Grade 4 training


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Grade 4 training

  1. 1. River-Lab Grade 4 Online Guide Training 476 Old Mill Road Fairfield, CT 06824   203.259.1847
  2. 2. Online Training <ul><li>Read through each section and answer the review questions that follow. </li></ul><ul><li>Training may be completed in sections and at your own pace. </li></ul><ul><li>At the end of Online Training, you should print a certificate of completion. </li></ul><ul><li>Bring your certificate to Outdoor Training. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Section 1 What is River-Lab?
  4. 4. What is River-Lab? <ul><li>River-Lab is a science-based Environmental Studies curriculum. </li></ul><ul><li>River-Lab is taught in all Fairfield schools (public and parochial) to students in grades 3 through 6. </li></ul><ul><li>River-Lab focuses on the river-basin structure of the earth to teach: </li></ul><ul><li>geography </li></ul><ul><li>geology </li></ul><ul><li>the water cycle and groundwater system </li></ul><ul><li>habitats </li></ul><ul><li>organism adaptations </li></ul><ul><li>responsible management of the earth’s resources </li></ul>
  5. 5. Program Facts <ul><li>The River-Lab program makes up one-third of the science curriculum at grades 3-6, and is regularly revised and updated to meet CMT (Connecticut Mastery Test) requirements. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Program Facts <ul><li>River-Lab provides comprehensive, multi-lesson units to classroom teachers, supported by ongoing teacher training. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Program Facts <ul><li>Classroom lessons are reinforced by study-trips to the Mill River and town estuaries. </li></ul><ul><li>Over 3500 students participate in River-Lab study-trips every year. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Each study-trip is led by trained volunteer guides. </li></ul><ul><li>River-Lab trains over 150 guides annually. </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Role of MRWC <ul><li>Study-trips are organized and run by the Mill River Wetland Study Group, which is an arm of the Mill River Wetland Committee (MRWC), a non-profit--501(c)3– corporation. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>MRWC was founded in 1967 by Joy Shaw, a Fairfield resident whose home in the former Perry’s Mill inspired her interest in river basin and environmental conservation . She began by leading her own children’s classes on trips. </li></ul><ul><li>Jocelyn Shaw </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Joy’s extensive research became the basis for the science units that make up the River-Lab program, which has supplied curriculum materials to Fairfield students since 1969. </li></ul>
  12. 12. MRWC: Education and Conservation <ul><li>In the late 1960s and early 1970s, MRWC promoted purchase of Open Space along the Mill River in Fairfield, Connecticut, and took a leading role in the defense of endangered wetlands. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Today, MRWC remains a non-profit educational organization funded primarily through The Garden Expo, a fundraising event, and through individual member donations. </li></ul>
  14. 14. End of Section 1 <ul><li>Please Answer Questions 1-5 of the review quiz below </li></ul>
  15. 15. Section 2 Curriculum Unit Overview River-Lab Grade 4
  16. 16. Overview of River-Lab Grade 4: A Basin in Balance <ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>The 4th grade unit, A Basin in Balance , focuses on the groundwater system* and its role in the river basin system. </li></ul><ul><li>* also referred to as the underground water system </li></ul>
  17. 17. A Basin in Balance <ul><li>The unit builds on the River-Lab course from Grade 3, in which students studied: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the parts and functions of a river basin system, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>habitats the river makes, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>organisms that live in those habitats and their adaptations. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. In the classroom… <ul><li>Power point slides, a student reference book, and inquiry-based lessons are used to teach </li></ul><ul><li>1. the role of the water cycle in a river basin 2. the formation of rivers and the underground water system </li></ul><ul><li>3. the role of water in changing the land . </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Students develop an understanding that the underground water system is essential in sustaining the web of life in a river basin. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Students will examine human management of the environment in a river basin system, and how humans impact life in a river basin system. </li></ul>
  21. 21. On the Study-trip… <ul><li>Students construct models to demonstrate how the groundwater system works and how it is connected to the surface. </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Trained guides lead students through 6 trail points. </li></ul><ul><li>Students examine habitat factors that either help or hinder the absorption of water into the underground water system. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Students develop their science skills as they observe and record information at the trail points. </li></ul>
  24. 24. End of Section 2 <ul><li>Please Answer Questions 6-8 of the review quiz below </li></ul>
  25. 25. Section 3 What is Guide Training?
