................................... several different schools. He.....................................the seam of his trousers today, so he can't wear them for the moment. 1-12 EMPHATIC "DO" Simple Present ve Simple Past tense'lerle, normalde, olumlu cümlede "do/does, did' kullanılmaz. Ancak vurguyu artırmak için bu yardımcı fiilleri olumlu cümlede kullanabiliriz. Bu durumda, her iki tense ile de asıl fiil yalın haliyle kullandır. - Your brother doesn't like fish, does he? - Yes, he does like fish. - You don't help your mother with the housework, do you? - Yes, I do help my mother whenever I have time. - You didn't go to school yesterday, did you? - Yes, I did go to school yesterday. 26 Q ELS
  26. 26. 1-13 THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE FORM Affirmative I was working. You were studying. He/She/It was eating lunch We were laughing. You were talking. They were arguing. Negative I wasn't working. You weren't studying. He/She/It wasn't eating lunch. We weren't laughing. You weren't talking. They weren't arguing. Interrogative Was I working? Were you studying? Was he/she/it eating lunch? Were we laughing? Were you talking? Were they arguing? - Where were you living this time last year? -1 was living in İzmir. - What were you doing at 9 p.m. last night? - I was watching television. 1-14 USE OF THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE a) Bu tense'i, geçmişte belli bir noktada yapmakta olduğumuz eylemleri anlatırken kullanırız. This time last year, this time last winter, at this hour yesterday, yesterday at 3 o'clock etc. bu tense ile sık kullanılan zarflardır. This time last summer, I was lying on the beach in Göcek, but now I'm working hard to finish this book. What were you doing at around noon last Saturday? I was playing football with friends. b) Geçmişte bir eylemi, başlangıç ve bitiş zamanını belirterek anlatıyorsak, Past Continuous Tense kullanırız. (Bu tür cümlelerde Simple Past Tense kullanmak da mümkündür.) I was watching a film on television from nine until eleven last night. He was working as an accountant from 1985 to 1989. ELS a 27
  27. 27. c) Past Continuous (/ was doing) ile Past Tense (/ did) arasındaki kullanım farkına dikkat ediniz. Eğer, geçmişte tamamladığımız bir eylemden söz ediyorsak Simple Past Tense kullanırız. (Önemli olan belli bir zamanda 'We yapıyordum?" değil, "Ne yaptım?"dır.) - What did you do last night? - I watched television first, then I studied English. Eğer, geçmişte tamamladığımız bir eylemi değil de, sözü edilen zamanda yapmakta olduğumuz işi anlatıyorsak, Past Continuous Tense kullandır. (Önemli olan "Ne yaptım?" değil, "Ne yapıyordum?" dur.) - What were your parents doing when you got home last night? - They were waiting for me to eat dinner with them. d) Sürerlik bildiren tense'lerle kullanılmayan fiiller (non-progressive verbs), Past Continuous Tense ile de kullanılmaz. I already knew the news about him. (Ben onunla ilgili haberi zaten biliyordum.) She thought that I would go to the party as well. (Partiye benim de gideceğimi zannediyordu.) The flowers looked nice yesterday, but now they are fading. (Çiçekler dün güzel görünüyordu, ama şimdi soluyorlar.) e) Geçmişteki alışkanlıklarımızı ya da sık sık yaptığımız eylemleri Simple Past Tense ile anlatırız. I went to the cinema very often when I was at university. Yukarıdaki cümleyi Türkçe'ye iki şekilde çevirebiliriz. " Üniversitedeyken sinemaya çok sık giderdim." ya da "Üniversitedeyken sinemaya çok sık gidiyordum." Bu cümledeki "gidiyordum" Sadesi ilk anda Past Continuous Tense gibi görünse de, geçmişte belli bir noktada devam etmekte olan bir eylemi değil de, genelde olan bir eylemi anlattığı için Simple Past Tense kullanmamız gerekir. When he was young, he played football in the school team, (general in the past) When I saw him yesterday, he was playing football, (a specific point in the past) f) WHEN and WHILE SENTENCES Past Continuous Tense "when" ve "while" cümlelerinde çok sık kullanılan bir tense'dir. Geçmişte devam etmekte olan bir eylem sırasında bir başka eylem olmuşsa, bu durumu şu cümlelerle ifade ederiz. I was eating dinner when the guests arrived. (Konuklar geldiğinde yemek yiyordum.) I hurt my leg while I was playing football. (Futbol oynarken bacağımı incittim.) WHEN I. "When" ile kurulmuş bir zarf cümleciği (adverbial clause), genellikle temel cümledeki (main clause) eylemin devam etmekte olduğu zamanı açıklar. "Bir eylem olduğunda bir başka eylem oluyordu" biçiminde bir anlam taşır. Bu nedenle "when" in bağlı bulunduğu cümlede Simple Past, temel cümlede ise Past Continuous kullanılır. ı I was studying. 28 Q ELS He came in.
