Cog5 lecppt chapter06


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Cog5 lecppt chapter06

  1. 1. © 2010 by W. W. Norton & Co., Inc. Interconnections Between Acquisition and Retrieval Chapter 6 Lecture Outline
  2. 2. Chapter 6: Acquisition and Retrieval  Lecture Outline  Learning as Preparation for Retrieval  Encoding Specificity  Different Forms of Memory Testing  Implicit Memory  Theoretical Treatments of Implicit Memory  Amnesia
  3. 3. Chapter 6: Acquisition and Retrieval 3
  4. 4. Learning as Preparation for Retrieval  Learning connects new material with existing memory  These retrieval paths help us learn new material
  5. 5. Learning as Preparation for Retrieval  Context-dependent learning is dependent on the state one is in during acquisition
  6. 6. Learning as Preparation for Retrieval  Context-dependent learning Worse memory Worse memory Better memory Better memory
  7. 7. Learning as Preparation for Retrieval No change better Change worse
  8. 8. Learning as Preparation for Retrieval  Context reinstatement, or re-creating the context present during learning, improves memory performance (Fisher & Craik, 1977)  However, although the external environment is important at the time of encoding in creating multiple pathways for retrieval, other studies have shown that simply creating the same internal state that you had at the time of encoding is sufficient to serve as a retrieval cue.
  9. 9. Learning as Preparation for Retrieval  Fisher & Craik (1977)  Participants told to remember the second word of a word pair that was semantically related or rhymed  During testing, the prime words were presented as cues or hints
  10. 10. Learning as Preparation for Retrieval Depth of processing Context reinstatement
  11. 11. Encoding Specificity  Encoding specificity—remembering something within a specific context
  12. 12. Encoding Specificity  “The man _word_ the piano.” Context Word Best cue word Heavy lifted Something heavy Music tuned Something with a nice sound
  13. 13. Encoding Specificity  Explains why only one interpretation will be drawn  Encoding specificity also explains why memory for having seen an ambiguous figure depends on the interpretation being the same at encoding and retrieval.
  14. 14. Spreading Activation  Spreading activation travels from one node to another, via the associative links  Similar to neurons  Input sums to reach a threshold, causing firing  Activation levels below the response threshold, so-called subthreshold activation  Activation is assumed to accumulate, so that two subthreshold inputs may add together and bring the node to threshold.  warmed up, so that even a weak input will be sufficient to bring the node to threshold.
  15. 15. Spreading Activation  We have seen this notion of networks and spreading activation earlier in the course in our discussion of feature nets
  16. 16. Spreading Activation  Networks suggest an explanation for why hints help us remember Subthreshold activity Subthreshold activity Sums
  17. 17. Spreading Activation  State-dependent learning and context reinstatement Context Material Normal cues Learning Testing Context Better retrieval If you are in the same context during testing, the learned material will receive preactivation from these connections.
  18. 18. Spreading Activation Bread Related concepts Wheat, white, butter, sandwich Faster responses lexical-decision task
  19. 19. Different Forms of Memory Testing  Recall  Generate item with or without a cue  “What was the name of the restaurant that we went to?”  Requires search through memory
  20. 20. Different Forms of Memory Testing  Recognition  Decide if an items is the right one  “Is this the name of the restaurant?”  If source memory is available, recognition responses are similar in mechanism to recall  “Yes, I saw this word before.” (recollection/remember)  In other cases, recognition responses are based on a feeling of familiarity (know)  “This feels familiar, so I must have seen it recently.”
  21. 21. Different Forms of Memory Testing  Recognition  Dual process vs single process  Can rely on source memory, similar to recall  “Yes, I saw this word before.”  Or on familiarity  “This feels familiar, so I must have seen it recently.”
  22. 22. Different Forms of Memory Testing
  23. 23. Different Forms of Memory Testing  Source memory and familiarity are also distinguishable neuroanatomically  Participants asked to judge whether a particular item was encountered (“remember”) or if they had a feeling of familiarity (“know”)
  24. 24. Different Forms of Memory Testing Smaller rhinal cortex with familiarity Larger hippocampal cortex with recollection
  25. 25. Implicit Memory  Indirect memory tests  Look at how a second encounter yields different responses than the first
  26. 26. Implicit Memory Movie Word or lexical decision Cat Movie Word presented a second time Faster reaction Time even if the person is not aware of it. Dessert Faucet
  27. 27. Implicit Memory 27 Repetition improves memory Explicit memory Implicit memory
  28. 28. Implicit Memory Complete word stem E_ _ P_ _N_Several minutes of class
  29. 29. Implicit Memory  Results like these led to the distinction between two kinds of memory  Explicit memory  Direct memory testing, such as recall or recognition  Conscious  Implicit memory  Indirect memory testing, such as a priming task  Unconscious
  30. 30. Implicit Memory  “False Fame” Study by Jacoby et al. (1989). Shown list of fictitious names Later, shown a list of famous people and fictitious names Asked to rate fame Some fictitious names rated as famous
  31. 31. Implicit Memory  Illusion of truth—an effect of implicit memory in which claims that are familiar end up seeming more plausible
  32. 32. Implicit Memory  In one study demonstrating an illusion of truth,  Statements that were heard before—even those that had been labeled as false—were later judged to be more credible than sentences never heard before  Gail Logan says that crocodiles sleep with their eyes open
  33. 33. Implicit Memory  Another misattribution of a familiarity effect can be observed in frequently misspelled words
  34. 34. Implicit Memory  Source confusion  Eyewitness may select someone from a photo lineup based only on familiarity, not on actual recall
  35. 35. Theoretical Treatments of Implicit Memory  People may be influenced by memories that they are not aware of  May have familiarity without episodic memory  May be influenced without a feeling of familiarity
  36. 36. Theoretical Treatments of Implicit Memory  Implicit memory involves processing fluency—an improvement in the speed or ease of processing  Recently encountered items are easier to recognize a second time  For instance, just as seeing a stimulus raises the activation level of the relevant detectors, perceiving a word or thinking about its meaning leads to a similar preactivation or fluency in the relevant cognitive mechanisms.
