20120406 Memory

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高醫認知心理學20120406

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  • Clive Wearing 字塊有超連結(8分鐘的短片介紹他的情形)
  • Introductory slide to emphasize the important functions of memory. Discuss what life would be like with no memory.
  • Most students prefer a multiple-choice exam. Ask them why. Typically, they say it is easier to recognize the correct answer. You then can lead the discussion to the difference between recall and recognition tests.
  • No connection is made to the previously studied list. Participants are simply asked to make a word out of the word fragment. Some of the answers will be words the participant has seen before. Some of the fragments will be words they have not seen. Fragment completion rates of the previously seen words are then compared to completion rates of unseen words. The difference between the scores indicates memory. Answers to word fragment completion: cheetah, elephant, zebra; word stem completion answers: monkey, panda.
  • INSERT FIG 5.1
  • INSERT FIG 5.2
  • 來自環境的訊息首先存放在感覺儲存庫( sensory store ),它有幾個主要特性:容量極大、瞬間即逝而易被干擾、訊息只能持續很短時間、只有少部分感覺儲存訊息會得到注意,便從感覺儲存庫被傳送到短期儲存庫。
  • Instructor Note: Once the students have written down all they can remember just click the mouse to see the matrix and determine how many items the students remember.
  • 調查大家寫出來的數量,是不是很難呢 ?
  • Instructor Note: Once the students have written down all they can remember, just click the mouse to see the matrix and determine how many items the students remember.
  • 調查大家寫出來的數量,是不是有比較好些呢 ?
  • The following demonstration was created by Thomas P. Pusateri (2004) for Thomson/Wadsworth.
  • INSERT FIG 5.4
  • Click! 有超連結,是一個擁有 Photographic memory 的人的介紹
  • Student using a chunking strategy can use LTM of important dates to remember a longer string of numbers.
  • ( 計時 10 秒 )
  • 調查大家可以寫到第幾個,是不是很難呢 ?
  • ( 計時 10 秒 )
  • 調查大家可以寫到第幾個,是不是很難呢 ?
  • 可以調查同學們是採取那一種記憶方法 ? 效果如何 ?
  • INSERT FIG 5.5 Baddeley (1986) Baddeley’s model of working memory contains several elements: A central executive, auditory working memory, visuo-spatial working memory, and an episodic Buffer. Material can also enter conscious workspace from long-term memory.
  • Nyberg, L., Cabeza, R., & Tulving, E. (1996). PET studies of encoding and retrieval: The HERA model. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review , 3, 135-148.
  • Craik, F.I.M., & Lockhart, R.S. (1972). Levels of processing. A framework for memory research. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behaviour, 11 , 671-684.
  • I. Self-reference effect Rogers, Kuiper, & Kirker (1977) Used a design like Craik and Tulving ’ s LOP experiment with adjectives and an additional question that asked participants “Does this word describe you?” Self-reference questions produced the best recall, about twice as high as semantic processing (meaning of word) Also didn’t matter whether people felt that the word did or did not describe them. They explained the advantages of self-reference during encoding as a function of the more elaborative processes individuals used to relate target information to their own self, making self-referential information more salient in memory.
  • INSERT FIG 5.9
  • 雖然 HM 自己一點都不記得有做過同樣的實驗,但隨著一天一天的練習,其所需要完成鏡描的時間愈來愈短。
  • INSERT FIG 5.10a and 5.10b
  • INSERT VIDEO #20, The Brain and Memory
  • 20120406 Memory

    1. 1. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5 Chapter 5:Memory: Models and Research Methods
    2. 2. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5你想像得到嗎…沒有記憶的日子會變成什麼模樣?
    3. 3. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5Understanding Memory
    4. 4. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5 Some Questions of Interest• 研究記憶的作業有哪些?• 記憶的結構是什麼?過去的理論模 型?
