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Business Statistics (T-Test) : An analysis of paradigm shifts in behavioral patterns

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  • 1. An Analysis of Paradigm Shifts in Behavioral Patterns : Before and After Graduation
  • 2. Behavior• An aggregate of the responses, reactions or movements made by a person in any situation Responses Stimuli Reactions Behavior Movements• Prone to changes
  • 3. Behavioral Change ModelLeadership Skills Leadership Skills Intellect Intellect Graduation Social Skills Social SkillsUndesirable Skills Undesirable Skills
  • 4. Leadership Skills VisionLeadership Skills Dedication Intellect Listening Skills Social Skills Team BuildingUndesirable Skills Source:Barker, R. A. (2001). The Conflict Handling nature of leadership. Human Relations, 54, 469 Motivation -494.
  • 5. Leadership Skills Vision Dedication Listening Skills Team BuildingConflict Handling Motivation
  • 6. Leadership Skills Vision Dedication How clear are you on your aspirations, dreams Listening Skills and values ? Team Building • Very Low 1 2 • LowConflict Handling 3 • Average 4 • High Motivation 5 • Very High
  • 7. Leadership Skills Vision Dedication How dedicated are you in achieving your goal ? Listening Skills Team BuildingConflict Handling Motivation
  • 8. Leadership Skills Vision Dedication Do you listen carefully to your people and Listening Skills encourage them to express their opinions ? Team BuildingConflict Handling Motivation
  • 9. Leadership Skills Vision Dedication How good are you in integrating the team to Listening Skills improve team’s performance ? Team BuildingConflict Handling Motivation
  • 10. Leadership Skills Vision Dedication Do you resolve conflict as it occurs, and Listening Skills consider the best interests of all concerned ? Team BuildingConflict Handling Motivation
  • 11. Leadership Skills Vision Dedication Do you motivate your team mates to do their Listening Skills best on the job ? Team BuildingConflict Handling Motivation
  • 12. Step 1 : Set Null and alternative hypotheses H0 : μd = 0 (No change in leadership skills) H1 : μd ≠ 0 Step 2 : Determine the appropriate statistical test d ( 1 2 ) t ; df n 1 sd n Step 3 : Set the level of significance α = 0.05
  • 13. Step 4 : Set the decision rule Value of α is 0.05 and the degrees offreedom is 20. The tabular t value is t0.05,20 = ±2.086. The nullhypothesis will be rejected if the observed value of t is lessthan - 2.086 or greater than + 2.086 Step 5 : Collect the sample data Sample data: Leadership Skills Step 6 : Analyze the data Excel: Leadership Skills Minitab: Leadership Skills
  • 14. Step 7 : Arrive at a statistical conclusion and businessimplication The observed t-value -4.82 is less than the tabulart-value -2.086. Hence Null hypothesis is rejected andalternative hypothesis is accepted. It can be concluded thatthere is a significant change in the leader skills of a student.
  • 15. Intellect Cognitive IntelligenceLeadership Skills Practical Intelligence Source: Neisser, U., Boodoo, Intellect G., Bouchard, T.J., Jr., Bykin, A.W., Brody, N., Ceci, S.J., et al (1996). Emotional Intelligence Intelligence: Knowns and Social Skills unknowns. Expression American Psychologist, 51, 77- 101 .Undesirable Skills Regulation Recognition
  • 16. IntellectCognitive IntelligencePractical IntelligenceEmotional Intelligence Expression Regulation Recognition
  • 17. IntellectCognitive IntelligencePractical Intelligence How good is your verbal and numerical reasoning ?Emotional Intelligence Expression Regulation Recognition
  • 18. IntellectCognitive IntelligencePractical Intelligence How adept are you at solving practical problems of everyday life?Emotional Intelligence Expression Regulation Recognition
  • 19. IntellectCognitive IntelligencePractical Intelligence How well can you understand and express your own emotions ?Emotional Intelligence Expression Regulation Recognition
  • 20. IntellectCognitive IntelligencePractical Intelligence How well can you regulate your own emotion ?Emotional Intelligence Expression Regulation Recognition
  • 21. IntelligenceCognitive IntelligencePractical Intelligence How well can you perceive and understand others’ emotions ?Emotional Intelligence Expression Regulation Recognition
  • 22. Step 1 : Set Null and alternative hypotheses H0 : μd = 0 (No change in Intellect) H1 : μd ≠ 0 Step 2 : Determine the appropriate statistical test d ( 1 2 ) t ; df n 1 sd n Step 3 : Set the level of significance α = 0.05
  • 23. Step 4 : Set the decision rule Value of α is 0.05 and the degrees offreedom is 20. The tabular t value is t0.05,20 = ± 2.086.The nullhypothesis will be rejected if the observed value of t is lessthan - 2.086 or greater than + 2.086 Step 5 : Collect the sample data Sample data: Intellect Step 6 : Analyze the data Excel: Intellect Minitab: Intellect
  • 24. Step 7 : Arrive at a statistical conclusion and businessimplicationThe observed t-value -4.45 is less than the tabular t-value -2.086. Hence Null hypothesis is rejected and alternativehypothesis is accepted. It can be concluded that there is asignificant change in the intellect of a student.