  28. 28. When he came in. adverbial clause 4 I was studying. (O içeri girdiğinde, ben ders çalışıyordum.) main clause I was reading 1 when he came in. (O geldiğinde, ben kitap okuyordum.) When I went out, it was raining. (Dışarı çıktığımda yağmur yağıyordu.) They were arguing when I entered the room. (Odaya girdiğimde, tartışıyorlardı.) When + Simple Past, Past Continuous II. "When" arka arkaya yapılmış eylemleri anlatmak için de kullandır. Bu durumda her iki cümlenin de tense'i Simple Past'dır. When he arrived, we went into the cinema. (First he came. Then we entered the cinema.) (O gelince, sinemaya girdik.) When he left work, he got on a bus and went home. When the teacher asked a question, I raised my hand to answer it. fir 'When + Simple Past, Simple Past WHILE I. "While" cümleciği genellikle, temel cümledeki eylem sırasında devam etmekte olan bir başka eylemi anlatmak için kullanılır. Bu nedenle, "while" in bağlı bulunduğu cümle Past Continuous, temel cümle ise Simple Past'dır. He came in. While I was studying, adverbial clause he came in. (Ben ders çalışırken o geldi.) main clause I left home while my parents were sleeping. I took a photograph while you weren't looking. While + Past Continuous, Simple Past NOT€--------------------------------------------------------------Bu tür cümlelerde "while" yerine "when" kullanmak da mümkündür, ancak "while" kullanımı daha yaygındır. When/While I was walking home from work, I bumped into an old
  29. 29. friend on the street. Very often, stray dogs and cats are hit by cars when/while they are crossing the street. Yesterday, a stray dog was nearly hit by a car when/while it was crossing the street. I
  30. 30. II. "While" cümleciği, temel cümledeki eylemle aynı anda olan bir eylemi anlatmak için de kullanılır. Bu durumda her iki cümle de Simple Past Tense ile kurulur. I sang while I washed the dishes. (Bulaşıkları yıkarken şarkı söyledim.) She watched me while I made the cake. (Ben kek yaparken o beni izledi.) I watted outside while she had an interview. (O görüşme yaparken ben dışarıda bekledim.) While + Simple Past, Simple Past III. "While" birbirine paralel devam eden iki eylemi anlatmak için de kullanılır. Bu durumda her iki cümlede de Past Continuous Tense kullanılır. "While"ın bu biçimde kullanımıyla genellikle yakınma, içerleme gibi duygular ifade edilir. While the teacher was lecturing, the students were talking among themselves. (Öğretmen ders anlatırken öğrenciler kendi aralarında konuşuyorlardı.} I was studying while everybody at home was sleeping. (Evde herkes uyurken ben ders çalışıyordum.) While + Past continuous, Past IV. "While" ile aynı anlamı veren bir diğer bağlaç "as" dir. While/As I was coming here, I ran into an old friend. I had a look at the old magazines while/as I waited at the doctor's. "Just as", daha vurgulu bir anlatımdır. The postman came Just as I was leaving home. (Tam ben evden çıkarken, postacı geldi.) Just as I sat down at the table, the phone rang. (Tam masaya oturdum ki telefon çaldı.) g) Past Continuous Tense, "always, continually, forever, etc." gibi zarflarla, (Present Continuous Tense'de olduğu gibi) sürekli tekrarlanan eylemleri ya da yakınma ifade etmek için de kullanılır. You were forever reading books when you were a child. I was always making mistakes when I was in primary school. h) Resmi ortamlarda nazik bir biçimde soru sorarken ya da ricada bulunurken, özellikle "hope" ve "wonder" ile Past Continuous Tense çok sık kullanılır. Bu tür cümlelerde past bir yapı kullanılmasına rağmen, anlam present 1 tır. - I was wondering if you could help me fill in this form. - Certainly, Madam. Which section do you have difficulty understanding? - I was hoping you could give me a lift to the airport. - Of course. One of our representatives will drive you there after the meeting. 30 o ELS
