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  • This is one definition of cognitive psychology. <br />
  • He was a patient with amnesia, provides additional examples of how thoughts, actions, and feelings depend on knowledge. <br /> Without the ability to form new memories, H.M. could not grieve for an uncle who had died, and always heard the news as if for the first time. <br /> Without memory, there is arguably no sense of self. H.M. had no sense of whether he was honorable or dishonest, industrious or lazy. <br />
  • For the first time, it was a discipline separate from biology and philosophy. <br /> The focus was on conscious mental events. <br />
  • This is the process through which one “looks within” to observe and record the contents of one’s own mental life. <br /> Wundt and Titchener felt that people had to be trained to perform introspection accurately. <br />
  • Much of mental activity is unconscious and not available to the method of introspection. <br /> Claims derived from introspection are subjective and not testable. <br />
  • The desire to be more scientific led to changes in psychology during the first half of the twentieth century. <br /> The focus switched to stimuli and behaviors that could be objectively studied. <br /> Introspection and other “mentalistic” approaches were avoided. <br />
  • Behavior cannot be understood only in terms of stimuli and responses. <br /> Behavior also depends on things like perception, understanding, interpretation, and strategy. <br />
  • Speech stimuli that are physically identical to each other can result in different responses. <br /> Speech stimuli that are physically different from each other can result in the same response. <br /> In all these cases, it is the interpretation of meaning that determines the response. <br />
  • This approach draws upon the transcendental method of Immanuel Kant. <br /> One begins with the observable effects, then works backward from these observations to determine the cause. <br />
  • Cognitive psychologists study mental events, but do so indirectly. <br /> Visible events are measured, such as stimuli and responses. <br /> Hypotheses are developed about the underlying mental events. <br /> These hypotheses are further tested by designing experiments to gather further measurable events. <br />
  • Working memory is the storage system in which information is held while it is currently being worked on. <br /> We will use working memory as an example of how research in cognitive psychology works. <br />
  • The span test is used to determine the holding capacity of working memory. <br /> We can use performance on the span test (a behavior that can be measured) to make inferences about the underlying working-memory system (mental events). <br /> This is an example of the indirect study of mental events. <br />
  • The working-memory system is not a single entity. <br /> In one view, a central executive coordinates the activities in other “assistant” components. <br /> One assistant is the articulatory rehearsal loop. <br />
  • The articulatory rehearsal loop has two elements: <br /> subvocalization—silently pronouncing words <br /> a phonological buffer—an auditory image of the words <br />
  • The testing of people with anarthria—the inability to produce overt speech—has shown that muscle movement is not needed for subvocal rehearsal. You should show effects seen in unimpaired patients such as word-length effects. This suggests that the ability to produce speech overtly is not a prerequisite for using subvocal rehearsal. <br />
  • Brain imaging suggests that the same regions used for subvocal rehearsal are also used during speech production and comprehension. <br />
  • Deaf people use covert signing, or an “inner hand,” during verbal working-memory tasks. <br /> Concurrent hand movements can suppress rehearsal just as concurrent articulation does for spoken language. <br />
  • These mechanisms are important during reading, reasoning, and problem solving. <br /> The rehearsal loop plays an important role during development as we learn new vocabulary. <br />
  • When we begin to understand a cognitive mechanism (like working memory) in simpler experimental situations (like the span task), we begin to understand all of the broader contexts in which the mechanism plays a role. <br />
  • INSERT FIG 1.4 <br />
  • Tie to Sternberg’s Key Themes as expressed by text. <br />
  • Correct answer: d <br /> Feedback: Cognitive psychology is the study of knowledge. <br />
  • Correct answer: a <br /> Feedback: Introspection is the activity of observing one’s own thoughts. <br />
  • Correct answer: c <br /> Feedback: Behaviorism involves the study of how behavior changes in response to external stimuli. <br />
  • Correct answer: c <br /> Feedback: What goes on in the mind cannot be observed directly. Thus hypotheses have to be formed to understand this process. <br />
  • Correct answer: d <br /> Feedback: All of the answers are correct. <br />
  • Correct answer: d <br /> Feedback: Working memory involves multiple mechanisms, including the articulatory loop, the visuospatial sketchpad, and the central executive. <br />
  • Correct answer: c <br /> Feedback: Concurrent vocalization interrupts the inner speech mechanism and reduces the ability to perform subvocalization. <br />

Cog5 lecppt chapter01 Cog5 lecppt chapter01 Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 1 Lecture Outline The Science of the Mind © 2010 by W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
  • Chapter 1: The Science of the Mind  Lecture Outline  The Scope of Cognitive Psychology  A Brief History  Introspection  Behaviorism  Cognitive  Research Revolution in Cognitive Psychology: An Example  Working Memory
  • The Scope of Cognitive Psychology  Cognitive psychology is the study of knowledge  How do we study and memorize?  How do we focus our attention and concentrate?  How do we make decisions?
