He was a patient with amnesia, provides additional examples of how thoughts, actions, and feelings depend on knowledge. Without the ability to form new memories, H.M. could not grieve for an uncle who had died, and always heard the news as if for the first time. Without memory, there is arguably no sense of self. H.M. had no sense of whether he was honorable or dishonest, industrious or lazy.
For the first time, it was a discipline separate from biology and philosophy. The focus was on conscious mental events.
This is the process through which one “looks within” to observe and record the contents of one’s own mental life. Wundt and Titchener felt that people had to be trained to perform introspection accurately.
Much of mental activity is unconscious and not available to the method of introspection. Claims derived from introspection are subjective and not testable.
The desire to be more scientific led to changes in psychology during the first half of the twentieth century. The focus switched to stimuli and behaviors that could be objectively studied. Introspection and other “mentalistic” approaches were avoided.
Behavior cannot be understood only in terms of stimuli and responses. Behavior also depends on things like perception, understanding, interpretation, and strategy.
Speech stimuli that are physically identical to each other can result in different responses. Speech stimuli that are physically different from each other can result in the same response. In all these cases, it is the interpretation of meaning that determines the response.
This approach draws upon the transcendental method of Immanuel Kant. One begins with the observable effects, then works backward from these observations to determine the cause.
Cognitive psychologists study mental events, but do so indirectly. Visible events are measured, such as stimuli and responses. Hypotheses are developed about the underlying mental events. These hypotheses are further tested by designing experiments to gather further measurable events.
Working memory is the storage system in which information is held while it is currently being worked on. We will use working memory as an example of how research in cognitive psychology works.
The span test is used to determine the holding capacity of working memory. We can use performance on the span test (a behavior that can be measured) to make inferences about the underlying working-memory system (mental events). This is an example of the indirect study of mental events.
The working-memory system is not a single entity. In one view, a central executive coordinates the activities in other “assistant” components. One assistant is the articulatory rehearsal loop.
The articulatory rehearsal loop has two elements: subvocalization—silently pronouncing words a phonological buffer—an auditory image of the words
The testing of people with anarthria—the inability to produce overt speech—has shown that muscle movement is not needed for subvocal rehearsal. You should show effects seen in unimpaired patients such as word-length effects. This suggests that the ability to produce speech overtly is not a prerequisite for using subvocal rehearsal.
Brain imaging suggests that the same regions used for subvocal rehearsal are also used during speech production and comprehension.
Deaf people use covert signing, or an “inner hand,” during verbal working-memory tasks. Concurrent hand movements can suppress rehearsal just as concurrent articulation does for spoken language.
These mechanisms are important during reading, reasoning, and problem solving. The rehearsal loop plays an important role during development as we learn new vocabulary.
When we begin to understand a cognitive mechanism (like working memory) in simpler experimental situations (like the span task), we begin to understand all of the broader contexts in which the mechanism plays a role.
INSERT FIG 1.4
Tie to Sternberg’s Key Themes as expressed by text.
Correct answer: d Feedback: Cognitive psychology is the study of knowledge.
Correct answer: a Feedback: Introspection is the activity of observing one’s own thoughts.
Correct answer: c Feedback: Behaviorism involves the study of how behavior changes in response to external stimuli.
Correct answer: c Feedback: What goes on in the mind cannot be observed directly. Thus hypotheses have to be formed to understand this process.
Correct answer: d Feedback: All of the answers are correct.
Correct answer: d Feedback: Working memory involves multiple mechanisms, including the articulatory loop, the visuospatial sketchpad, and the central executive.
Correct answer: c Feedback: Concurrent vocalization interrupts the inner speech mechanism and reduces the ability to perform subvocalization.
1. Chapter 1
The Science of the Mind
© 2010 by W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.
2. Chapter 1: The Science of the Mind
Scope of Cognitive Psychology
 A Brief History
in Cognitive Psychology: An
3. The Scope of Cognitive Psychology
Cognitive psychology is the study of
do we study and memorize?
 How do we focus our attention and
 How do we make decisions?
4. The Scope of Cognitive Psychology
to form new memories
not grieve for a dead uncle
 Had little sense of himself
5. A Brief History: Introspection
Wundt and his student Titchener began the
study of experimental psychology in the
6. A Brief History: Introspection
your own thoughts
7. A Brief History: Introspection
Problems with introspection
are not directly observable
 Impossible to test objectively
8. A Brief History: Behaviorism
Behaviorism overcame the limitations
posed by introspection
focused on observable behaviors
9. A Brief History: Behaviorism
Behaviorism uncovered principles of how
behavior changes in response to stimuli,
such as rewards and punishments
10. A Brief History: Behaviorism
Problems with behaviorism
accounts are not enough
 Behavior has a “mental” cause
11. A Brief History: Behaviorism
Different stimuli elicit the same behavior
you please pass the salt?
 Salt, please.