  31. 31. EXERCISE 8: Use either the Simple Past or the Past Continuous of the verbs In parentheses. 1. When 1 (leave) ....................................work yesterday, it (rain) ..................................... heavily. 2. It (continue) ....................................to rain while 1 (drive) .....................................home. 3. When I (arrive) ....................................home, it (still, rain) ........................................ 4. When I (go) ....................................round the bend, I (see) ...................................... a van in my lane. It (overtake) ...................................another van and (come) ........................... right at my car. I (step) ................................... on the brakes heavily and (swerve) ...................................to the right. 1 (barely, avoid) .....................................the accident. 5. 1 (have) ....................................breakfast when she (phone) ......................................me. 6. While I (have) ....................................breakfast, she (phone) ......................................me. 7. When my sister (be) .................................... a child, she (have) ..................................... poor eyesight, so she (wear) ....................................glasses. 8. While I (try) ....................................to concentrate on my studies, my friend (play) ...................................her music very loudly in the next room. 9. He (jog) .....................................regularly every day until he (get) ...................................... too old. 10. He (jog).....................................vigorously when I (meet) .....................................him the other day. 11. When she (see) .....................................me, she (stop) .....................................the car and (get out) ...................................of it to talk to me. 12. When I (see) .....................................her, she (drive) .....................................down the road. 13. You (drive) .....................................too fast at the time, so it's not surprising that you (hit) ....................................that other car. 14. A: Why....................you (turn) .................................the television off? B: Because it (distract) ...................................me from my work. 15. Just as the plane (take) ...................................off, one of the engines (burst) ...................................into flames, so the pilot (have to) ......................................make an emergency landing. 16. When 1 (hear) ...................................them, they (come) .....................................down the driveway, so I (know) ................................... I (have) .....................................less than a minute to hide their birthday presents, which I had been wrapping. 17. I (still, hide) ....................................their presents when they (ring) ...................................the door bell, so it (take) ......................................me some time to finish my job and then answer the door. 18. When the robber (shoot) ....................................the man, he (shake) ................................... convulsively for a while before he (fall) .....................................to the ground. 19. Just as we (sit) ....................................down for a snack in the airport restaurant, they (announce) ....................................our flight. 20. Margaret (seem) ....................................really happy at the party last night, but Peter (tell) ....................................her something just as they (leave) ....................................... and then she (sulk) ......................................I wonder what the problem was! 21. As she (pour) ....................................the tea out, she (spill) ......................................some on the table. 22. Only this time on Saturday, we (look) .....................................in the window of the travel agent's. Now we are looking right at the Pyramids. THE RHINO'S ADMIRER A guy elephant took his girlfriend - an avid movie fan - to a film (opening. While she waited in the lobby, he went off to buy a couple of bags of popcorn. An aggressive rhinoceros approached the pretty elephant and introduced himself. "Hi," he said smoothly. "My name is Neal." The elephant trumpeted loudly and fainted. In the confusion, the rhino fled. The guy elephant rushed up to his girlfriend. "What happened?" he asked. She batted her eyelids and answered, "I just met Rhino Neal!" (by Mike Savage, from Reader's Digest) ELS Q l
