Late Registration: Bane or BenefitWhat the Research Says Patrick Tompkins, JTCC New Horizons Conference Roanoke, VA April 4, 2013
Propose definitions of late registration (LR)Participants will… Discuss the teleology of late registration Review the purpose of the presentation and the taxonomy of the literature review Evaluate the evidence and suggest policy implications What is the incidence of LR?Research Questions Who registers late and why? How well do LR perform (grades, class completion, withdrawal)? What conclusions have researchers proffered?
Context O’Banion (2012) › LR “wreaks havoc on the ability of colleges to achieve the goals of the emerging completion agenda”…evidence is “overwhelming” (pp. 26, 28) Roueche (2011) › “There is a lot of data showing that students who enroll late have three times the dropout or three times the failure rate” of OTR. (The SOURCE, 2011, p. 6)
Access FTEs Benefit ChoiceTeleology of LR Responsiveness Flexibility brewbooks Chaos Costs Lost first day of class Bane Student success: grades, retention, awards/transfer Ethics
ContextColleges are eliminating LR, includingMiami-Dade CC, Rio Salado College,Sinclair CC, Valencia College Benwards What about your college?
Taxonomy of the Literature Review (Cooper & Hedges, 2009)Characteristic ApproachFoci Research methods; findingsGoals Integration; identification of central issuesPerspective Neutral representationCoverage ExhaustiveOrganization ConceptualAudience General scholars, policy makers, practitioners
Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria Quantitative and/or 26 + 2 = qualitative Dissertations, articles, publicly available presentations and reports Studies of patterns, attitudes, and/or Leo Reynolds performance
LR definitions 1 week before After the 8th day of classes? classes? On or after After first class semester start meeting (N=3) date (N=12) LR for all classes LR for single classes (N=19) (N=9)
Study Designs Population Unit of Analysis Time FramesMostly CC’s Student (N=20) Semester(N=21) Course YearSize: from 6 to260,000 enrollment Longitudinal › General or (N=6) specific 7 and 14 year N/A (N=2) retrospectivesUnequalsample sizesSmall subgroups tmorkemo
Analytic Methods Significance testing vs. Raw numbers / percentages T-test, chi-square, ANOVA, multiple regression, logistic regression Course grade vs. GPA Rate of LR course completion vs. rate of all course completion
11 Studies* LR for every class In generalFrequency of Occurrence National data: Range: 4-17% 11% of students for at least one class (Center, Mean: 8.3% 2012) Most do not 4 studies continually LR LR for any class (Mendiola- Perez, 2004) Range: 3-27% Mean: 14.4% * Excludes Zottos’ (2005) extreme value of 54%.
Who?Number of studies finding demographicassociations Male Race/ Part- Older Low HS Ethnicity time GPAYes 9 7 7 5 3No 5 4 1 6 N/A
ReasonsMost Common Other Schedule conflicts: Advising problems 46% Instructor problems Class too hard Paperwork Procrastination Medical Late decision to go to Finances college Recent relocation Employment Class cancellations Transportation Personal convenience: Life 4% (Belcher & Patterson, 1990; Chilton, 1964; Keck, 2007; Morris, 1986; Parks, 1974)
Positive Motivators Family encouragement / career goals Consultations with faculty and advisors “Individual background and determination to complete” Avoid online courses / courses with weak background Avoid LR if possible “A viable and critical option”(emphasis added) Satisfied with decision (Keck, 2007, pp. 126, 132)
Negative: 2 studies LR Course Grade › Greater effect for upper collegiate rank, and largeHow Well? Grades classes No Sig.: 2 studies Negative: 4 studies; Mixed: 7 studies SGPA/CGPA Demographics removed or diminished effects Worse for returning students? For freshman? More likely 4.0 GPA & more likely 0.0 GPA No effect for class switches; > class adds increased GPA; > class drops lowered GPA
Positive: 2 studiesHow Well? Success Rate* LR Course No Sig.: 1 study Negative: 1 study Negative: 5 studies Weak: 2 studies All Courses No Sig: 2 studies No sig. for new students; negative for continuing students Weak negative effect, but also more likely to complete 100% of courses Other variations by demographics *Set at “C” level by some, “D” level by others.
How Well? Withdrawal/Attrition LR Course Rate All Course Rate 100% of coursesNegative: Keck, Negative: 4 Negative:2007 studies Parks, 1974Large classes only:Safer 2009 No sig.: 2 studies No sig.: Chilton, 1964Restrictiveattendance policyonly: Diekhoff, Slight: 2 studies1992 Mixed:DevelopmentalENG only: Sova, Mendiola-1986 Perez, 2004
Warrant for these claims?O’Banion (2012) Roueche (2011)› LR “wreaks havoc on › “There is a lot of the ability of data showing that colleges to achieve students who enroll the goals of the late have three emerging times the dropout or completion three times the agenda”…evidence failure rate” of OTR. is “overwhelming” (The SOURCE, 2011, p. 6) (pp. 26, 28)
What have researchers concluded?Policy recommendations, number of studies* Ban LR Maybe Ban LR No Modify None/Unclear Ban LR for Change / Policies Some Keep LR 2 4 3 5 17 6 Researchers may have made recommendations that fell into more than one category. Each recommendation was counted separately.
Warranted Actions1) Conduct research on local level, and on specific courses, subpopulations, etc.2) Employ robust research methods3) Create early registration culture4) Develop rolling schedules/late start courses5) Target support for LR students6) Tailor LR policies as/where needed7) Study effect of banning LR on access, enrollment, revenues, and student success
Images from flickr brewbooks, xerophyllum tenax (Beargrass), (Teleology slide) Benwards, Teleology, (Context slide) Leo Reynolds, Bingo Number 28, (Inclusion/exclusion slide) hiromy, Using chopsticks, (LR definitions slide) tmorkemo, Sammenligning av tommestokker, (Study designs slide) inju, Statistics for the Utterly Confused (Analytic methods slide) Tama Leaver, Warhold Thinker by Macbook, (What do you conclude slide)
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