Cog5 lecppt chapter10


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  • Correct answer: d
    Feedback: Scanning is hardest when the target image is placed next to an image that is much larger. This makes the person zoom out.
  • Correct answer: a
    Feedback: Rather than having an image, people store a “California is west of Nevada” type of memory. Hence, the map of each city is reconstructed with the verbal description rather than with an actual map.
  • Correct answer: d
    Feedback: All of the statements are true.
  • Correct answer: d
    Feedback: People vary in their ability for both spatial and visual imagery. However, everyone can perform both forms of imagery. Hence, it is not uniform.
  • Correct answer: d
    Feedback: All of the above are correct statements.
  • Correct answer: d
    Feedback: Drawing an item leads to the ability to change the frame of reference, which in turn leads them to be able to reinterpret it.
  • Correct answer: d
    Feedback: When depiction and reference frame do not match, it is harder to reinterpret it.
  • Cog5 lecppt chapter10

    1. 1. © 2010 by W. W. Norton & Co., Inc. Visual Knowledge Chapter 10 Lecture Outline
    2. 2. Chapter 10: Visual Knowledge  Lecture Outline  Visual Imagery  Long-Term Visual Memory  The Diversity of Knowledge
    3. 3. Visual Imagery  A variety of day-to-day problems seem to require the use of visual imagery  How many windows are in your apartment?  Was David in class yesterday?  Will this sweater look good with your blue pants?  What is the nature of these mental images?
    4. 4. Visual Imagery  Francis Galton (1883)  Introspection to study mental imagery  Self-reports suggested they could inspect mental images as pictures  The participants also differed widely in the amount of detail their mental images seemed to contain. (Or were these differences in self-reporting style?)
    5. 5.  Studies of visual imagery in the last 50 years have avoided introspection and instead asked participants to do something with their images—to read information off them or manipulate them in some way. © 2010 by W. W. Norton & Co., Inc. 5
    6. 6. Visual Imagery  Chronometric studies  Ask participants to manipulate the mental images  Observe how long these manipulations take
    7. 7. Visual Imagery  Kosslyn (1976) asked participants to answer yes/no questions about their mental images.  Imagined cat, confirm that cats have heads faster compared to confirming that cats have claws (mental imagery)  The reverse was true if the participants were asked to think about cats, not to imagine them (propositional knowledge)  This suggests that as the mode of representation changes, so does the pattern of information availability
    8. 8. Visual Imagery  Image-scanning procedure, Kosslyn et al. (1978)  Memorize this map  Scan from one landmark to another on the imagined map
    9. 9. Visual Imagery Imagined distance corresponds to real distance Thus, mental images seem to preserve the spatial layout and geometry of the represented scene.
    10. 10. Visual Imagery  Does a mouse have whiskers?
    11. 11. Visual Imagery Mental-rotation task Which of these pairs is the same? The further the distance, the longer it takes
    12. 12. Visual Imagery The greater the angle, the longer the time As if they were rotating the images in real life
    13. 13. Visual Imagery  Demand character  Did image-scanning and mental-rotation experimenters somehow cue people?  Even without instruction, participants still form images
    14. 14. Visual Imagery Less accurate when signal and image are the same More likely to wrongly choose that the stimulus matches the image when signal and image are both visual or auditoryMental imagery seems to use perceptual mechanisms. Visual imagery interferes with detecting dim visual stimuli, and auditory imagery interferes with detecting quiet tones.
    15. 15. Visual Imagery  However, if we are imagining a stimulus related to the one we are about to perceive, facilitation occurs.  Imagery  Can interfere with perception (mismatching)  Can facilitate perception (matching)
    16. 16. Visual Imagery  Occipital areas used for early visual processing  Active during visual imagery  Patients with unilateral neglect may also neglect the left side of space in their mental images  Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) disrupts mental imagery
    17. 17. Visual Imagery Patient can only see the right side of the plaza Patients with unilateral neglect may also neglect the left side of space in their mental images.
    18. 18. Visual Imagery Patient can only see the right side of the plaza
    19. 19. Visual Imagery  Functional equivalence between imagery and perception. Visual acuity higher—can see two dots Visual acuity lower—need more space to see two dots For both perception and imagery, acuity is greatly reduced if the dots are not in the center of vision.
    20. 20. Visual Imagery  People who have been blind since birth also demonstrate the same effects in mental-rotation or image-scanning tasks, with response time being proportional to the distance traveled  Thus, we need to distinguish between visual imagery and spatial imagery  Spatial imagery may be based in movement or body imagery, or it may be abstract and not tied to any one sense
    21. 21. Visual Imagery  Vivid imagers versus non-imagers  Report seeing images better  Self-reported “vivid imagers” perform no differently than “non-imagers” on tasks that depend on spatial imagery.  Vivid imagers better for visual imagery
    22. 22. Visual Imagery  Eidetic or photographic memory  Extremely rare  Found in some autistic individuals  eidetic imagery
    23. 23. Visual Imagery  Mental images different from pictures  Perception is not neutral and goes beyond the information given  Interpretations are present in images
    24. 24. Visual Imagery  Imagery only preserves one interpretation
    25. 25. Visual Imagery  Thus, images (like percepts) are organized depictions  One way to think about mental images is as a package that includes the depiction itself as well as a perceptual reference frame  For instance, the duck/rabbit image, understood as a duck, is associated with the reference frame “facing to the left”
    26. 26. Visual Imagery  Don’t know what this is?  Close your eyes and rotate it 90º clockwise
    27. 27. Visual Imagery  Sometimes putting an idea down on paper can help make a discovery that requires a change in the reference frame
    28. 28. Visual Imagery  Mental images  Alternative to verbal description  Spatial layout and geometry are preserved  Reflect perceptual interpretation and are associated with reference frames
    29. 29. Long-Term Visual Memory  What is the nature of visual imagery taken from long-term memory?
