Anatomy and physiology is the study of the human body.
Anatomy is concerned with the structure of a part. For
example, the stomach is a J-shaped, pouch like organ
The stomach wall has thick folds, which disappear
as the stomach expands to increase its capacity.
Physiology is concerned with the function of a part. For example, the
stomach temporarily stores food, secretes digestive juices, and
passes on partially digested food to the small intestine.
When describing parts of the
body, it is often important to
refer to their relative positions.
Anatomic position:a person standing erect with the
feet facing forward, arms
hanging to the sides, and palms
facing forward with the thumbs
to the outside is an Anatomical
Directional terms have been
developed to facilitate such
1.In the anatomical position, the palms are facing towards the
2. The anatomical position was created to ____________
A. annoy anatomy students
B. be a standard reference for the body
C. help physiotherapists to understand anatomy
D. describe the pose that people take when they sleep
3. A person can sit in the anatomical position.
Directional terms tell us where body parts are located with reference to the body in
Directional terms are used to describe the location of one
body part in relation to another
Anterior(ventral) means that a body part is located toward
the front. The windpipe (trachea) is anterior to the
Posterior(dorsal) means that a body part is located toward
the back. The heart is posterior to the rib cage
Directional terms 1
Superior means that a body part is located
above another part, or toward the head. The
face is superior to the neck.
Inferior means that a body part is below
another part, or toward the feet. The navel is
inferior to the chin
Directional terms 2
Medial means that a body part is nearer than
another part to an imaginary midline of the
body. The bridge of the nose is medial to the
Lateral means that a body part is farther away
from the midline. The eyes are lateral to the
Directional terms 3
Proximal means that a body part is
closer to the point of attachment or
closer to the trunk. The elbow is
proximal to the hand.
Distal means that a body part is farther
from the point of attachment or farther
from the trunk or torso. The hand is
distal to the elbow.
Directional terms 4
Superficial(external) means that a body part
is located near the surface. The skin is
superficial to the muscles.
Deep(internal) means that the body part is
located away from the surface. The intestines
are deep to the spine.
Directional terms 5
Central means that a body part is situated at the
center of the body or an organ. The central
nervous system is located along the main axis of
Peripheral means that a body part is situated
away from the center of the body or an organ.
The peripheral nervous system is located outside
the central nervous system
Regions of the Body
The human body can be divided into
Head, Neck, and Trunk
(Thorax, Abdomen, and Pelvis)
2. Appendicular portions.
(the limbs— the upper limbs and the lower limbs.)
The scientific name for each region is followed by the common name for that region. For
example, the cephalic region is commonly called the head
A frontal plane, also called a coronal plane, is made at right angles to the
midline and divides the body into anterior and posterior parts.
A sagittal plane passes from front to back and divides the body into right and left portions. If
the plane passes through the midline, it is a mid sagittal or medial plane.
A transverse plane passes horizontally, dividing the body into superior and inferior parts
Internal organs are located within
dorsal and ventral cavities .
The dorsal cavity contains the
brain in the cranial cavity and the
spinal cord in the spinal cavity
(canal).The uppermost ventral
space, the thoracic cavity , is
separated from the abdominal
cavity by the diaphragm. There is
no anatomical separation between
the abdominal cavity and the
pelvic cavity , which together
make up the abdomino pelvic
cavity.The large membrane that
lines the abdomino pelvic cavity
and covers the organs within it is
abdominal cavity : The large ventral cavity below the diaphragm and above the
abdominopelvic cavity: The large ventral cavity between the diaphragm and pelvis
that includes the abdominal and pelvic cavities
anatomic position : Standard position for anatomical studies, in which the body is
erect and facing forward, the arms are at the sides with palms forward, and the feet
cranial cavity : The dorsal cavity that contains the brain
Diaphragm : The muscle that separates the thoracic from the abdominal cavity
frontal (coronal) plane: Plane of section that separates the body into anterior (front)
posterior (back) portions
pelvic cavity : The ventral cavity that is below the abdominal cavity
Peritoneum : The large serous membrane that lines the
abdomino pelvic cavity and covers the organs within it
sagittal plane : Plane that divides the body into right and
spinal cavity (canal) : Dorsal cavity that contains the
thoracic cavity : The ventral cavity above the diaphragm;
the chest cavity
transverse (horizontal) plane : Plane that divides the
body into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) portions
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