  • The Scope of Cognitive Psychology  H.M.  Unable  Could to form new memories not grieve for a dead uncle  Had little sense of himself  Video
  • A Brief History: Introspection Wundt and his student Titchener began the study of experimental psychology in the late 1800s.
  • A Brief History: Introspection  Introspection  Observing your own thoughts
  • A Brief History: Introspection  Problems with introspection  Thoughts are not directly observable  Impossible to test objectively
  • A Brief History: Behaviorism  Behaviorism overcame the limitations posed by introspection  It focused on observable behaviors
  • A Brief History: Behaviorism  Behaviorism uncovered principles of how behavior changes in response to stimuli, such as rewards and punishments
  • A Brief History: Behaviorism  Problems with behaviorism  Stimulus-response accounts are not enough  Behavior has a “mental” cause
  • A Brief History: Behaviorism  Different stimuli elicit the same behavior  Can you please pass the salt?  Salt, please.  My food would be more palatable with sodium chloride crystals.  Same stimulus elicits a different behavior  My friend asked his mother to please pass the salt.
  • A Brief History: Cognitive Revolution  From introspection and behaviorism, experimental psychologists learned that:  Introspective methods for studying mental events are not scientific  However, we need to study mental events in order to understand behavior
  • A Brief History: Cognitive Revolution  Transcendental method of Immanuel Kant  Work backward from observations to determine cause
  • A Brief History: Cognitive Revolution An analogy can be made to a police detective using clues to figure out how a crime was committed  An analogy can also be made to a physicist studying electrons, which cannot be directly seen 
  • A Brief History: Cognitive Revolution  Cognitive psychologists study mental events, but do so indirectly  Measure stimuli and responses  Develop hypotheses about mental events  Design new experiments
  • Research in Cognitive Psychology: Working Memory  Working memory is temporary memory storage
  • Research in Cognitive Psychology: Working Memory  The span test measures workingmemory (WM) capacity Span scores observable WM capacity Not observable
  • Research in Cognitive Psychology: Working Memory  Working memory is not unitary  System composed of a central executive  Assistant components
  • Research in Cognitive Psychology: Working Memory Inner voice Inner ear
  • Research in Cognitive Psychology: Working Memory  Evidence from cognitive neuroscience is also brought into the model  Anarthria (構音障礙)   The inability to produce overt speech Confusion between words with the same sound
  • Research in Cognitive Psychology: Working Memory  Evidence from cognitive neuroscience is also brought into the model Areas involved In subvocal rehearsal
  • Research in Cognitive Psychology: Working Memory  Deaf people confuse words with similar hand shapes, not similar sounds
  • Research in Cognitive Psychology: Working Memory Multiple lines of evidence must be used when hypothesizing mechanisms used to explain observable data  Often a single piece of data can be explained by a variety of hypotheses 
  • Research in Cognitive Psychology: Working Memory  Working memory is more than just the span task  It is involved in many of the activities we perform on a daily basis  It is also important for learning
  • Research in Cognitive Psychology: Working Memory  Experiments allow cognitive psychologists to understand internal complex mechanisms in a simpler, more constrained manner
  • Goals of Research Data gathering  Data analysis  Theory development  Hypothesis formation  Hypothesis testing  Application to real world 
  • Research Methods Controlled experiments  Psychobiological research  Self reports  Case studies  Naturalistic observation  Computer simulations and artificial intelligence 
  • In an Experiment…  Manipulate the independent variable  Create experimental group  Create control group  Randomly assign participants  Measure the dependent variable  Same  for all groups Control all other variables  Prevent confounds
  • Typical Independent Variables  Characteristics  Presence of the situation vs. absence of a stimulus  Characteristics of the task  Reading vs. listening to words for comprehension  Characteristics  Age differences of participants