  26. 26. <ul><li>Study-trips are essential to the River-Lab curriculum units. They support and reinforce classroom learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Study-trips are led by volunteers (thank you!). </li></ul><ul><li>Guide Training is necessary to prepare you to lead study-trips effectively and confidently. </li></ul>Why Do Guides Need Training?
  27. 27. Components of Training <ul><li>Guide Training includes two main components: </li></ul><ul><li>Online Training and Outdoor Training . </li></ul><ul><li>A Follow–Trip is an additional recommended option. </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Online Training covers: </li></ul><ul><li>the format and procedures of the study-trips </li></ul><ul><li>the background information and key concepts covered in the unit. </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Outdoor Training </li></ul><ul><li>takes place </li></ul><ul><li>on the trail. </li></ul><ul><li>At Outdoor Training, you will do an instructional walk-through of the study-trip. </li></ul><ul><li>You will learn the trail route . </li></ul><ul><li>You will see the gear and how it is used. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Follow-Trips <ul><li>A follow-trip is available at your option . </li></ul><ul><li>Follow-trips allow new guides to shadow an experienced guide on an actual study-trip with students. </li></ul><ul><li>Follow-trips let you see how study-trips “come alive” AND how other guides use the script and manage students . Helpful tips!! </li></ul>
  31. 31. End of Section 3 <ul><li>Please Answer Questions 9-11 of the review quiz below </li></ul>
  32. 32. Section 4 What to Expect on a Study-Trip
  33. 33. The Guides <ul><li>You have a set of script cards which detail what to do and say at every trail point. Read them over in advance and bring them with you! </li></ul><ul><li>Arrive at the River-Lab Area 20 minutes early to check in with the Lead Guide, and help prepare materials and gear as needed. </li></ul><ul><li>Check out with the Lead Guide before leaving. </li></ul><ul><li>Study-trips are 90 minutes in length. </li></ul>
  34. 34. The Students <ul><li>Students will arrive by bus. </li></ul><ul><li>They will already be assigned to groups of 4-6, and will have name tags. You will be matched with your child’s group . </li></ul><ul><li>The class will be greeted by the Lead Guide (also called the “Model Leader”). </li></ul><ul><li>Each student will be given a clipboard and pencil to use to complete a Student Observation Sheet at the Trail Points. </li></ul>
  35. 35. The study-trip is conducted in 2 parts: <ul><ul><li>1. Whole Class Activity (45 minutes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students build and experiment with models of the Undergroundwater System. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This lesson is led by the Model Leader (not you!). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small Groups travel to 6 Trail Points (45 minutes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Led by Guides ( that’s you! ) using the script cards, students demonstrate and examine key concepts though field study. </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Small group lead by guides.
  37. 37. Ground Water Model Activity <ul><li>Students will compare groundwater absorption in a developed surface area to absorption in an undeveloped surface area. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s a lot of FUN and very memorable! </li></ul>
  38. 38. Your Role During Whole Class Activity <ul><li>Manage students : stand near your group and encourage kids to stay focused. </li></ul><ul><li>Support the Model Leader as needed. </li></ul><ul><li>Each group will participate in the experiment; follow along and be ready to assist in building models, pouring water, or measuring results. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Students simulate precipitation on the surface of the “developed” undergroundwater model. What happens to the rainwater that falls on buildings and roads?