  32. 32. 1-15 THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE FORM Affirmative Negative Interrogative I have watched that film. I have not watched that film. You have seen him twice. You have not seen him twice. He/She/It has eaten lunch. He/She/It has not eaten lunch. Have I watched that film? Have you seen him twice? Has he/she/it eaten lunch? We have invited her. You have worked hard. They have visited us. Have we invited her? Have you worked hard? Have they visited us? We have not invited her. You have not worked hard. They have not visited us. Bu tense'i oluşturmak için have/has + past participle (fiillerin üçüncü hali kullanılır. Have/has ve have not/has not genellikle kısaltılmış olarak kullanılır. I've seen that film before./You haven't seen that film. He's seen that film twice before./She hasn't seen that film yet. Olumsuz soruyu iki şekilde sorabiliriz. I. Kısaltma yapmadan: Have you not seen that film yet?/Has she not seen that film before? II. Kısaltma yaparak: Haven't you seen that film yet?Hasn't she seen that film before? 1-16 USE OF THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE a) Geçmişte yaptığımız eylemleri zaman vermeden anlatıyorsak, bu tense'i kullanırız. She has removed all the furniture in the house. They have painted their house. Ancak, aynı eylemleri zamanı belirterek ifade edersek, Simple Past kullanmamız gerekir. She removed all the furniture in the house last weekend. They painted their house a few weeks ago. Geçmişte yaptığımız eylem için zaman zarfı kullanmasak bile, eğer zamanı ima ediyorsak, yine Simple Past kullanırız. "/ saw that film when I was in Ankara." cümlesinde kesin olarak bir zaman vermesek de, "when I was in Ankara" geçmişte belli bir dönemi ifade etmektedir. I went shopping after work, ("after work' belli bir zamanı belirtmektedir.) I met him in İzmir. ("in İzmir" ifadesi yer belirtmesine karşın, "İzmir'de bulunduğum dönemde" anlamını ima etmektedir.) 32 Q ELS
  33. 33. Present Perfect Tense ile sorulan sorulara yanıt verirken, yine bu kurallara dikkat etmeliyiz. - Have you met his girlfriend? -Yes, I have, (or No, I haven't) - Have you met his girlfriend? - Yes, I met her last week, (or I met her at Alice's party.) - Have you seen my glasses? - Yes, I have. ( or No, 1 haven't.) - Have you seen my glasses? - Yes, I saw them on the kitchen table a few minutes ago. b) Yakın geçmişte olup sonuçlan ya da etkileri içinde bulunduğumuz anda devam eden eylemler için bu tense'i kullanırız. I have burnt myself. (I'm in pain now. - Şu anda acı çekiyorum.) I've cleaned the house. (It's clean now. ) (meeting a friend in the street) - You've cut your hair! - Yes, I went to the barber's last week. c) Today, this morning, this week, this month, this year, this century vb., henüz. tamamlanmamış bir dönem ifade eden zarflarla bu tense kullanılır. I've been to the cinema twice this week. I havent been able to go on holiday this year. Technology has advanced greatly this century. "This morning', "this afternoon" ve "this evening' ifadelerini kullanırken, saat kavramına dikkat etmemiz gerekir. Genellikle saat 13:00'e kadar olan süre sabah (morning), 17:00'ye kadar öğleden sonra (afternoon), 17:00-20:00 arası ise akşam (evening) saatlerini bildirir. Bu durumda: I haven't heard the alarm this morning. ifadesini, sabah diliminin henüz bitmemiş olduğu bir saatte, örneğin saat 11-12 gibi söyleyebiliriz. Eğer öğleden sonraki bir saatte, örneğin saat 2'de bu sözü söylüyorsak, artık "sabah" dilimi tamamlanıp yeni bir döneme geçilmiş olduğu için, o eylem geçmişte kalmıştır ve Simple Past Tense kullanmayı gerektirir. I haven't heard the alarm this morning. (It's 11 a.m. now.) I didn't hear the alarm this morning. (It's 2 p.m. now.) I've seen Tom this afternoon. (It's 3 p.m. now.) I saw Tom this afternoon. (It's 6 p.m. now.) This year, this month, this century gibi kullanımlarda, eğer sözü edilen zaman dilimi tamamlanmışsa, "this" yerine "last" kullanılır. I have worked hard this week. (The week hasn't finished yet.) I worked hard last week. They have phoned me twice this month. They phoned me twice last month. ELS Q 33
