Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation: The Case of the Ikalahan Forest Carbon Development


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Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation: The Case of the Ikalahan Forest Carbon Development

  1. 1. Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation: The Case of Ikalahan Forest Carbon Raquel Lopez, Emma Abasolo, Grace Villamor, Rodel D. Lasco IFAD KLM3 Megatrade Hall 3, Oct 20, 2009
  2. 2. Presentation Outline <ul><li>What are ES? </li></ul><ul><li>What is PES? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kyoto protocol, CDM steps </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is RUPES? </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon CDM market– Ikalahan Case: Potential and Challenges </li></ul>
  3. 3. What are ecosystem services (ES)? <ul><li>the benefits from the functioning of ecosystems </li></ul><ul><li>provided by natural processes/ components to satisfy human needs </li></ul><ul><li>(de Groot 1992) </li></ul><ul><li>consist of flows of materials, energy, and information from stocks to produce human welfare (Costanza et al, 1997) </li></ul>
  4. 4. ES Classification <ul><li>Watershed functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>water flows, water quality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biodiversity functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>conservation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Human health and landscape beauty ecotourism </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon stocks – sequestration and storage (CSS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tree cover/forest carbon </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Payments/Rewards for Ecosystem Services (P/RES) <ul><li>Wunder’s definition: </li></ul><ul><li>Voluntary transaction </li></ul><ul><li>Well-defined ES </li></ul><ul><li>ES seller </li></ul><ul><li>Bought by ES buyer </li></ul><ul><li>Conditionality: continuous ES provision </li></ul>Photos: B. Belcher, C. Cossalter, & S. Wunder
  6. 6. Existing PES schemes <ul><li>Voluntary Carbon Standard (VCS) </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) </li></ul><ul><li>Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) </li></ul>
  7. 7. PES thru VCS, REDD, CDM
  8. 8. Payment for CSS: CDM <ul><li>Clean Development Mechanism - a flexibility mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol </li></ul><ul><li>allows industrialized countries to implement emission reduction projects in developing countries and receive credit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Certificates of Emission Reduction (CERs)/ carbon credits: 1 ton CO 2 = 1 CER </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Forestry (Sinks) CDM Projects <ul><li>Only reforestation and afforestation projects allowed </li></ul><ul><li>Small-scale forestry projects eligible (< 8000 t CO 2 /year) </li></ul><ul><li>Bundling of individual parcels of land allowed </li></ul>
  10. 10. “ CDM”able Forest Lands
  11. 11. Concept of Forest Carbon Development
  12. 12. Steps in the CDM Process <ul><li>Project Application </li></ul><ul><li>Project Validation </li></ul><ul><li>Project Registration </li></ul><ul><li>Project Implementation and Monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Project Verification and Certification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Applicable/feasible Project Design Document (PDD) is very crucial! </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. What is RUPES? <ul><li>“ Rewarding the Upland Poor for Environmental Services they Provide (RUPES)” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phase 1: 2005 – 2008 - Local pilot projects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aims to enhance the livelihoods and reduce the upland poverty while conserving the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Rewards for, Use of and Shared Investment in Pro-poor Environmental Services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phase 2: 2009 – 2011 - National policy-making and institutional support </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. RUPES CSS Site: Kalahan <ul><li>Ikalahan Ancestral Domain (IAD) </li></ul><ul><li>Indigenous people (IP): Ikalahan and Kalanguya </li></ul><ul><li>58,000 ha (including 14,000 forest reserve) </li></ul><ul><li>Kalahan Educational Foundation (KEF) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Potentials <ul><li>Area identified for forest carbon </li></ul><ul><li>development: 900 has </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rehabilitation of denuded/degraded lands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8 barangays in 2 municipalities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strategy for carbon development: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agroforestation: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forest-tree plantation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agroforestry farm development </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Potentials <ul><li>Approach for carbon development: community-based </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DIRECT IMPLEMENTERS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ikalahan and Kalanguya parcel/lot owners </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Project Management: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PROPONENT: KEF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Project Design </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Project Field Implementation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Community organizing/Advocacy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Capacity-building </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Role of ICRAF Philippines <ul><li>Prepared Project Identification Notes (PIN) for the potential CSS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon baseline of grasslands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential C sequestration of 900 has </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PDD preparation and CDM Registration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RUPES – Technical/financial assistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mitsubishi UFJ Securities - Consultancy services for PDD and UNFCCC registration </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Estimated net cumulative CO 2 -e removals
  19. 19. 900 has area : total CO2/20 years Total estimated reductions over 10 years (2008- 2016) (tones of CO 2 e) 36,267 Total estimated reductions over 20 years (2008-June 2026) (tones of CO 2 e) 89,776 Total no. of crediting years 20 Annual average over the crediting period of estimated reductions (tones of CO 2 e/yr) 4,489
  20. 20. The Challenges: Can KEF do it? <ul><li>Areas of concern for actualization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PDD preparation ( mapping, land-owner agreement, land mgt scheme strategy, field operational arrangement) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Actual field implementation - technical and financial capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project Maintenance and Carbon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring - technical capacity </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Yes they Can! <ul><li>Kalahan has a great potential for carbon development </li></ul><ul><li>With IFAD through RUPES’ financial and technical assistance, KEF have the potential to comply the requirements to meet carbon markets. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Case site study assessment result indicate that support from RUPES project is very important. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Therefore, <ul><li>IAD – wide forested areas for conservation and protection for important ES </li></ul><ul><li>IAD potential to enter the REDD </li></ul>
  23. 23. Have a good day! Give a man a fish and you feed him for a day. Teach him how to fish and you feed him for a lifetime. Lao Tzu Raquel Lopez [email_address] Emma P. Abasolo, [email_address]