  • 25. Social Skills Perception Source :Leadership Skills Witt, L.A., & Ferris, G. R. (2003). Social Skill as Impression moderator of the conscientiousness- performace Intelligence relationship: Convergent results Persuasion across four studies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 809- Social Skills 820. AdaptabilityUndesirable Sills Awareness Control
  • 26. Social SkillsPerceptionImpressionPersuasionAdaptabilityAwareness Control
  • 27. Social SkillsPerceptionImpression How accurately can you perceive the traitsPersuasion , motives and intentions of others ?AdaptabilityAwareness Control
  • 28. Social SkillsPerceptionImpression How effectively can you induce positivePersuasion reactions in others ?AdaptabilityAwareness Control
  • 29. Social SkillsPerceptionImpression How skilled are you at changing othersPersuasion attitudes and behavior in desired direction ?AdaptabilityAwareness Control
  • 30. Social SkillsPerceptionImpression How adaptable are you to varying socialPersuasion situations ?AdaptabilityAwareness Control
  • 31. Social SkillsPerceptionImpression How proficient are you at understanding andPersuasion controlling emotional aspects of life ?AdaptabilityAwareness & Control
  • 32. Step 1 : Set Null and alternative hypotheses H0 : μd = 0 (No change in Social Skills) H1 : μd ≠ 0 Step 2 : Determine the appropriate statistical test d ( 1 2 ) t ; df n 1 sd n Step 3 : Set the level of significance α has been specified as 0.05
  • 33. Step 4 : Set the decision rule Value of α is 0.05 and the degrees offreedom is 20. The tabular t value is t0.05,20 = ± 2.086.The nullhypothesis will be rejected if the observed value of t is lessthan - 2.086 or greater than + 2.086 Step 5 : Collect the sample data Sample data: Social Skills Step 6 : Analyze the data Excel: Social Skills Minitab:Social Skills
  • 34. Step 7 : Arrive at a statistical conclusion and businessimplication The observed t-value -4.608 is less than the tabulart-value -2.086. Hence Null hypothesis is rejected andalternative hypothesis is accepted. It can be concluded thatthere is a significant change in the social skills of a student.
  • 35. Undesirable skills Source : Kelley, R.Leadership Skills Procrastination Mark., Young, M., Denny, G., & Lewis, C. (2005), Liars, Cheaters, a nd Thieves: Correlates of undesirable character Intellect Temper behaviors in adolescents. American Alliance for Health, Physcial Education, Recreation and Dance. Social Skills PessimismUndesirable skills Laziness Machiavellianism
  • 36. Undesirable skills Procrastination Temper Pessimism LazinessMachiavellianism
  • 37. Undesirable skills Procrastination Temper How often do you postpone work ? Pessimism LazinessMachiavellianism
  • 38. Undesirable skills Procrastination Temper How frequently do you lose your temper ? Pessimism LazinessMachiavellianism
  • 39. Undesirable skills Procrastination Temper How pessimistic are you ? Pessimism LazinessMachiavellianism
  • 40. Undesirable skills Procrastination Temper How lazy are you ? Pessimism LazinessMachiavellianism
  • 41. Undesirable skills Procrastination Temper How willing are you to manipulate others for your benefit ? Pessimism LazinessMachiavellianism
  • 42. Step 1 : Set Null and alternative hypotheses H0 : μd = 0 (No change in Undesirable Skills) H1 : μd ≠ 0 Step 2 : Determine the appropriate statistical test d ( 1 2 ) t ; df n 1 sd n Step 3 : Set the level of significance α = 0.05
  • 43. Step 4 : Set the decision rule Value of α is 0.05 and the degrees offreedom is 20. The tabular t value is t0.05,20 = ± 2.086.The nullhypothesis will be rejected if the observed value of t is lessthan - 2.086 or greater than + 2.086 Step 5 : Collect the sample data Sample data: Undesired Skills Step 6 : Analyze the data Excel: Undesired Skills Minitab: Undesired Skills
  • 44. Step 7 : Arrive at a statistical conclusion and businessimplication The observed t-value 1.834 lies in the range of t-value ± 2.086. Hence Null hypothesis is accepted. It can beconcluded that there no significant change in the undesiredskills of a student.
  • 45. Statistical Inference• The Leadership skills, Intellect and social skills of students has significant change after graduation. Graduation has added value to these qualities.• The Undesirable skills of students have not changed after graduation
  • 46. References• Barker, R. A. (2001). The nature of leadership. Human Relations, 54, 469-494.• Neisser, U., Boodoo, G., Bouchard, T.J., Jr., Bykin, A.W., Brody, N., Ceci, S.J., et al (1996). Intelligence: Knowns and unknowns. American Psychologist, 51, 77-101 .• Witt, L.A., & Ferris, G. R. (2003). Social Skill as moderator of the conscientiousness- performace relationship: Convergent results across four studies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 809-820.• Kelley, R. Mark., Young, M., Denny, G., & Lewis, C. (2005), Liars, Cheaters, and Thieves: Correlates of undesirable character behaviors in adolescents. American Alliance for Health, Physcial Education, Recreation and Dance.• Greenberg J. (2011) Behavior in Organizations.• Bajpai, N. (2012). Business Statistics.
  • 47. Thank You