Beyond Budget and Scope: Managing Client Expectations and Delivering Value
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Beyond Budget and Scope: Managing Client Expectations and Delivering Value

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Many projects begin with by ambiguous needs, unclear priorities, mind-changing customers, and of course, a tight deadline. There are tools to monitor budget and schedule, but failure to manage......

Many projects begin with by ambiguous needs, unclear priorities, mind-changing customers, and of course, a tight deadline. There are tools to monitor budget and schedule, but failure to manage client expectations often results in frustrating miscommunications and serious consequences for projects and business relationships.

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  • 1. Beyond Budget and Scope Managing Client Expectations and Delivering Value Vanessa Turke Solution Architect ImageX Media
  • 2. agenda & goals of this presentation
      • Why a Drupal project may fall short of client expectations
      • Defining customer satisfaction, quality and value
      • Setting the stage for understanding client expectations
      • Techniques for optimizing project communications
      • Pursuing the goal of delivering value with every project
  • 3. drupal firm | user experience
  • 4. drupal firm user experience "How do customers perceive us?"
  • 5. project work is like the fable of the 6 blind men and the elephant
  • 6. each man touched a part of the elephant and took it for the whole
  • 7. a good understanding of how the pieces come together is needed to create a successful outcome
  • 8. Customer Satisfaction = Your Performance ____________________ Customer Expectations (Lewis and Mitchell, 1990; Dotchin and Oakland, 1994a; Asubonteng et al., 1996; Wisniewski and Donnelly, 1996)
  • 9. but how you perceive your performance may differ from how your customers perceive it.
  • 10. have you ever been happy with a product or service, but would never deal with that particular service provider again because of how you were treated?
  • 11. a study that author Naomi Karten talks about in her presentations shows that that this happens more than we think
  • 12. 22% due to dissatisfaction with the product 78% due to dissatisfaction with the process why people stopped dealing with the business:
  • 13. conceptualization of service quality
      • Tangibles - equipment, facilities & appearances
      • Assurance - competence, credibility, security, trust
      • Reliability - dependable, accurate, on time & on budget
      • Responsiveness - service, communication & helpfulness
      • Empathy - attention, caring & understanding
      • (SERVQUAL methodology based factors)
  • 14. project processes or stages
    • Initiation
    • Planning
    • Execution
    • Monitoring and Controlling
    • Closure
  • 15. what do clients expect?
      • “ In a competitive and depressed economic climate, [your customers] want to know that any IT project they undertake will deliver a significant return on investment.”
      • (Project management researchers, Reich, Gemino, Sauer (2010) SFU)
  • 16. Where do projects come from?
  • 17. organizational culture
      • Organizational structure
      • Level of technical ability
      • Philosophy
      • Technologies
      • Communication style
      • Decision-making style
      • Flexibility and constraints
  • 18. creating a project strategy
      • What is the business goal of the website?
      • What is the mission critical task for a user to complete?
  • 19. why do people start web projects?
      • Site looks outdated
      • Company President said we need one
      • Marketing Department launching new product
      • Extra funding to be spent by year-end
      • Tech-guy quit and no one else can update the site
      • Adding social media features
      • Everyone should have a website
      • The next great idea
  • 20. website type
      • Brand Presence
      • Marketing Campaign
      • Content Source
      • Task-based application
      • E-Commerce
      • E-Learning
      • Social Network
  • 21. what is value?
      • “ [value is] the relationship between the consumer's perceived benefits in relation to the perceived costs of receiving these benefits.” ~wikipedia
  • 22. quality is a loaded word...
      • Quality is goodness, luxury or expense
      • Quality intangible and not measurable
      • Quality leads excessive expense
      • Quality problems arise from sloppy work or lack of employee concern
      • Quality is the responsibility of the quality assurance department
  • 23. what is the cost of poor quality?