    5. 5. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5 記憶是 …• The mechanism we use to create, maintain, and retrieve information about the past
    6. 6. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5 記憶的三個歷程 • 訊息處理理論 Information processing model登錄 (encode) 將外在的物理輸入轉譯為記憶可接受的編 碼或表徵,並將此表徵「放在」記憶中儲存 (storage) 保留(或儲存)已經編碼的表徵提取 (retrieval) 從記憶系統提取訊息
    7. 7. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5
    8. 8. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5 Methods Used to Study Memory• Which type of memory test would you rather have? – 申論題?選擇題? – 回憶?再認?
    9. 9. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5 Methods Used to Study Memory• Serial recall (序列式回想) – Recall the names of all previous presidents in the order they were elected – Need to recall order as well as item names• Free recall (自由回想) – Recall all the words you can from the list you saw previously• Cued recall (線索回想) – Recall everything you can that is associated with the cued item – Participants are given a cue to facilitate recall
    10. 10. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5 Recognition Tasks• Circle all the words you previously studied• Indicate which pictures you saw yesterday• Participants select from a list of items they have previously seen
    11. 11. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5Implicit vs. Explicit Memory Tasks• Explicit memory tasks – Involve conscious recollection – Participants know they are trying to retrieve information from memory• Implicit memory tasks – Require participants to complete a task – The completion of the task indirectly indicates memory
    12. 12. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5 Implicit Memory TasksParticipants are Participants thenexposed to a word list complete word puzzles; they are not aware this is a type of memory test Tiger Lion Word fragment completion: Zebra C_E_TA_ Panda E_E_ _A_ N_ Leopard _E_RA Elephant Word stem completion: Mon _____After a delay… Pan_____
    13. 13. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5 Procedural Memory• Knowing how to do something – Ride a bike – Skateboard – Ski
    14. 14. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5Methods to Assess Procedural Memory• Rotary-pursuit task – Keep stylus on a dot on a rotating disk• Mirror-tracing task – Watch mirror image to trace a figure
    15. 15. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5 Models of Memory• Represent ways that memory has been conceptualized – Atkinson & Shiffrin’s three-stage model – Craik & Lockhart’s level of processing model – Baddeley’s working memory model – Tulving’s multiple memory systems model – McClelland & Rumelhart’s connectionist model
    16. 16. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5 Traditional Model of Memory• Atkinson & Shiffrin (1968) three- stage model
    17. 17. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5 感官記憶 Sensory memory• 特性 : 1. 自動發生,因此不需要耗費資源 2. 容量極大 3. 瞬間即逝而易被干擾 4. 訊息只能持續很短時間 5. 只有少部分感覺儲存訊息會得到注意 而從感覺儲存庫被傳送到短期儲存庫• 後像 (afterimage) 、餘音 (echo)
    18. 18. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5人究竟能記得多少呢?請隨手拿個筆和紙,我們準備開始!記憶大考驗 I
    19. 19. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5Whole ReportX X X XX X X XX X X X
    20. 20. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5B 5 Q T2 H S 9 XO 4 M Y
    21. 21. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5請寫出剛剛畫面中呈現的所有字 母
    22. 22. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5B 5 Q T2 H S 9O 4 M Y
    23. 23. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5Partial Report – No Delay X X X X X X X X X X X X
    24. 24. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5 2 V 9 R Q X 7 L M> K H 5 F <
    25. 25. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5 2 V 9 R Q M 7 L> K H 5 F <
    26. 26. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5請寫出剛剛畫面中 > < 所指到的 字母
    27. 27. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5Sperling (1960) Iconic Memory Research• Whole report procedure – Flash a matrix of letters for 50 milliseconds – Identify as many letters as possible – Participants typically remember 4 letters• Partial report procedure – Flash a matrix of letters for 50 milliseconds – Participants are told to report bottom row – Participants were able to report any row requested
