Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Attention is spontaneously biased toward regularities
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Saving this for later?

Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime - even offline.

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Attention is spontaneously biased toward regularities

89
views

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
89
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
4
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. 20140415 認知神經科學與認知模擬(I) Ting-Yun Chang
  • 2. Attention is spontaneously biased toward regularities Zhao, J., Al-Aidroos, N., & Turk-Browne, N. B. (2013). Psychological Science. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1177/0956797612460407.
  • 3. Take-Home Message Regularities or statistical learning, even task- irrelevant, influence the allocation of spatial and feature attention.
  • 4. Attention to Regularities • The mind extracts regularities in the environment to interact with the environment more efficiently via statistical learning • Conjectures: – Structured sources of information receive attentional priority in the context of other, noisier sources of information – Attention is biased by regularities even when they do not provide information that is helpful for performance
  • 5. EXPERIMENT 1 Whether visual search is facilitated at a spatial location containing temporal regularities
  • 6. Method • 25 participants • Visual search task • Structured/Random shape stream in different locations • Each shape repeated 50 times (1 for left; 0 for right)
  • 7. • Test for sensitivity to regularities – 2AFC test – Triplet versus Foil – 3 triplets x 3 foils x 2 repetitions • Debriefing – Had you noticed any regularities? Which location? – Did you use a strategy of attending to a specific location? Which location? Method (cont’) (1000 ms pause)
  • 8. Results • Statistical learning occurred – Triplets were chosen over foils on 54% • Target-discrimination RTs: – Target in structured < Target in random • Debriefing: – 7 participants reported noticing regularities – Only 1 of them correctly identified which location contained regularities  Attention is biased toward locations of regularities
  • 9. EXPERIMENT 2 Whether temporal regularities among shapes in a color enhance attentional capture by that color
  • 10. Method • 20 new participants • Visual search task • Structured/Random shape stream in different colors • Each shape repeated 40 times • 2AFC test • Debriefing (1 for left; 0 for right)
  • 11. Results • Statistical learning occurred – Triplets were chosen over foils on 61.1% • Target-discrimination RTs: – Target in structured < Target in random • Main effect in singleton type • Significant interaction – Greater capture for the structured color • Debriefing: – 6 participants reported noticing regularities – Only 2 of them correctly identified which location contained regularities  Attention is biased toward colors of regularities, even though shape streams were task irrelevant 2 (singleton type: target/distractor) X 2 (singleton color: structured/random) ANOVA
  • 12. EXPERIMENT 3 Whether temporal regularities in a feature dimension enhance capture by singleton in that feature dimension
  • 13. Method • 30 new participants • Structured/Random line stream in different dimensions • Each line repeated 60 times • 2AFC test and Debriefing (Between group)
  • 14. Results • Statistical learning occurred – Triplets were chosen over foils on 66.3% (color) and 72.6% (orientation) • Debriefing: (for both group) – 6 participants reported noticing regularities – Only 2 of them correctly identified which location contained regularities  Attention is biased toward feature dimension that contains regularities 2 (group: color/orientation) X 2 (singleton type: target/distractor) X 2 (singleton dimension: color/orientation) ANOVA Greater attentional capture for singleton in the structured dimension
  • 15. General Discussion • Across three experiments, locations and features embedded in temporal regularities received attentional priority in visual search • Interpretation: Implicit attentional bias for regularities during statistical learning
  • 16. General Discussion 1. Explainations – Randomness When attempts to learn in random streams failed, attention may have redirected to other streams, eventually settling on the structured stream – Structure Regularities matched priority experience attracted attention 2. Attention and learning interact in a closed-loop manner 3. Is prioritization of regularities stimulus-driven/goal-directed?
  • 17. Thank You.
  • 18. C O OC OC D T D T OC OC Greater attentional capture for singleton in the structured dimension Main effect in singleton dimensionColor group > Orientation group Main effect in singleton type