  • Typical Dependent Variables  Percent correct/error rate  Accuracy  of mental processing Reaction time (milliseconds)  Speed of mental processing
  • Correlational Studies Cannot infer causation  Simply measure variables of interest  Nature of relationship   Positive correlation  Negative correlation  Strength of relationship  Determined by size of “r”
  • Example: Correlational Study An examination of the relationship between confidence and accuracy of eyewitnesses  What do you think the relationship is?  Positive? Strong? Negative? Weak? It is not a strong positive correlation! Many studies indicate that high confidence does not mean high accuracy
  • Psychobiological Studies  Postmortem studies  Examine  Brain-damaged individuals and their deficits  Study  cortex of dyslexics after death amnesiacs with hippocampus damage Monitor a participant doing a cognitive task  Measure brain activity while a participant is reciting a poem
  • Other Methods  Self-reports  An individual’s own account of cognitive processes   Verbal protocol, diary study Case studies  In-depth  studies of individuals Genie, Phineas Gage
  • Other Methods  Naturalistic observation  Studies of cognitive performance in everyday situations outside of the lab  Monitor decision-making of pilots during flights
  • Computers in Research  Analogy for human cognition    The sequence of symbol manipulation that underlies thinking The goal: discovery of the programs in human memory Computer simulations of artificial intelligence  Recreate human processes using computers
  • Fundamental Ideas • Data can only be fully explained with theories, and theories are insufficient without data – thus creating the cycle of science Theory Data
  • Fundamental Ideas  Cognition is typically adaptive, but errors made can be informative  Example: Spoonerisms A lack of pies (A pack of lies)  It’s roaring with pain (It’s pouring with rain)   Errors can be used to infer how speech production occurs
  • Fundamental Ideas  Cognitive processes interact with each other and with noncognitive processes – – – Emotions may affect decisions Working memory capacity contributes to reading speed Perception contributes to memory decisions
  • Fundamental Ideas  Many different scientific methods are used to study cognition  Basic research often leads to important applications, and applied research often contributes to a more basic understanding of cognition
  • Chapter 1 Questions
  • 1. Cognitive psychology is primarily concerned with which of the following? a) what we know b) what we remember c) how we think d) all of the above
  • 2. The famous psychologist Edward Titchener claimed to have identified and catalogued nearly 10,000 sensations that he observed within himself. What method best describes his approach? a) introspection b) behaviorism c) psychoanalysis d) transcendentalism
  • 3. A psychologist who adheres to the behaviorist school of thought would most likely attribute someone being afraid of a spider to a) an interaction between memory and fear. b) a chemical imbalance produced by a deficit in nutrients. c) a learned behavior in response to specific environmental triggers. d) inadequate maternal supervision and love during infancy.
  • 4. Because psychology forms hypotheses about processes that cannot be observed directly it relies on _____ methods to describe the behaviors that can be observed. a) transcendental b) inferential c) both A and B d) neither A nor B
  • 5. Which of the following is a similarity between psychology and physics? a) Both test their theories using the scientific method. b) Both do not allow for direct observation of the causes of phenomena. c) Both base their theories on objective, quantifiable data. d) all of the above
  • 6. Which of the following is NOT TRUE of the working-memory system? a) The central executive serves coordinates the role of the assistant systems. b) Working memory has a limited capacity. c) The assistants are responsible solely for storage of information. d) Working memory is a single entity with virtually no peripheral mechanisms.
  • 7. Memory performance on a span task is typically reduced when the participant has to perform concurrent articulation. This is due to a) cognitive load b) rhythmic movements. c) subvocalization. d) brain damage.