Normal tomatoes grown commercially cannot be  allowed to ripen on the vine because they soften   during the ripening proce...
A SURVEY OF BIOTECHNOLOGY   AND GENTICS     Ma. Veah Luisa O. Pascasio
OUTLINE•   Background•   General Mechanism•   Developments•   Disorders and Therapy•   Benefits and Risks
BACKGROUNDWHAT IS BIOTECHNOLOGY?
WHAT IS BIOTECHNOLOGY?• The term used to describe practical   uses of living organism.• Artificial manipulation and transf...
BACKGROUNDDEFINITION OF TERMS
DEFINITION OF TERMS• Central Dogma ­ “Information   enshrined in the genetic code, flows   from the gene to the world.”   ...
DEFINITION OF TERMS• DNA ­ Deoxyribonucleic acid made up   of  long sub­units called nucleotides.         – Made up of nit...
DEFINITION OF TERMS                             T                        G      A                    T       C            ...
CENTRAL DOGMA              MECHANISM    DNA Replication                  Single stranded DNA is copied    Transcription...
MECHANISM IN            BIOTECHNOLOGY    Gene to be altered is removed from DNA    Gene is modified    Gene is inserted...
DEVELOPMENTS• Insulin   – was read from human gene by      protein­making apparatus of      bacterium.   – GENENTECH
DEVELOPMENTS• Cytokines  – Messengers that regulate immune     system  – Cloned, produced and tested  – CHIRON  – Cytokin ...
DEVELOPMENTS• Through the rapid development of   sepsis, human growth hormone and   enzyme which cut through the the   muc...
DEVELOPMENTS THE CD40 TEAM
The CD40 TeamThe CD40 is the surface of the B cells   that produces immune systems   antibodies when touched by a   molecu...
The CD40 Team• During protein synthesis, Aruffo   provided a library for the cell.• All the mRNA in a cell can be copied  ...
The CD40 Team• Aruffo produced millions of copies of   the gene spreading the genetic seeds   across a number of cells. Fr...
DISORDERS AND THERAPY• Monoclonal Antibodies ­ because they    all come  from identical B­cell, they all   recognise exact...
DISORDERS AND THERAPY• NeoRx ­ formulated an anti­cancer   therapy, wherein the patient is given   antibodies that recogni...
DISORDERS AND THERAPY• Hurlers disease ­ a genetic defect that   may lead its sufferer from deformity to   early death.  T...
DISORDERS AND THERAPY• Dr. Jean Michael Heard works on the   Hurler’s disease; his plan is to take cells   from the skin o...
DISORDERS AND THERAPY• Cystic Fibrosis ­ a common genetic   disorder among white people; the   protein missing in CF is th...
DISORDERS AND THERAPY• ADA Deficiency ­ the only genetic   disorder successfully treated w/ a   gene, as of the time of wr...
DISORDERS AND THERAPY• Cancer ­ a disease of the genes,   wherein genes that regulate the   growth and division of cells  ...
DISORDERS AND THERAPY• Suicide genes – most widely discussed and   attempted treatment to cancer.  Vectors take   them int...
BENEFITS• An answer to world hunger• A way to improve the environment• A way to provide a higher­quality   product• Vaccin...
RISKS• Production of new toxin• Damage to the ecosystem• Allergic Reactions
Reference:                    A Survey of Biotechnology and Genetics By Oliver Morton       Video Links:                ...
Biotechnology
Biotechnology
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  • are small cell-signaling protein molecules that are secreted by numerous cells and are a category of signaling molecules used extensively in intercellular communication. Cytokines can be classified as proteins, peptides, or glycoproteins; the term "cytokine" encompasses a large and diverse family of regulators produced throughout the body by cells of diverse embryological origin.[1]
  • costimulatory protein found on antigen presenting cells and is required for their activation. The binding of CD154 (CD40L) on TH cells to CD40 activates antigen presenting cells and induces a variety of downstream effects.
  • They created artificial targets. When a cell makes a protein, they made a copy of the protein’s name on to the RNA (RiboNucleic Acid). B cells are lymphocytes that play a large role in the humoral immune response (as opposed to the cell-mediated immune response, which is governed by T cells). T cells or T lymphocytes belong to a group of white blood cells known as lymphocytes, and play a central role in cell-mediated immunity. They can be distinguished from other lymphocytes, such as B cells and natural killer cells (NK cells), by the presence of a T cell receptor (TCR) on the cell surface. They are called T cells because they mature in the thymus. There are several subsets of T cells, each with a distinct function.
  • Adenosine deaminase deficiency
  • Biotechnology

    1. 1. Normal tomatoes grown commercially cannot be  allowed to ripen on the vine because they soften  during the ripening process. Picking them while they are still hard allows them to be shipped, but it  also prevents the development of natural flavors. In the 1980s, a genetically­engineered tomato  named FLAVR SAVR tomato was introduced.  This research aims to create a new type of tomato that  would not soften while ripening and could,  therefore, be left on the vine until it ripened  naturally.
    2. 2. A SURVEY OF BIOTECHNOLOGY  AND GENTICS Ma. Veah Luisa O. Pascasio
    3. 3. OUTLINE• Background• General Mechanism• Developments• Disorders and Therapy• Benefits and Risks
    4. 4. BACKGROUNDWHAT IS BIOTECHNOLOGY?
    5. 5. WHAT IS BIOTECHNOLOGY?• The term used to describe practical  uses of living organism.• Artificial manipulation and transfer of  genetic material from one organism to  another.• Because of the number of transfer  possibilities, genetic combination not  found in nature often occur.• Wide range of different techniques.