    28. 28. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5 Sperling Sensory Memory Demonstration• A matrix of 12 letters and numbers briefly flash on the next few slides• As soon as you see the information, write down everything you can remember in its proper location
    29. 29. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5Sperling’s Results
    30. 30. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5 Sensory Stores• Iconic store or visual sensory register – Holds visual information for 250 msec longer – Capacity: up to 12 items – Information fades quickly• Econ or auditory sensory register – Holds auditory information for 2-3 seconds longer to enable processing
    31. 31. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5全現遺覺記憶 Photographic memory• 「照像式」的記憶能力• 非常罕見( < 10% 的人擁有)• 常在小孩身上發現,但往隨著年齡 增長而消失• 與感官記憶十分相關
    32. 32. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5 全現遺覺記憶Photographic memory
    33. 33. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5全現遺覺記憶 Photographic memory• 能夠擁有這項能力是不是看似非常幸運 ? 但…• 擁有 Photographic memory 的缺點 :d. 記太多不相關的細節e. 不夠有效率f. 有些人甚至忘也忘不掉那些自己不想記的g. 一種自閉症 (Autism) 的症狀
    34. 34. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5Short-term memory短期記憶
    35. 35. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5 Short-Term Memory Rehearsal• Attention – Attend to information in the Short-Term sensory store, it Memory moves to STM (STM)• Rehearsal – Repeat the information to keep maintained in STM Attention Storage &• Retrieval Retrieval – Access memory in LTM and place in STM
    36. 36. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5 Research on Short-Term Memory• Miller (1956) – Examined memory capacity – 7+/- 2 items or “chunks” – 電話號碼的編制• Cowan (2001) – 認為短期記憶的限制大概是 4 個單位• Jonides (2009) – 其實只有 1 個…
    37. 37. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5人究竟能記得多少呢?請隨手拿個筆和紙,我們準備開始!記憶大考驗 II
    38. 38. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 51. 英文題
    39. 39. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5準備好了嗎 ……
    40. 40. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5DADNCKUMITANTFBIETORNBA
    41. 41. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5請依序寫出剛剛畫面中的所有字 母
    42. 42. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 52. 數字題
    43. 43. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5準備好了嗎 ……
    44. 44. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 577088088252521314520
    45. 45. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5請依序寫出剛剛畫面中的所有數 字
    46. 46. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5 記憶廣度的限制• 若將大量且複雜的訊息組織成較 小而有意義的單位 (chunking) ,則 可以記得較多的訊息 !• Chunk 的愈好愈有效率就能記得愈多 愈牢
    47. 47. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5 記憶廣度的限制• 若採取 保持性的複誦 (maintenance rehearsal) ,也可以使訊息保留在 記憶中較久
    48. 48. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5 記憶廣度的限制個體以自己的方式解讀、組織、安排訊息,使訊息得以長久保存•例如: – 對新訊息加以分析、處理 – 將新訊息和舊有的知識、經驗作聯結 – 找出新訊息彼此間的關係
    49. 49. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5 解答時間 !!!!!1. 英文題 – DADNCKUMITANTFBIETORNBA – DAD NCKU MIT ANT FBI ET OR NBA2. 數字題 – 77088088252521314520 – 770 880 8825252 1314 520 – 親親你 抱抱你 爸爸餓我餓我餓 一生 一世 我愛你
    50. 50. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5 How to train your memory• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pyVxD• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V8S8
    51. 51. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5 Storage Capacity of STM• Vogel, Woodman, & Luck (2001)• Used colors and orientations
    52. 52. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5 Vogel, Woodman, & Luck Results (2001)• Can retain 3-4 colors or orientations• Store integrated objects, not just features
    53. 53. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5Working memory工作記憶
    54. 54. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5 不歇息的記憶活動 Baddeley & Hitch (1974)  工作記憶和短期記憶一 樣是負責暫時記憶訊息  但和短期記憶不同 :  有不同的機制來負責不同 種類訊息的記憶  有監控機制 Graham Alan Hitch Baddeley
    55. 55. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5Baddeleys’ Working Memory Model (1986)