    30. 30. Long-Term Visual Memory  Images in long-term memory  Stored in a piecemeal fashion  Must activate representation of image frame  Elaborate on this frame  Images that have more parts or detail take longer to create
    31. 31. Long-Term Visual Memory Generating three rows faster Generating four columns slower
    32. 32. Long-Term Visual Memory  Long-term visual memory  Image files  Recipes or instructions for how to construct an active mental image of the object or shape  May represent visual information in terms of propositions, or verbal labels
    33. 33. Long-Term Visual Memory Will have more accurate memory for something that is either blue or green Will have less accurate memory
    34. 34. Long-Term Visual Memory  Interpretation changes the reconstruction of the image
    35. 35. Long-Term Visual Memory Which is farther south, New Orleans or Tijuana? Which is farther north, Seattle or Montreal?
    36. 36. Long-Term Visual Memory Imagery helps memory, especially with an interaction
    37. 37. Long-Term Visual Memory  Dual coding  High-imagery words, for instance, can be coded as both word and image  Low-imagery words only have a verbal code
    38. 38. Long-Term Visual Memory  Studies of memory for pictures illustrate ways in which long-term visual memory reflects general principles of memory, such as  Primacy and recency  Encoding specificity  Schemata or generic knowledge  Spreading activation and priming  Familiarity and source memory
    39. 39. Long-Term Visual Memory  Schematic retrieval  (Friedman, 1979) found that participants failed to notice differences between previously seen and new pictures if both were consistent with a schema (e.g., a kitchen or barnyard)  Pictures that contained violations of a schema (e.g., kitchen with a fireplace) were readily noticed
    40. 40. Long-Term Visual Memory  Boundary extension  Information is filled in that was not present in the picture
    41. 41. The Diversity of Knowledge  Visual working memory is based in imagery and uses perceptual, spatial representations  Image scanning, rotation, zooming  Visual long-term memory is based on propositional knowledge and shares many representational principles with other forms of long-term memory  Spreading activation, priming, schematic knowledge
    42. 42. Chapter 10 Questions
    43. 43. 1. Based on image-zooming experiments, which of the following would participants be slowest to identify in a mental image? a) the whiskers of a cat standing alone b) the ears of a rhinoceros positioned next to a squirrel c) the whiskers of a cat positioned next to an ant d) the wings of a butterfly positioned next to a hippopotamus
    44. 44. 2. Participants answering questions about geography might erroneously claim that San Diego, California, is farther west than Reno, Nevada, when in fact Reno is farther west. This example suggests that spatial information is sometimes a) stored in long-term memory as propositions. b) stored in short-term memory as propositions. c) stored in long-term memory using a perceptual code. d) stored in short-term memory using a perceptual code.
    45. 45. 3. Which of the following is evidence that the brain areas involved in perception and mental imagery are similar? a) using TMS to disrupt Area V1 results in parallel problems in vision and visual imagery b) a patient suffering from neglect syndrome may neglect the left half of imagined scenes c) stroke patients who lose the ability to see color also lose the ability to imagine color d) all of the above
    46. 46. 4. What is the worst description of individual differences in imagery ability? a) Most people are able to form images. b) Some people are good at visual imagery, and others are good at spatial imagery. c) Within visual imagery and spatial imagery, most people have some strengths and some weaknesses. d) Imagery ability is fairly uniform from one person to another.
    47. 47. 5. Which of the following is evidence that some forms of imagery are spatial and not visual? a) Blind people can complete mental-rotation experiments as quickly and accurately as sighted people. b) There is no interference when people are asked to judge the brightness of a light while making a mental-rotation decision. c) Patients such as L.H. may perform well on spatial imagery tasks but fail on visual imagery tasks. d) all of the above
    48. 48. 6. Participants are asked to form mental images of ambiguous pictures that were viewed earlier. When asked to ___ the image and then reinterpret it, they succeed. a) imagine b) hear the sound of c) imagine interacting with d) draw
    49. 49. 7. Which of the following mental-image reinterpretations would be the HARDEST? a) The sought-after discovery is compatible with the image’s depiction but not its reference frame. b) The sought-after discovery is compatible with the image’s reference frame but not its depiction. c) The sought-after discovery is compatible with both the image’s depiction and its reference frame. d) The sought-after discovery is compatible with neither the image’s depiction nor its reference frame.