  37. 37. Theoretical Treatments of Implicit Memory  Processing fluency may underlie the feeling of familiarity for stimuli that we have previously encountered
  38. 38. Memory Types 38 There are many forms of implicit memory
  39. 39. Amnesia  The distinction between explicit and implicit memory is also supported by evidence from cases of brain damage  Amnesia is a disruption of memory due to brain damage
  40. 40. Amnesia  Clyde Wearing  Good memory for generic information  Love for his wife  Unable to remember events  Disrupted episodic memory but intact semantic memory  video 42
  41. 41. Amnesia  Retrograde amnesia = loss of memory before disruption  Anterograde amnesia = inability to form new long-term memories
  42. 42. Amnesia  H.M.  Severe epilepsy  Severe anterograde amnesia, unable to form new long-term memories  HM video (6:40)
  43. 43. Amnesia  Korsakoff’s syndrome  Deficiency of thiamine (vitamin B1) because of alcoholism  Severe anterograde amnesia
  44. 44. Amnesia  Anterograde amnesia  No loss of existing memories.  Damage to the hippocampus and surrounding brain regions  Difficulty forming new long-term memories
  45. 45. Amnesia  Amnesia supports the distinction between explicit and implicit memory  Anterograde amnesia affects explicit memory, while implicit memory is preserved
  46. 46. Amnesia  For instance, in 1911 Swiss neurologist Édouard Claparède performed an informal experiment with a Korsakoff-syndrome patient  When introducing himself to the patient, he hid a pin in his hand, which pricked the patient  Later, the patient could not explicitly remember Claparède but refused to shake his hand, saying, “Sometimes pins are hidden in people’s hands.”
  47. 47. Amnesia  Amnesic patients demonstrating preserved implicit memories without explicit memory  Knowing the answer to a trivia question the second time around  Preferring a musical melody that they had been exposed to before
  48. 48. Amnesia  Anterograde amnesics can learn new implicit tasks (procedural learning task).  Preserved implicit with impaired explicit memory. A good example of an implicit task that can be shown in an image is drawing a star using a mirror.
  49. 49. Amnesia  Double dissociation  Impairment of explicit with preserved implicit (HM)  Impairment of implicit with preserved explicit (?)
  50. 50. Amnesia SMO46: explicit memory with no fear WC1606: fear with no explicit memory Controls show both explicit memory and a fear response (Bechara et al., 1995) One patient had damage to the hippocampus but an intact amygdala, while the other patient had damage to the amygdala and an intact hippocampus. a blue light was followed by a loud boat horn
  51. 51. Amnesia  Hippocampus damage  Fear with no memory  Amygdala damage  Memory with no fear
  52. 52. Amnesia  The data from amnesia echo an earlier point about the relationship between learning and memory retrieval  The nature of a disruption in the acquisition of new memories depends on how the memories will be used or retrieved later on
  53. 53. Amnesia  What you are learning about memory is relevant for how to memorize the material in this course  At one level, you may want to learn the material in a manner that prepares you for the form of retrieval that is required for your exams  To make memory even stronger, the best strategy is to employ multiple perspectives, creating multiple retrieval paths for the material you want to learn
  54. 54. Chapter 6 Questions
  55. 55. 1. Which of the following is an advantage of connecting new information to prior knowledge in several different ways? a) It “cements” the new material in memory less securely, so the neurons are more likely to decay. b) It only allows state-dependent learning to take place. c) It improves your implicit memory for the information. d) It allows the information to be accessed from multiple retrieval paths.
  56. 56. 2. Which of the following is true regarding recall performance? a) Recall performance is usually better than recognition performance. b) Recall performance does not benefits from context reinstatement. c) Whether a clue about a word’s sound is more helpful for recall than a clue about its meaning depends on how the word was thought of when it was learned. d) Physical context is more important to recall than psychological context.
  57. 57. 3. A question like, “What’s the name of the doctor?” requires _____; a question like, “Isn’t that the guy we usually see at the gym?” requires _____. a) recall; recognition b) recognition; recall c) source memory; familiarity d) familiarity; source memory
  58. 58. 4. Which of the following provide evidence for a dissociation between familiarity and source memory? a) It is common to realize that a face is familiar but be unable to place it; it is also possible to have source memory without familiarity. b) People’s patterns of brain activity are different when they are making judgments based on familiarity than when they are making judgments based on familiarity plus source memory. c) Source memory is promoted by creating memory connections; familiarity can be promoted merely by sustained exposure. d) all of the above
  59. 59. 5. Which testing method mainly targets implicit, rather than explicit, memory? A) recognition tasks b) sentence verification c) recall tasks d) word-stem completion
  60. 60. 6. In which of the following situations are you LEAST likely to decide a stimulus is familiar? a) Processing fluency is quite low. b) Processing fluency is at the level you had expected. c) You can recall when and where you last saw the stimulus. d) Processing fluency is high and you attribute this to the stimulus being very beautiful.
  61. 61. 7. The dangers of source confusion are NOT particularly relevant to which real-world situation? a) eyewitness identification b) false fame effect c) jury selection d) misattribution