    56. 56. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5 Working Memory Model• Phonological Loop (語音迴路) – Used to maintain information for a short time and for acoustic rehearsal• Visuo-spatial sketch pad (視覺空間模 板) – Used for maintaining and processing visuo- spatial information• Episodic buffer (情節緩衝系統) – Used for storage of a multimodal code, holding an integrated episode between systems using different codes
    57. 57. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5 Working Memory Model• Central executive (中央執行系統) – Focuses attention on relevant items and inhibits irrelevant ones – Plans sequence of tasks to accomplish goals, schedules processes in complex tasks, often switches attention between different parts – Updates and checks content to determine next step in sequence
    58. 58. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5 Working Memory Model Support• Baddeley (1986) – Participants studied two different list types – 1 syllable: wit, sum, harm, bay, top – 5 syllables: university, opportunity, aluminum, constitutional, auditorium• Reading rate seemed to determine recall performance• Supports conceptualization of an articulatory loop
    59. 59. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5Working Memory Model Support• Visuo-spatial sketch pad – Dual-task paradigm – Sketchpad can be disrupted by requiring participants to repeatedly tap a specified pattern of keys or locations while using imagery at the same time
    60. 60. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5Long-term memory長期記憶
    61. 61. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5 長期記憶系統• 特性 : – 保存時間從數分鐘、數年甚至終生 – 如果短期記憶是電腦的 RAM ,則長期 記憶是電腦的硬碟 – 記憶容量極大,甚至似乎沒有限制 • Shepard (1967) – 600 張圖片,一小時後仍能辨識 99% • Standing et al. (1970) – 2500 張圖片,一小時後仍能辨識 90%
    62. 62. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5 Long-Term Memory• Capacity Long-Term – Thus far limitless Memory (LTM)• Duration – Potentially permanent
    63. 63. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5 Tulving’s Multiple-Memory Systems Model• Semantic memory – General knowledge – Facts, definitions, historical dates• Episodic memory – Event memories (first kiss, 6th birthday)
    64. 64. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5長期記憶系統
    65. 65. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5 Multiple-Memory Systems Model Support• Nyberg, Cabeza, & Tulving (1996) – PET technology to look at episodic and semantic memory – Asked people to engage in semantic or episodic memory tasks while being monitored by PET• Results – Left (hemisphere) frontal lobe differentially active in encoding (both) and in semantic memory retrieval – Right (hemisphere) frontal lobe differentially active in retrieval of episodic memory
    66. 66. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5Levels of processing model
    67. 67. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5 Levels of Processing Model of Memory• Craik & Lockhart (1972) – Different ways to process information lead to different strengths of memories – Deep processing leads to better memory • Elaborating according to meaning leads to a strong memory – Shallow processing emphasizes the physical features of the stimulus • The memory trace is fragile and quickly decays – Distinguished between maintenance rehearsal and elaborative rehearsal
    68. 68. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5 Support for Levels of Processing• Craik & Tulving (1975) – Participants studied a list in three different ways • Structural: Is the word in capital letters? • Phonemic: Does the word rhyme with dog? • Semantic: Does the word fit in this sentence? “The ______ is delicious.” – A recognition test was given to see which type of processing led to the best memory
    69. 69. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5Craik & Tulving (1975) Results 1 Case 0.9 Rhyme 0.8 0.7 Sentence Recognized 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 Yes No Sentence Type
    70. 70. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5 Self-Reference Effect• Rogers, Kuiper, & Kirker (1977) – Encoding with respect to oneself increases memory Capital Rhymes Means the Describes letters? with? same as? you?