      • Dissatisfied customers
      • Declining revenue
      • Excessive number of defects & delays
      • Excessively long timeline
      • Excessive costs: rework, late deliveries, loss of customers
      • High conversion costs
      • Under utilization of capacity
      • Multiple or inconsistent problem-solving approaches
      • Employee dissatisfaction and low morale
  • 24. what is quality?
      • "Quality is the degree to which a specific product satisfies the wants of a specific consumer."
      • "Quality is the degree to which a specific product conforms to a design or specification."
      • (H.L. Gilmore, "Product Conformance Cost," Quality Progress, June 1974, p.16).
  • 25. “ I’ll know it when I see it...”
  • 26. what is a quality product?
      • One that meets customer standards,
      • Meets and fulfills customer needs,
      • Meets customer expectations, and
      • Will meet unanticipated future needs and aspirations
      • (Gitlow et al., 1989 or Ozeki and Asaka, 1990)
  • 27. what is quality?
      • "Quality is fitness for use."
      • ~ J.M Juran (1988)
  • 28. the father of quality
      • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joseph_M._Juran
  • 29. perfect is the enemy of the good
      • "Le mieux est l'ennemi du bien."
      • ~ from Voltaire's Dictionnaire Philosophique (1764)
  • 30. Initiating
      • Sales, Contracts
      • Defining the project
      • Creating initial documentation, RFP, SOW, etc.
      • Relationship building
      • Putting together the project team
      • Identifying project goals and objectives
  • 31. kickoff meeting
      • Introductions & overview of the project
      • Identifying current site challenges
      • Identifying Stakeholders
      • Overview of the process so far
      • Role the website plays in the organization
      • Defining project objectives discussion
      • Identifying success criteria for stakeholders
  • 32. process overview
      • Overview of the process
      • Typical roadblocks encountered
      • Communications plan discussion
      • Managing scope discussion
      • Identifying risks and constraints
      • Reviewing scheduling issues
      • Review initial timeline & milestones
  • 33. scope schedule cost
  • 34. planning for slippage in advance
      • Should features be deferred?
      • Can the schedule be allowed to slip? By how much?
      • Can you add staff or pay for overtime to meet the new schedule?
      • Can quality slip because sound processes and quality control practices are neglected in the press to ship?
  • 35. project planning
      • Highlighting areas needing clarification
      • Flag vagueness or marketese (for example: improve search-ability, usability, "easy to update", etc.)
      • Gather information about the end users, roles and work flow
      • Gather information about content strategy, mission critical tasks and content types
      • Identify potential features needing clarification or prototyping
      • Identify potential feature incompatibility
      • Note company culture and decision-making style (autocratic vs. consensus)
      • Note project communication needs and create communication plan
  • 36. content types
  • 37. user roles
  • 38. risk planning
      • Identify project risks
      • Assess likelihood & consequence
      • Plan: avoid, transfer, assume or mitigate
      • Establish risk events responsibilities and schedules
      • Monitor and correct deviations
      • Re-plan as appropriate
      • Communicate
  • 39. sample risk register for “ party ” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Risk_register
  • 40. communications
      • Communicate with all stakeholders as early as possible
      • Messages need to be audience specific
      • Choose a method of communication appropriate to the message being delivered and audience
      • Be vigilant in setting expectations
      • Provide regular unbiased reporting of project process
      • Communicate what other people need to know before they need to know it
      • Hold project-wide meetings at important milestones
      • Build positive momentum and continue it throughout the project
  • 41. using RACI levels for communicating
      • Responsible - one person must be held responsible for signing off on completed tasks
      • Accountable - are persons held responsible for ensuring a particular task is complete
      • Consulted - those whose opinions are sought before moving forward
      • Informed - those who are kept up-to-date on progress, (though often only on completion of deliverable)
  • 42. monitoring & controlling
    • Communicate with stakeholders as per expectations
    • Use tools you are comfortable with to monitor effort, duration, budget and schedule
    • Provide regular unbiased reporting of project process
    • Report slippage immediately
    • Review process and progress at important milestones
  • 43. resistance is common (drupal can be scary)
      • Even if its good, change can feel bad
      • Do not expect or demand an instantaneous adjustment
      • Accept that a certain amount of pushback is inevitable, and allow for it
      • Acknowledge the turbulence people are experiencing and empathize with their concerns
      • Do not focus entirely on the technical aspects of the change, ignoring the human aspects
  • 44. beware of late thrashing .