  40. 40. Trail Points <ul><li>There are 6 Trail Points to visit with your small group. Each has an activity to complete. </li></ul><ul><li>1. Productive shoreline observation </li></ul><ul><li>2. Non-productive shoreline observation </li></ul><ul><li>Plants and the Water Cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Debris </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Debris (developed area) </li></ul><ul><li>Human Impact </li></ul>
  41. 41. Trail Routes <ul><li>Each guide is assigned to one of the 4 routes so that groups have space to work and move. You will be assigned your route in advance of your study-trip. </li></ul><ul><li>All routes do the same Trail Point activities, but in varying sequences and locations. </li></ul><ul><li>All Trail Points are clearly marked with flags. </li></ul><ul><li>Outdoor Training will </li></ul><ul><li>cover the Trail Points </li></ul><ul><li>and routes in detail. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Your Role Along the Trail <ul><li>Use the River-Lab script cards to lead students through the Trail Point Activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Follow your Route. </li></ul><ul><li>Help students fill out their individual Observation Sheets at each Trail Point. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage all kids to participate and share their observations and conclusions. </li></ul><ul><li>Let kids take the lead as much as possible in answering questions and explaining concepts. </li></ul>
  43. 43. Observation Sheet used by students
  44. 44. Observation Sheet p.2
  45. 45. Remember… <ul><li>You will present experiences and guide the students through steps; </li></ul><ul><li>The students themselves should observe and explain what they learn. </li></ul><ul><li>Your script cards will provide the content you need to cover. Bring them with you! </li></ul>
  46. 46. End of Section 4 <ul><li>Please Answer Questions 12-15 of the review quiz below </li></ul>
  47. 47. Section 5 Scientific Inquiry
  48. 48. Scientific Inquiry <ul><li>“ Tell me and I will forget; show me and I will remember; involve me and I will understand.” </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese proverb </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific Inquiry is a method of teaching and learning science. </li></ul><ul><li>River-Lab units are designed with an inquiry-based approach. </li></ul>
  49. 49. Inquiry-based science instruction… <ul><li>Engages students in the process of doing investigations. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages students to ask questions and </li></ul><ul><li>use their observations to construct reasonable explanations for the questions posed. </li></ul>
  50. 50. Basic Skills of Scientific Inquiry: <ul><li>Observing </li></ul><ul><li>Classifying and sequencing </li></ul><ul><li>Communicating </li></ul><ul><li>Measuring </li></ul><ul><li>Predicting </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesizing </li></ul><ul><li>Inferring </li></ul><ul><li>Interpreting, analyzing, and evaluating data </li></ul>
  51. 51. Uses of Scientific Inquiry <ul><li>To make connections with world situations </li></ul><ul><li>To encourage an active, problem-solving approach to thinking and learning </li></ul><ul><li>To apply math skills </li></ul><ul><li>To review what is already known in light of experimental evidence </li></ul><ul><li>To propose answers, explanations and predictions </li></ul><ul><li>To use tools to gather, analyze and interpret data  </li></ul>
  52. 52. Experience the Concept on the Trail <ul><li>Inquiry Language </li></ul><ul><li>Questions to ask students </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why do you think so? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is your evidence? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How are they alike or different? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How could you find out? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I wonder if… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What do you think will happen if… </li></ul></ul>
  53. 53. Experience the Concept on the Trail <ul><li>Responses to students </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You must have thought about that. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>That’s interesting. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thank you. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I see. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeat their statement. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>That’s a possibility. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nod or smile. </li></ul></ul>
  54. 54. End of Section 5 <ul><li>Please Answer Questions 16-18 of the review quiz below </li></ul>
  55. 55. Section 6 Concept 1: The Water Cycle
