1. A chronological response of the human immune system: a model
Vladimir Cuesta †
Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Aut´ noma de M´ xico, 70-543, Ciudad de
M´ xico, M´ xico
Abstract. I study an infectious process and the chronological response of the immune system, In
my model there are the following components: T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, granulocytes and
The human immune system is one of the most important pieces for the development of human
medicines, early studies made progress in toxicology and the ﬁght against parasites for citing some
studies (see  for instance). Along a lot of years people could ﬁnd some functions for few pieces
of the human immune system. However, there are not model for explaining all the pieces, together.
But, like the specialist can see, there are some options for understanding these pieces of genetic, one
of them is to make a comparison between the behavior of some living beings and the human immune
system or the comparison between different immune system and the human one (see  and  for
I present my model in an attempt for explaining the human immune system.
2. A brief list
I present a brief explanation to the principal functions for T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes,
granulocytes and monocytes, all these are part of the human immune system.
T lymphocytes.- They are the coordinators of the immune system, I mean, they can decide the
number, the way, the form and the actions of the immune system.
B lymphocytes.- They are the responsibles for creating antibodies or the principal components
against infections, illness and so on.
Granulocytes.- They put color on cells or they mark different genetic structures.
Monocytes.- They eat or they eliminate cellular structures and some genetic structures.
2. A chronological response of the human immune system: a model 2
3. An infectious process
I present my model in the following way: according to a lot of specialists in genetics, medicine and so
on, all the monocytes and lymphocytes have not functions. However, in my model these functions can
be described in an infectious process. For example, if a man cut his hand, then the ﬁrst response of
the human immune system is to send granulocytes because these will mark dirty cells or infected cells
in such a way that the immune system knows all the cells or genetic components with good or bad
health, because they are painted for the action of granulocytes. Like second step, the T lymphocytes
will produce and they will coordinate all the immune response and the production of antibodies or B
lymphocytes will begin and the ﬁght against the infectious process will continue till the ﬁnal of the
infection. Like ﬁnal step the monocytes will eliminate all the death cells or pieces of death genetic
In complicated cases the reader can make similar reasonings.
4. Conclusions and perspectives
I have presented a simple model for an infectious process and the response of the human immune
system, according to my knowledge the actual functions of all the granulocytes and monocytes are
unknown. In my model there exist assigned functions for all these.
My ﬁrst idea for future work is to ﬁnd one, two or probably more steps that can be added to my
model (but just few steps) and the experimental veriﬁcation or the opposite case.
As second point, you can search substructures inside my model. However, like the specialist can
see, this second point have been covered, at least partially.
All the people have average levels of T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, granulocytes, monocytes
and a lot of genetic components. Lower or upper levels in any genetic components must indicate
an anomaly. I mean, the presence of an infectious process, the presence of a virus, bacteria, genetic
mutations or like I said, genetic alterations or bad health, the search for optimum levels of immune
(or genetic) system components for humans or different species are crucial.
 Paul Ehrlich, Partial cell functions, Nobel Lecture, December 11, 1908.
 Gregory Beck and Gail S. Habicht, Immunity and the Invertebrates, Scientiﬁc American, November 1996.
 Gary W. Litman, Sharks and the Origins of Veryebrate Immunity, Scientiﬁc America, November 1996.