  • 45. the tendency, that as a project comes together...
      • More people will want to have influence in the final product
      • People will want to change the product
      • People will want to make last minute revisions and tweaks
      • People will want to please as many people as possible
      • People want the project to be a success and want to make it “perfect”
      • Godin, Seth. Linchpin, Are You Indispensable . New York: Portfolio, 2010
  • 46. thrashing is normal and helpful if you...
      • Thrash early (the earlier the better)
      • Make some ground rules that everyone from the top down has to follow
      • Set goals, priorities to bring the project to its full potential
      • Allow fewer and fewer decision makers as the process continues
      • Godin, Seth. Linchpin, Are You Indispensable . New York: Portfolio, 2010
  • 47. types of scope changes
    • Uncontested scope changes
    • Contested scope changes
    • Scope creep
    • Constructive scope changes
  • 48. sources of scope changes
    • Overt client requests
    • Covert client requests
    • Smuggled requirements
    • Project team enthusiasm
  • 49. controlling scope changes
    • During kickoff meeting review the scope, including what has been identified as out of scope
    • Ensure scope is included in orientation materials
    • Make sure scope remains easily accessible to team members throughout the project
    • Review scope on a regular basis
    • When a critical decision is to be made regarding the project, ensure it is weighed against the scope
  • 50. uh oh .
  • 51. overruns
    • Schedule - The project will finish late
    • Effort - The project will need more resources
    • Cost - The project will exceed it's budget
  • 52. bearing bad news
    • Problem - present the issue in an unbiased way
    • Solution(s) - present the possible solutions
    • Action - suggest a recommended solution (and next steps)
  • 53. teamwork & finding purpose
    • "Without explicit purpose, project work tends to shift from raging enthusiasm into utter meaninglessness... imperceptibly"
    • ~ David Schmaltz, The Blind Men and the Elephant
  • 54. closing the project
    • “ Some projects end simply because people have stopped working on them.”
  • 55. closing the project
    • Deliverables met
    • Acceptance criteria - acceptance test carried out
    • Proving that you will still be there to help (service plan)
    • Project review internal/external
    • Capturing lessons learned
    • Administrative closeout
    • Closing codes and time sheets
    • Archiving project assets
  • 56. creating value
    • “ There’s more to it than wireframes, logos, sitemaps, or stationary systems. A good brand is resultant upon aligning an organization’s values realistically and building something around this that resonates and holds value for potential customers”
    • smashLAB's, Eric Karjaluoto
  • 57. presentation references
      • Karten, Naomi. Managing Expectations . New York: Dorset House Publishing, 1994
      • Glen, Paul. Leading Geeks, How to Manage and Lead People Who Deliver Technology . San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2003
      • Godin, Seth. Linchpin, Are You Indispensable . New York: Portfolio, 2010
      • Whitely, Richard. The Customer Driven Company . Wakefield, MA, 1991
      • http://mot.vuse.vanderbilt.edu/mt322/Whatis.htm
      • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Value_(marketing)
      • http://www.juran.com/solutions_improve_processes_lean_sigma_six.html
      • http://www.pmperspectives.org/article.php?aid=28&view=full&sid=cb3ede47cb17de6e050d4a8f6863714b
      • http://continuingeducation.construction.com/article.php?L=104&C=384&P=3
      • Carolyn Chandler & Unger, Russ. Project Guide to UX Design, A: For user experience designers in the field or in the making: New Riders, the Voices That Matter series, 2009
      • http://www.scribd.com/doc/3777628/Service-Gaps-and-SERVQUAL
  • 58. thank you!
    • Vanessa Turke
    • http://imagexmedia.com/vanessa
    • http://vanessaturke.net/