  56. 56. You remember the basics… <ul><li>Condensation: water changes from vapor to liquid when heat is taken away </li></ul><ul><li>Precipitation : any form of water that falls from clouds to Earth (rain, snow, sleet, hail) </li></ul><ul><li>Evaporation: process of changing from liquid to vapor when heat is added </li></ul><ul><li>The SUN is the agent </li></ul><ul><li>in these processes. </li></ul>
  57. 58. On the Earth’s Surface <ul><li>Freshwater is stored on the Earth’s surface in lakes, ponds and wetlands. </li></ul><ul><li>Runoff is rainwater or snowmelt that flows over the land into rivers and streams, lakes, ponds, wetlands, and oceans. </li></ul>
  58. 59. Did you know? <ul><li>Interception is the process in which precipitation collects on surfaces, such as plant parts. </li></ul><ul><li>Transpiration is the process by which water evaporates through tiny holes in a plant’s leaves. </li></ul><ul><li>Infiltration is the downward movement of water from the land surface into the soil or porous rock. </li></ul><ul><li>Groundwater discharge is the movement of water out of the ground, as in springs. </li></ul>
  59. 60. <ul><li>Have you ever been swimming in a lake and suddenly felt a burst of cold water? </li></ul><ul><li>That’s </li></ul><ul><li>GROUNDWATER DISCHARGE . </li></ul><ul><li>Water stored in the ground (under the lake “floor” or in the sides of the lake) can enter the lake. It is colder because it hasn’t been exposed to the sun. </li></ul>
  60. 62. Experience the concept on the trail <ul><li>Trail Point #3: Plants and the Water Cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Students will use spray bottles to simulate rainfall on plants. </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on water cycle concepts ( precipitation, interception, infiltration ) as you discuss the experiment. </li></ul>
  61. 63. Trail Point #3
  62. 64. End of Section 6 <ul><li>Please Answer Questions 19-21 of the review quiz below </li></ul>
  63. 65. Section 7 The Groundwater System: Underground Water Storage
  64. 66. You learned how the Water Cycle works on the surface of the Earth… <ul><li>BUT…. </li></ul><ul><li>What is going on underground?? </li></ul>
  65. 67. The Groundwater System <ul><li>The groundwater system is the arrangement of underground water storage areas, such as gravel layers and cracks and pores in rock. </li></ul><ul><li>Water that falls on the land infiltrates the groundwater system as it is ABSORBED though marshes, cracks in river-and-lake beds, and soil throughout the river basin system. </li></ul>
  66. 68. Layers of the Groundwater System <ul><li>Water infiltrates from the surface through the soil and gravel into the permeable, cracked bedrock. (It can’t get through solid bedrock.) </li></ul>
  67. 69. Groundwater helps the river basin system stay in BALANCE. <ul><li>Benefit 1 </li></ul><ul><li>If there is stored water in the groundwater system, it can flow back to the surface via springs: </li></ul><ul><li>Underground water can REPLENISH the surface bodies of water to maintain stable shoreline habitats and the organisms that live there. </li></ul><ul><li>Life in the basin’s surface waters can stay at optimum levels of productivity, in spite of drought or low rainfall. </li></ul>
  68. 70. Groundwater helps the river basin system stay in BALANCE. <ul><li>Benefit 2 </li></ul><ul><li>If water can INFILTRATE the groundwater storage system, precipitation will not run over the land directly into streams and rivers; reduced runoff prevents flooding and excess erosion of productive shoreline habitats: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lessening the rate and the amount of water that flows over land and into the river reduces the power the river has to erode its bed, banks, and shoreline habitats. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water’s-edge or shoreline habitats and their organisms are vital to the overall health of the basin and need to remain stable for optimum productivity. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  69. 71. Experience the concept on the trail: <ul><li>Use the terminology in discussions at all trail points. </li></ul><ul><li>Infiltration and absorption </li></ul><ul><li>Groundwater system </li></ul><ul><li>Runoff </li></ul><ul><li>Erosion </li></ul>
  70. 72. End of Section 7 <ul><li>Please Answer Questions 22-25 of the review quiz below </li></ul>
  71. 73. Section 8 River Basin ABSORBENCY
  72. 74. What is Absorbency? <ul><li>To </li></ul><ul><li>absorb is to take in or soak up. </li></ul><ul><li>Land in the river basin absorbs water from the surface into the groundwater system. </li></ul><ul><li>Absorbent surfaces hold water above ground AND allow water to slowly seep into the groundwater system . </li></ul>
  73. 75. Ways Water is Absorbed: <ul><ul><li>Wetland soils absorb water. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plants INTERCEPT rain or snow by catching drops in their foliage. Water can then slowly soak into the soil. This absorption helps to slow floodwaters and runoff. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detritus -- natural debris, such as dead leaves and branches-- slows runoff and soaks up water. </li></ul></ul>