 My food would be more palatable with sodium
Same stimulus elicits a different behavior
friend asked his mother to please pass the
12. A Brief History: Cognitive Revolution
From introspection and behaviorism,
experimental psychologists learned that:
methods for studying mental
events are not scientific
 However, we need to study mental events in
order to understand behavior
13. A Brief History: Cognitive Revolution
method of Immanuel
observations to determine
14. A Brief History: Cognitive Revolution
An analogy can be made to a police
detective using clues to figure out how a
crime was committed
 An analogy can also be made to a
physicist studying electrons, which cannot
be directly seen
15. A Brief History: Cognitive Revolution
Cognitive psychologists study mental
events, but do so indirectly
stimuli and responses
 Develop hypotheses about mental events
 Design new experiments
16. Research in Cognitive Psychology: Working Memory
Working memory is temporary memory
17. Research in Cognitive Psychology: Working Memory
The span test measures workingmemory (WM) capacity
18. Research in Cognitive Psychology: Working Memory
Working memory is not unitary
composed of a central executive
19. Research in Cognitive Psychology: Working Memory
20. Research in Cognitive Psychology: Working Memory
Evidence from cognitive neuroscience is
also brought into the model
The inability to produce overt speech
Confusion between words with the same sound
21. Research in Cognitive Psychology: Working Memory
Evidence from cognitive neuroscience is
also brought into the model
In subvocal rehearsal
22. Research in Cognitive Psychology: Working Memory
Deaf people confuse
words with similar
hand shapes, not
23. Research in Cognitive Psychology: Working Memory
Multiple lines of evidence must be used
when hypothesizing mechanisms used to
explain observable data
 Often a single piece of data can be
explained by a variety of hypotheses
24. Research in Cognitive Psychology: Working Memory
Working memory is more than just the
is involved in many of the activities we
perform on a daily basis
 It is also important for learning
25. Research in Cognitive Psychology: Working Memory
Experiments allow cognitive psychologists
to understand internal complex
mechanisms in a simpler, more
26. Goals of Research
 Data analysis
 Theory development
 Hypothesis formation
 Hypothesis testing
 Application to real world
27. Research Methods
 Psychobiological research
 Self reports
 Case studies
 Naturalistic observation
 Computer simulations and artificial
28. In an Experiment…
Manipulate the independent variable
 Create control group
 Randomly assign participants
Measure the dependent variable
for all groups
Control all other variables
29. Typical Independent Variables
of the situation
vs. absence of a stimulus
of the task
vs. listening to words for
30. Typical Dependent Variables
Percent correct/error rate
of mental processing
Reaction time (milliseconds)
of mental processing
31. Correlational Studies
Cannot infer causation
 Simply measure variables of interest
 Nature of relationship
 Negative correlation
Strength of relationship
by size of “r”
32. Example: Correlational Study
An examination of the relationship
between confidence and accuracy of
 What do you think the relationship is?
It is not a strong positive correlation!
Many studies indicate that high confidence does not mean high accuracy
33. Psychobiological Studies
Brain-damaged individuals and their deficits
cortex of dyslexics after death
amnesiacs with hippocampus damage
Monitor a participant doing a cognitive task
brain activity while a participant is
reciting a poem
34. Other Methods
individual’s own account of cognitive
Verbal protocol, diary study
studies of individuals
Genie, Phineas Gage
35. Other Methods
of cognitive performance in
everyday situations outside of the lab
Monitor decision-making of pilots during flights
36. Computers in Research
Analogy for human cognition
The sequence of symbol manipulation
that underlies thinking
The goal: discovery of the programs in
Computer simulations of artificial
Recreate human processes using
37. Fundamental Ideas
Data can only be fully explained with
theories, and theories are insufficient
without data – thus creating the cycle
38. Fundamental Ideas
Cognition is typically adaptive, but errors
made can be informative
A lack of pies (A pack of lies)
 It’s roaring with pain (It’s pouring with rain)
can be used to infer how speech
39. Fundamental Ideas
Cognitive processes interact with each other
and with noncognitive processes
Emotions may affect decisions
Working memory capacity contributes to reading
Perception contributes to memory decisions
40. Fundamental Ideas
Many different scientific methods are used to
Basic research often leads to important
applications, and applied research often
contributes to a more basic understanding of
41. Chapter 1 Questions
42. 1. Cognitive psychology is primarily concerned
with which of the following?
a) what we know
b) what we remember
c) how we think
d) all of the above
43. 2. The famous psychologist Edward
Titchener claimed to have identified and
catalogued nearly 10,000 sensations that
he observed within himself. What method
best describes his approach?
44. 3. A psychologist who adheres to the
behaviorist school of thought would most
likely attribute someone being afraid of a
a) an interaction between memory and fear.
b) a chemical imbalance produced by a deficit
c) a learned behavior in response to specific
d) inadequate maternal supervision and love
45. 4. Because psychology forms hypotheses
about processes that cannot be
observed directly it relies on _____
methods to describe the behaviors that
can be observed.
c) both A and B
d) neither A nor B
46. 5. Which of the following is a similarity
between psychology and physics?
a) Both test their theories using the
b) Both do not allow for direct
observation of the causes of
c) Both base their theories on objective,
d) all of the above
47. 6. Which of the following is NOT TRUE of
the working-memory system?
a) The central executive serves coordinates
the role of the assistant systems.
b) Working memory has a limited capacity.
c) The assistants are responsible solely for
storage of information.
d) Working memory is a single entity with
virtually no peripheral mechanisms.
48. 7. Memory performance on a span task is
typically reduced when the participant
has to perform concurrent articulation.
This is due to
a) cognitive load
b) rhythmic movements.
d) brain damage.