  34. 34. d) Lately, recently ile kullanımı: "Son zamanlarda, son günlerde" anlamına gelen lately ve recently, Present Perfect ile kullanıldığında, yine kesin bir zaman belirtmeden, yaptığımız işleri anlatır. Bu zarflar özellikle, haber niteliği olan son gelişmeleri ifade ederken çok sık kullanılır. There has been great progress in the science of medicine recently. There have been some changes in my house lately. Have you seen your parents recently? "Recently", özellikle only, quite, just ve very ile birlikte, Simple Past Tense ile de kullanılır ve "a short time ago" anlamını verir. They came quite recently. (They came quite a short time ago.) She passed her exam only recently. (She passed her exam only a short time ago.) e) Already, Just ve yet ile kullanımı: "Yet" soruda ve olumsuz cümlede kullanılır ve normal olarak cümlenin sonunda yer alır. - Have you finished your homework yet? - No, I haven't finished it yet. - Is your father at home? - No, he hasn't come yet "Just", olumlu cümlede kullanılır ve "only recently" (henüz, şimdi, yenice) anlamını verir. Eylemin yapılmasından sonra geçen sürenin kısalığı ile ilgili vurguyu artırmak için, "only Just" kullanılır. "Just" cümlede, yardımcı fiille asıl fiil arasında yer alır. - Is the manager in? - No, he has Just gone out. - Have you finished your homework? - Yes, I've Just finished it. (I've only recently finished it.) I have only Just completed the translation. "Already", olumlu cümlede kullanılır ve "zaten, çoktan" anlamına gelir. Bir eylemin umulandan daha önce bir zamanda yapılmış olduğunu vurgular. Cümle içindeki yeri normalde yardımcı fiil ile asıl fiil arasındadır, ancak cümle sonunda da kullanılır. - Shall we go to see the film "The Lord of the Rings"? - Not a good idea! I have already seen it. Manager: Don't forget to mail the invitations in time. Secretary: I've already posted them. Mother: Wash your hands before you sit at the table. Son: I've washed them already. f) Ever, never, all my life, in his life, always, occasionally, often, several times, once, twice, etc. gibi zarflarla kullanımı: Daha önce, sıklık bildiren zarfların (ever, never, always, often, etc.) Simple Present ile kullanımını görmüştük. Aynı zarflar, anlamda biraz bir değişiklikle, Present Perfect Tense ile de kullanılır. 34 Q ELS
  35. 35. I always get up early. (Simple Present - Ben her zaman erken kalkarım. "Bugüne kadar hep erken kalktım.Bundan sonra da büyük bir olasılıkla erken kalkacağım. Bu benim alışkanlığım." anlamını verir.) I have always got up early. (Present Perfect - "Ben her zaman erken kalkmışımdır." ifadesi, yaşamımın sadece şu ana kadar olan bölümünü kapsar.) My father has always lived in his hometown. (He has lived in his hometown all his life.) I've never seen such a pretty dog in my life. Have you ever ridden on an elephant? No, I've ridden on a camel once, but I've never ridden on an elephant. Once, twice, three times, several times, many times (bir kez, iki kez, üç kez, bir kaç kez, pek çok kez) gibi zarflarla, bir eylemi yaşamımız boyunca kaç kez yaptığımızı ifade etmek için Present Perfect Tense kullanırız. - Have you ever been abroad? - Yes, I've been to Germany several times. She has invited me to her house many times, but I've never had any spare time. I've seen her parents only once. NOT€ Bu zarfların Simple Past Tense ile kullanımına dikkat ediniz. "She has invited me to her house many times, but I've never had any spare time." cümlesini, geçmişte zamanı belirterek verirsek. Simple Past kullanmamız gerekir. She invited me to her house many times during my stay in Germany, but I never had any spare time. "My father has lived in his hometown all his life." cümlesinden, babamın hayatta olduğu anlamını çıkarıyoruz. Artık hayatta olmayan birinin yaptığı işlerden söz ediyorsak, Simple Past Tense kullanmamız gerekir. My grandfather lived in his hometown all his life. (He is dead now.) I have never .flown in an aeroplane. My grandmother never flew in an aeroplane. (She isn't alive any more.) I have ridden on a camel twice. It is very exciting. When I was in Egypt, I rode on a camel twice. It was very exciting g) So far (up to now, until now] ile kullanımı: "So far", "şu ana kadar" anlamına gelir ve genellikle, so far today, so far this month, so far this semester, so far this summer, etc. gibi zarflarla birlikte kullanılır. It hasn't snowed so far this winter. I got many bad grades last semester, but I haven't had any low grades so far this term. We haven't eaten anything so far today. So far this summer, I have swum in the sea only once. ELS a 35