  74. 76. Why Absorbency is Important: <ul><li>Absorbent features SLOW or STOP RUNOFF and allow water to INFILTRATE the topsoil and get into the Groundwater System. </li></ul><ul><li>Absorbency promotes balance between the River Basin surface above ground and the Groundwater system below ! </li></ul>
  75. 77. Examples of Absorbent Materials: <ul><li>Dead trees </li></ul><ul><li>Rotting logs </li></ul><ul><li>Twigs </li></ul><ul><li>Dead leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Fallen branches </li></ul><ul><li>pieces of bark </li></ul><ul><li>Dead plants </li></ul><ul><li>Berries and seeds (acorns, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Soft, loose soil (i.e., marsh) </li></ul>
  76. 78. Non-absorbent Surfaces: <ul><li>No surprise: </li></ul><ul><li>Cement surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Paved roads </li></ul><ul><li>Roofs </li></ul><ul><li>Bare, compacted soil </li></ul><ul><li>Slate </li></ul><ul><li>Stone patios </li></ul><ul><li>Buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Driveways </li></ul><ul><li>Playscapes </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  77. 79. Surprise! <ul><li>Green leaves do NOT absorb water; </li></ul><ul><li>live plants take in water at the roots . </li></ul><ul><li>Cultivated lawns are also NOT absorbent. They are known as “green pavement” because rainfall flattens the blades and the rainfall runs off the flattened blades quickly . </li></ul>
  78. 80. Experience the concept on the trail: <ul><li>Trail Point #4: Natural Debris </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students will observe and describe a sample of natural debris and a rotting log. You will guide a discussion of the absorbency of these materials, and how they can help create balance in the river basin system. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural debris soaks up precipitation, slowing runoff, and helping to prevent flooding and erosion. It intercepts the water and allows it to slowly infiltrate the groundwater system. </li></ul></ul>
  79. 81. Trail Point #4, Natural Debris
  80. 82. <ul><ul><li>Trail Points #4 and #5: Debris Data Collection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Using a square border made of PVC pipe, students will isolate sample areas in order to count and record items of absorbent material on the ground. This activity will be done on a “natural” area of the trail and a developed area (compacted soil on a cleared path). </li></ul><ul><li>Students should note evidence of erosion near developed area . Guide a discussion of how absorbency helps slow runoff and erosion in the river basin. </li></ul>
  81. 83. End of Section 8 <ul><li>Please Answer Questions 26-29 of the review quiz below </li></ul>
  82. 84. Section 9 Plants and Productivity in the River Basin System
  83. 85. The Role of Plants in a River Basin System <ul><li>HABITAT FORMATION </li></ul><ul><li>BASE OF THE FOOD WEB </li></ul><ul><li>WATER CYCLE & GROUNDWATER SYSTEM </li></ul>
  84. 86. Plants in the Food Web <ul><li>All animals are directly or indirectly dependent on plants for food energy .  </li></ul><ul><li>Many food webs start at shoreline habitats (along water's edge), with algae and plants. </li></ul><ul><li>Animals move around, so these food chains expand into the water and beyond </li></ul><ul><li>the shoreline. </li></ul>
  85. 87. Plants and the Water Cycle & Groundwater System <ul><li>Plants play key roles in the water cycle: Transpiration (evaporation of water though pores in leaves )   and Interception. </li></ul><ul><li>Plants intercept rainfall and hold it until it can seep into the soil and infiltrate the groundwater storage system . </li></ul><ul><li>Debris from dead plants is absorbent. Absorbent plant debris helps water infiltrate to maintain the groundwater supply. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  86. 88. Plants = Productivity <ul><li>A productive river basin is able to support many diverse organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>Abundant, diverse plant growth is evidence that a river basin is productive. </li></ul><ul><li>Many plants grow at the shoreline: the area where water, soil and air meet . </li></ul><ul><li>Shoreline areas are one of the most productive areas of a river basin. </li></ul><ul><li>Plant roots hold the soil, slowing runoff and preventing erosion. This in turn allows more plants to grow! </li></ul>
  87. 89. Experience the Concept on the Trail <ul><li>Trail Points #1 and #2: Shoreline Observation </li></ul><ul><li>Students observe and rate the productivity of two contrasting shoreline areas. One shoreline has many plants, and natural debris. The other has bare soil and exposed roots. </li></ul><ul><li>Note that plants along the shoreline provide food, habitat materials, hold soil to prevent erosion, and help contribute to the groundwater supply. </li></ul><ul><li>Plants= Productivity! </li></ul>