    6. 6. BACKGROUNDDEFINITION OF TERMS
    7. 7. DEFINITION OF TERMS• Central Dogma ­ “Information  enshrined in the genetic code, flows  from the gene to the world.”  ­ by Francis Crick  ­ “one gene, one protein”• Genotype ­ genetic make­up• Phenotype – physical attributes• Gene – unit of inheritance   ­ piece of DNA
    8. 8. DEFINITION OF TERMS• DNA ­ Deoxyribonucleic acid made up  of  long sub­units called nucleotides. – Made up of nitrogenous bases:  Adenine (A), Guanine (G),  Thymine (T), Cytosine (C)• mRNA – messenger Ribonucleic acid;  from which DNA is converted and  responsible for protein synthesis.
    9. 9. DEFINITION OF TERMS T G A T C C A A G G A TC
    10. 10. CENTRAL DOGMA  MECHANISM DNA Replication  Single stranded DNA is copied Transcription  Copied DNA is transcribed to RNA RNA Translation  RNA is translated to amino acids Protein Synthesis
    11. 11. MECHANISM IN  BIOTECHNOLOGY Gene to be altered is removed from DNA Gene is modified Gene is inserted into plasmids of a vector usually a bacterium or virus Vector is inserted back into organism
    12. 12. DEVELOPMENTS• Insulin – was read from human gene by  protein­making apparatus of  bacterium. – GENENTECH
    13. 13. DEVELOPMENTS• Cytokines – Messengers that regulate immune  system – Cloned, produced and tested – CHIRON – Cytokin beta interferon, treatment  for multiple sclerosis
    14. 14. DEVELOPMENTS• Through the rapid development of  sepsis, human growth hormone and  enzyme which cut through the the  mucus that clogs the airways of  people  with  cystic gibrosis were  produced by Genentech.• Small­molecule biotechnological  techniques were adapted by  companies such as Vertex.
    15. 15. DEVELOPMENTS THE CD40 TEAM
    16. 16. The CD40 TeamThe CD40 is the surface of the B cells  that produces immune systems  antibodies when touched by a  molecule on a T cell.Alejandro Aruffo rewrote the gene,  spliced the description of the business  end of the protein on to the genes  that describe antibodies to create  free­floating molecules that stuck to  the same things as CD40.
    17. 17. The CD40 Team• During protein synthesis, Aruffo  provided a library for the cell.• All the mRNA in a cell can be copied  back into DNA providing a record of  the protein.• A library of the genes being used by   activated  T­cells contains  the genetic  seeds for all the flowers on the  cells  surface. 
    18. 18. The CD40 Team• Aruffo produced millions of copies of  the gene spreading the genetic seeds  across a number of cells. From this,  proteins will be produced.• Through computer analysis, the type of  protein will be determined. • Aruffo determined the protein gp­39  commonly called tumour necrosis  factor /media/PASCASIO/sts/Genetic engineering.flv
    19. 19. DISORDERS AND THERAPY• Monoclonal Antibodies ­ because they   all come  from identical B­cell, they all  recognise exactly  the  same  molecules.
    20. 20. DISORDERS AND THERAPY• NeoRx ­ formulated an anti­cancer  therapy, wherein the patient is given  antibodies that recognize cancer cells.   These antibodies coat the tumor.   After the tumor is enveloped, a small  highly radioactive molecule is injected  into the body.  This molecule sticks to  the coated tumors and kills them.  It is  small, so that it could be easily flushed  out of the body.
    21. 21. DISORDERS AND THERAPY• Hurlers disease ­ a genetic defect that  may lead its sufferer from deformity to  early death.  This defect is a result of a  lack of the gene for a particular  enzyme.
    22. 22. DISORDERS AND THERAPY• Dr. Jean Michael Heard works on the  Hurler’s disease; his plan is to take cells  from the skin of an infected child and  to infect them w/ a virus carrying the  gene.  The invigorated cells shall be  embedded in a ball of collagen and  GoreTex and be immobilized; they  shall be implanted in the child’s cavity  again to secrete the enzyme. 
    23. 23. DISORDERS AND THERAPY• Cystic Fibrosis ­ a common genetic  disorder among white people; the  protein missing in CF is the one that  regulates the passage of chlorine in  and out of the cell. Its absence affects  every cell in the body.• The remedy would involve putting a  new gene into every cell.
    24. 24. DISORDERS AND THERAPY• ADA Deficiency ­ the only genetic  disorder successfully treated w/ a  gene, as of the time of writing.  In  treating this disease, the infected cells  are taken out of the body, and then  put back.  French Anderson pioneered  this kind of treatment.
    25. 25. DISORDERS AND THERAPY• Cancer ­ a disease of the genes,  wherein genes that regulate the  growth and division of cells  malfunction.
    26. 26. DISORDERS AND THERAPY• Suicide genes – most widely discussed and  attempted treatment to cancer.  Vectors take  them into the cells, and when triggered, kill the  cells they sit in.  More often, cells die in a messy  way, such that other neighbor cells die with  them.• Tumor­suppressor genes – stops the tumor genes  from doing their work• Antisense messages – artificial genetic  messages that are anti­genes of the tumor­ causing genes
    27. 27. BENEFITS• An answer to world hunger• A way to improve the environment• A way to provide a higher­quality  product• Vaccines and Antibiotics
    28. 28. RISKS• Production of new toxin• Damage to the ecosystem• Allergic Reactions
    29. 29. Reference:  A Survey of Biotechnology and Genetics By Oliver Morton Video Links:  Youtube.com/Structure of DNA and RNA - Advanced Biotechnology Podcast 1.3.html  Youtube.com/What is biotechnology_.html  Youtube.com/The Biotechnology Age.html

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