  36. 36. h) For ve Since ile kullanımı: "For", geçmişte belli bir noktadan içinde bulunduğumuz ana kadar devam eden bir süreç bildirir, (for two years, for a month, for five minutes, for a long time, etc.) "Since", eylemin geçmişte başlangıç noktasını belirtir, (since yesterday, since 1987, since March, since the Middle Ages, etc.) EXAMPLES: She bought her house three years ago, so she has had it for three years. I last saw him in September. I haven't seen him since then. We first met at my cousin's 15th birthday party, so we have known each other for almost five years. She has been afraid of thunder since her childhood/since she was a child. . I haven't been to Germany since I got married. They haven't had the opportunity to have a long holiday for years. We haven't heard from him since he phoned us a month ago. He has read fifty pages of the book since I gave it to him. We have lived in four different houses since we moved to Istanbul seven years ago. There have been great price rises in the last six months, (son altı ay içinde) The housing problem has got worse in the past few years, (son birkaç yıl içinde) i) It Is/It has been + a period of time + since + Simple Past/Present Perfect It is/has been three months since I last went to the cinema. It is/has been three months since I have been to the cinema. Her iki cümleyi de Türkçe'ye şöyle çevirebiliriz: Sinemaya gitmeyeli üç ay oluyor, ya da En son sinemaya gittiğimden beri üç ay geçti. Bu cümlelerin eş anlamlısı olarak, "Üç aydır sinemaya gitmiyorum." ya da "Sinemaya en son üç ay önce gittim." gibi ifadeler de kullanabiliriz. I haven't been to the cinema for three months. I last went to the cinema three months ago. It is/It's been ten days since she has been off work because she is ill. (She has been ill in bed for ten days.) It is/It's been eight years since I graduated from university. (I graduated from university eight years ago.) It is/It's been just two weeks since they got married. (They got married just two weeks ago. or (They have been married for just two weeks.) 36 Q ELi
  37. 37. j) This is the first/second, etc. time (that) + Present Perfect I'm very excited now, because this is the first time (that) I've driven a car. This is the second time (that) he has played tennis, so he isn't good at it. This is the third exam (that) we have taken so far this term. You shouldn't drink so much coffee. It's bad for you. This is the fifth cup of coffee (that) you have drunk in the last two hours. k) This is + Superlative (that) + Present"Perfect This is the most boring book (that) I have ever read. (Bu hayatımda okuduğum en sıkıcı kitap.) This is the most difficult situation (that) I have ever been in. He is the most talkative person (that) I have met in my whole life. 1) gone or been "go" fiilini Perfect Tense ile iki şekilde kullanabiliriz: Eğer kişi, sözü edilen yerde ise, ya da sözü edilen yere gitmek üzere yola çıkmışsa, göne kullanılır. - I'd like to talk to your mother. Is she at home? - No, she has gone shopping. - Can I speak to Mr. Jones, please? - Sorry. He has gone out of town and hasn't come back yet. Eğer kişi, sözü edilen yerde daha önce bulunduğunu ifade ediyorsa, yani konuşma sırasında başka bir mekanda ise been kullanılır. - Have you ever been abroad? (The speakers are now not in Germany.) - Yes, I've been to Germany several times. - I want to do some shopping, but I'm afraid I haven't got enough money. - Don't worry. I've been to the bank today. I can lend you some. EXERCISE 9: Use the Present Perfect Simple or Simple Past 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. - I don't know why he's offering to drive some of the way. He (not, pass) ..................................his driving test yet. She (follow) ..................................him to work this morning because she (not, believe) ..................................that was where he was actually going. He (speak) .................................. several times to the manager about moving to another branch, but he (not, have) .................................. an answer yet. Before she (start) ...................................university, I (worry).....................................a lot about her living away from home, but she (make) ..................................so many new friends that now my fears (subside) ..................................... The weather (be) ...................................glorious so far this summer, unlike last year, when it (rain) ..................................every day. He (not, get) ...................................used to living in Britain yet. He can never remember from which side of the road the cars will come and he (not, start) ..................................drinking tea with milk yet. ELS Q 37

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