  88. 90. Trail Points #1 and #2
  89. 91. Trail Point #6: Human Impact on River Basin Productivity <ul><li>Using picture cards, students enact a food web, with plants at the base. </li></ul><ul><li>Point out that plenty of shoreline plants are needed for these food webs to exist. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss how the food web extends well beyond the shoreline, as animals roam. </li></ul><ul><li>Then, deconstruct and recreate the food webs as they would exist in a non-productive, eroded habitat . </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss how humans have resurfaced areas in the river basin and how that might impact different organisms in the food web. </li></ul>
  90. 92. Trail Point #6
  91. 93. End of Section 9 <ul><li>Please Answer Questions 30-34 of the review quiz below </li></ul>
  92. 94. Section 10 Human’s Impact on the River Basin System
  93. 95. <ul><li>The River Basin has evolved into a self-maintaining, living, balanced system. All living things depend on this balanced environment. </li></ul><ul><li>However, humans are continually making changes that </li></ul><ul><li>affect this balance. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  94. 96. Resurfacing <ul><li>When absorbent areas of a basin are covered over and replaced with non-absorbent materials, the basin loses the natural leafy growth and rotting debris which slows runoff and allows time for infiltration. </li></ul><ul><li>Runoff remains on the </li></ul><ul><li>surface causing </li></ul><ul><li>excessive erosion and </li></ul><ul><li>flooding in the river. </li></ul>
  95. 97. Ways humans have resurfaced land: <ul><li>Deforestation (trees and shrubs removed). Result: Lack of foliage to intercept rain, lack of spongy woodland floor that would allow infiltration into the groundwater system. </li></ul><ul><li>Paved areas (patios, sidewalks, roads, parking lots, etc.). These areas no longer have layers of natural debris to absorb water. Water runs off these hard surfaces very quickly, allowing no time for infiltration. </li></ul><ul><li>Cultivated lawns also create fast runoff and discourage absorption. Water runs off blades of grass very quickly. Lawn is called &quot;green pavement&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>Storm Water Management (roofs, gutters, downspouts and drainage pipes). These work by quickly collecting and sending rainwater through pipes and directly into rivers and streams, often causing flooding. </li></ul>
  96. 98. Impact on the Groundwater System <ul><li>Water that does not infiltrate will not be available to replenish surface bodies. </li></ul><ul><li>The groundwater system then has reduced capacity to replenish lakes, ponds, streams and marshes during times of low precipitation. </li></ul>
  97. 99. Consequences… <ul><li>Resurfacing leads to decreased absorbency </li></ul><ul><li>in the River Basin. </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased absorbency means less water can infiltrate the groundwater system. </li></ul><ul><li>This increases run-off and erosion in rivers. </li></ul><ul><li>Erosion of shorelines prevent plant growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased plant growth means decreased productivity throughout the River Basin. </li></ul>
  98. 100. <ul><li>IMBALANCE </li></ul>
  99. 101. <ul><li>BUT… </li></ul><ul><li>Humans need roads, buildings, and other </li></ul><ul><li>non -absorbent surfaces. </li></ul>
  100. 102. So what is a kid to do? <ul><li>Plant a garden to replace an area of lawn. </li></ul><ul><li>Leave some areas of absorbent natural debris in their yards. </li></ul><ul><li>Teach your family about the Groundwater System and the River Basin. </li></ul><ul><li>Make your piece of </li></ul><ul><li>earth more productive! </li></ul>
  101. 103. Remember … <ul><li>Students of today are the decision-makers of tomorrow. </li></ul><ul><li>Our goal is to help students develop into educated citizens who understand the importance of protecting the River Basin System. </li></ul><ul><li>Because…ALL land on Earth is part of a River Basin System. </li></ul>
  102. 104. Trail Point #6: Human Impact on River Basin Productivity At the “eroding bend” location, students will observe and discuss the ways humans have changed and developed the land. Analyze the absorbent and non-absorbent features of the area. What are the implications of resurfaced areas on the groundwater system? What are the consequences for habitats and the organisms that live there? Without sufficient absorbent features, runoff and flooding will cause erosion, and the groundwater system will not store enough water to replenish habitats. Experience the Concept on the Trail
  103. 105. Trail Point #6
  104. 106. Trail Point #6: Human Impact
  105. 107. End of Section 10 <ul><li>Please Answer Questions 35-37 of the review quiz below to finish. Then Fill out the registration form on the next page and print out confirmation to bring to outdoor training </li></ul>