    71. 71. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5 Criticisms of LOP Model•Circular definition of levels•Transfer appropriate processing effect – Morris, Bransford, & Franks (1977) – Two processing tasks: semantic vs. rhyme – Two types of tests: standard yes/no recognition vs. rhyme test – Memory performance also depends on the match between encoding processes and type of test Recognitio Encoding Task n Rhyme Semantic 0.83 0.31 Rhyme 0.62 0.49
    72. 72. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5 Connectionist Perspective• Parallel distributed processing model – Memory uses a network – Meaning comes from patterns of activation across the entire network – Spreading activation network model – Supported by priming effects
    73. 73. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5失憶症的記憶
    74. 74. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5 Deficient Memory• Amnesias – Retrograde amnesia • Loss of memory for events that occurred before the trauma – Infantile amnesia • Inability to recall events of young childhood – Anterograde amnesia • No memory for events that occur after the trauma
    75. 75. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5 失憶症的記憶• 失憶症的主要症狀是完全無法記得 每天的事件,因此無法獲取新的事 實訊息息順向失憶症( anterograde amnesia )• 失憶症的第二種症狀是無法記得受 傷或生病前發生的事件件逆向失憶症( retrograde amnesia )
    76. 76. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5 失憶症的記憶• 失憶症患者在記憶、學習知覺與動作技能時則 沒有困難。外顯和內隱記憶分別負責事實和技 能的編碼,屬於不同的記憶系統。• 失憶症患者仍然保留的技能包括動作技能及知 覺技能。• 失憶症患者和一般人的促發程度完全相同,表 示其內隱記憶正常,但是外顯記憶比一般人更 差。
    77. 77. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5失憶症患者是幫助心理學家了解記 憶系統的重要份子!• Clive Wearing – 上次課堂中提到的• A.T. – 記憶廣度很小,剛呈現的訊息無法立即正確回憶 – 但對以前發生的事情都記得很清楚• H.M. ( 科學史上最有名的病人之一 ) – 幼時騎車摔倒後常有癲癇發作 – 接收顳葉切除的手術治療 – 癲癇症狀消失但是導致嚴重的失憶症 症長期記憶與短期記憶的區分
    78. 78. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5 鏡描作業 Mirror-Tracing Task• H.M’s performance
    79. 79. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg 童年失憶症和幼兒失憶症 Chapter 5Childhood amnesia & Infantile amnesia
    80. 80. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg 童年失憶症和幼兒失憶症 Chapter 5Childhood amnesia & Infantile amnesia– 每個人都有的現象 • 沒有人能回憶生命中最初幾年的事情 • 大多數人的最初記憶發生在 3 歲之後,少數 人可以回溯至 1 歲 歲但回憶的正確與否也 無法確定
    81. 81. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg 童年失憶症和幼兒失憶症 Chapter 5Childhood amnesia & Infantile amnesia– 原因 • 成人使用分類與基模 (Schema) 來建構記憶 ,但是兒童在編碼時不會多加修飾或連到相 關事件 • 從生理原因來看,由於海馬迴大約到 1 、 2 歲才會成熟,因此童年初期的事件無法充分 凝固,導致後來無法回想 • 其他心理原因包括認知因素,特別是語言發 展和入學。語言和學校的思考方式提供組織 經驗的新方法
    82. 82. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5 Alzheimer’s Disease• Leads to memory loss and dementia in older population• Over the age of 65 are labeled “late onset”• “Early onset” is rare but can affect those in their mid 30s and in middle age
    83. 83. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5 Alzheimer’s Disease and the Brain• Atrophy of the cortical tissue – Alzheimer’s brains shows abnormal fibers that appear to be tangles of brain tissue and senile plaques (patches of degenerative nerve endings) – The resulting damage of these conditions may lead to disruption of impulses in neurons
    84. 84. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5 Alzheimer’s Disease• Symptoms (gradual, continuous, and irreversible) – Memory loss – Problems doing familiar tasks – Problems with language – Trouble knowing the time, date, or place – Poor or decreased judgment – Problems with abstract thinking – Misplacing things often, such as keys – Changes in mood, behavior, and personality• These symptoms could be an early sign of Alzheimer’s when it affects daily life
    85. 85. Cognitive Psychology, Sixth Edition, Robert J. Sternberg Chapter 5 Hippocampus and Memory• Hippocampus – Critical for integration and consolidation – Essential for declarative memory – Without the hippocampus, only the learning of skills and habits, simple conditioning, and the phenomenon of priming can occur INSERT VIDEO #20, The Brain and Memory

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