are small cell-signaling protein molecules that are secreted by numerous cells and are a category of signaling molecules used extensively in intercellular communication. Cytokines can be classified as proteins, peptides, or glycoproteins; the term "cytokine" encompasses a large and diverse family of regulators produced throughout the body by cells of diverse embryological origin.
costimulatory protein found on antigen presenting cells and is required for their activation. The binding of CD154 (CD40L) on TH cells to CD40 activates antigen presenting cells and induces a variety of downstream effects.
They created artificial targets. When a cell makes a protein, they made a copy of the protein’s name on to the RNA (RiboNucleic Acid). B cells are lymphocytes that play a large role in the humoral immune response (as opposed to the cell-mediated immune response, which is governed by T cells). T cells or T lymphocytes belong to a group of white blood cells known as lymphocytes, and play a central role in cell-mediated immunity. They can be distinguished from other lymphocytes, such as B cells and natural killer cells (NK cells), by the presence of a T cell receptor (TCR) on the cell surface. They are called T cells because they mature in the thymus. There are several subsets of T cells, each with a distinct function.
Adenosine deaminase deficiency
Normal tomatoes grown commercially cannot be allowed to ripen on the vine because they soften during the ripening process. Picking them while they are still hard allows them to be shipped, but it also prevents the development of natural flavors. In the 1980s, a geneticallyengineered tomato named FLAVR SAVR tomato was introduced. This research aims to create a new type of tomato that would not soften while ripening and could, therefore, be left on the vine until it ripened naturally.
A SURVEY OF BIOTECHNOLOGY AND GENTICS Ma. Veah Luisa O. Pascasio
OUTLINE• Background• General Mechanism• Developments• Disorders and Therapy• Benefits and Risks
WHAT IS BIOTECHNOLOGY?• The term used to describe practical uses of living organism.• Artificial manipulation and transfer of genetic material from one organism to another.• Because of the number of transfer possibilities, genetic combination not found in nature often occur.• Wide range of different techniques.
DEFINITION OF TERMS• Central Dogma “Information enshrined in the genetic code, flows from the gene to the world.” by Francis Crick “one gene, one protein”• Genotype genetic makeup• Phenotype – physical attributes• Gene – unit of inheritance piece of DNA
DEFINITION OF TERMS• DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid made up of long subunits called nucleotides. – Made up of nitrogenous bases: Adenine (A), Guanine (G), Thymine (T), Cytosine (C)• mRNA – messenger Ribonucleic acid; from which DNA is converted and responsible for protein synthesis.
CENTRAL DOGMA MECHANISM DNA Replication Single stranded DNA is copied Transcription Copied DNA is transcribed to RNA RNA Translation RNA is translated to amino acids Protein Synthesis
MECHANISM IN BIOTECHNOLOGY Gene to be altered is removed from DNA Gene is modified Gene is inserted into plasmids of a vector usually a bacterium or virus Vector is inserted back into organism
DEVELOPMENTS• Insulin – was read from human gene by proteinmaking apparatus of bacterium. – GENENTECH
DEVELOPMENTS• Cytokines – Messengers that regulate immune system – Cloned, produced and tested – CHIRON – Cytokin beta interferon, treatment for multiple sclerosis
DEVELOPMENTS• Through the rapid development of sepsis, human growth hormone and enzyme which cut through the the mucus that clogs the airways of people with cystic gibrosis were produced by Genentech.• Smallmolecule biotechnological techniques were adapted by companies such as Vertex.
The CD40 TeamThe CD40 is the surface of the B cells that produces immune systems antibodies when touched by a molecule on a T cell.Alejandro Aruffo rewrote the gene, spliced the description of the business end of the protein on to the genes that describe antibodies to create freefloating molecules that stuck to the same things as CD40.
The CD40 Team• During protein synthesis, Aruffo provided a library for the cell.• All the mRNA in a cell can be copied back into DNA providing a record of the protein.• A library of the genes being used by activated Tcells contains the genetic seeds for all the flowers on the cells surface.
The CD40 Team• Aruffo produced millions of copies of the gene spreading the genetic seeds across a number of cells. From this, proteins will be produced.• Through computer analysis, the type of protein will be determined. • Aruffo determined the protein gp39 commonly called tumour necrosis factor /media/PASCASIO/sts/Genetic engineering.flv
DISORDERS AND THERAPY• Monoclonal Antibodies because they all come from identical Bcell, they all recognise exactly the same molecules.
DISORDERS AND THERAPY• NeoRx formulated an anticancer therapy, wherein the patient is given antibodies that recognize cancer cells. These antibodies coat the tumor. After the tumor is enveloped, a small highly radioactive molecule is injected into the body. This molecule sticks to the coated tumors and kills them. It is small, so that it could be easily flushed out of the body.
DISORDERS AND THERAPY• Hurlers disease a genetic defect that may lead its sufferer from deformity to early death. This defect is a result of a lack of the gene for a particular enzyme.
DISORDERS AND THERAPY• Dr. Jean Michael Heard works on the Hurler’s disease; his plan is to take cells from the skin of an infected child and to infect them w/ a virus carrying the gene. The invigorated cells shall be embedded in a ball of collagen and GoreTex and be immobilized; they shall be implanted in the child’s cavity again to secrete the enzyme.
DISORDERS AND THERAPY• Cystic Fibrosis a common genetic disorder among white people; the protein missing in CF is the one that regulates the passage of chlorine in and out of the cell. Its absence affects every cell in the body.• The remedy would involve putting a new gene into every cell.
DISORDERS AND THERAPY• ADA Deficiency the only genetic disorder successfully treated w/ a gene, as of the time of writing. In treating this disease, the infected cells are taken out of the body, and then put back. French Anderson pioneered this kind of treatment.
DISORDERS AND THERAPY• Cancer a disease of the genes, wherein genes that regulate the growth and division of cells malfunction.
DISORDERS AND THERAPY• Suicide genes – most widely discussed and attempted treatment to cancer. Vectors take them into the cells, and when triggered, kill the cells they sit in. More often, cells die in a messy way, such that other neighbor cells die with them.• Tumorsuppressor genes – stops the tumor genes from doing their work• Antisense messages – artificial genetic messages that are antigenes of the tumor causing genes
BENEFITS• An answer to world hunger• A way to improve the environment• A way to provide a higherquality product• Vaccines and Antibiotics
RISKS• Production of new toxin• Damage to the ecosystem• Allergic Reactions
Reference: A Survey of Biotechnology and Genetics By Oliver Morton Video Links: Youtube.com/Structure of DNA and RNA - Advanced Biotechnology Podcast 1.3.html Youtube.com/What is biotechnology_.html Youtube.com/The Biotechnology Age.html