Washington Accord recognizes the substantial equivalency of programs and recommends that graduates of programs accredited be recognized by the other bodies as having met the academic requirements for entry to the practice of engineering.the Accord applies only to accredited programs, not to all programs within a member country. Even if we finally become a member, we still have to accredit undergraduate engineering programs. Bologna ProcessDefined standard degree requirements, standard grading scale, common transcript, quality-assurance checks to ensure common practices and quality standards.The agreement promises to simplify degree qualifications and nomenclatures, offer more educational choice and mobility in Europe. APEC Trade Agreement: Bogor Declaration and Osaka Action PlanMutual recognition of professional qualifications between professional bodies or government Increased levels of exchanges of students, staff and researchers.Enhancement of the capacity and opportunities for the movement among member economies of people who have skills Human resources development activities must facilitate the movement and interaction of qualified personsUNESCO Education For All Plan of ActionUniversal functional literacyUniversal coverage of quality Early childhood education for all 3-5 year-old childrenUniversal school participation and total elimination of drop-outs and repetition form Grades I-IIIUniversal completion of the full cycle of basic education schooling with satisfactory achievement levelsExpand the coverage of the Basic Literacy Program for the 16 year-old and above and the Alternative Learning SystemCommitment of all Philippine communities to the attainment of Basic Education competencies for all.
Ubd – emphasis is on “backward design”, the practice of looking at the outcomes in order to design curriculum units, performance assessments, and classroom instruction. - to facilitate student understanding, teachers must explain the “big ideas” and essential questions as well as the requirements and evaluative criteria at the start of the class but this method only works for some topics. - students being able to explain, interpret, apply, have perspective, empathize and have self-knowledge.
CMO No. 59, s. 1996 – or the New General Education Curriculum (GEC)CMO No. 4, s. 1997 – Guidelines for Implementation of CMO No. 59 s. 1996. GEC-A and GEC-B.
RSEC – Revised Secondary Education Curriculum
Grade 7 – Integrated Science: a combined study of all areas of the sciences or the introduction of some areas in sciences. Grade 8 – Biology: natural science concerned with the study of life and living organismsGrade 9 – Chemistry: science of matter, especially its properties, structure, composition, behavior, reactions, interactions and changes.Grade 10 – Physics: natural science that involves the study of matter and its motion through spacetime.
Grades 7 to 9 – deals with Integrated Science. Different subject areas in biology, chemistry and physics were stretched. Some subject areas were deleted (e.g. Sun-Moon-Earth system, periodic table, balance of nature etc.)Grade 10 - is still Physics. With specializations or electives in biology and chemistry.
What is their incentive if they decide to enter Grade 11?Classrooom? Faculty to teach the additional grade levels?
Solution to the 2 years added: Put in place Career Academies.
This can be done also in collaboration with private enterprises (thru MOAs). The CA become automatic placement centers. Part of the two year training can include an immersion in the actual job sites. At the end of the two-year period, they are guaranteed a place/job in these private enterprises that they have concluded their interships.
Challenges and Responses in the Implementation of the K to 12
Challenges and responses in the implementation of k to 12<br />Fr. Joel E. Tabora, SJ<br />
Shortcuts in terminology<br />K to12<br />Present 10<br />Add Kindergarten (K)<br />Add years 11, 12 = “Career Academy” (2)<br />Pre-College<br />Senior High School<br />Junior High School<br />K+6+4+2 = K to 12<br />BEC – Basic Education Curriculum<br />GEC – General Education Curriculum<br />
Reasons for Education Reform<br />PH having the shortest education cycle in the world (14 years 6+4+4)<br />Washington Accord for Engineering – at least 16 years<br />Bologna Process for accountants, pharmacists, Physical Therapists – 15 years<br />APEC Trade Agreement – deadline in 2020<br />For increased mobility of professionals<br />Affects individuals and nations<br />UNESCO Education For All Plan – deadline in 2015<br />Universal functional literacy<br />Universal completion of the full cycle of basic education<br />
Academic deficiencies<br />Academic Deficiencies<br />English<br />Mathematics<br />Science<br />Filipino<br />Formation<br />Catholic Educational Mission Deficiency<br />Recognition<br />Loss of respect<br />Loss of status/leadership<br />Loss of income<br />
Philippine basic education curriculum (BEC)<br />National Elementary School Curriculum<br /> 1984 to 2002<br />New Secondary Education Curriculum<br />1991-2002<br />Revised Basic Education Curriculum 2002<br />Secondary Education Curriculum -Understanding by Design Model 2010<br />
Issues with present BEC<br />Insufficient mastery of basic competencies is common due to a congested curriculum. The 12 year curriculum is being delivered in 10 years.<br />High school graduates are younger than 18 years old and lack basic competencies and maturity. They cannot legally enter into contracts and are not emotionally mature for entrepreneurship / employment.<br />Other countries view the 10-year education cycle as insufficient.<br />
General education curriculum (GEC)<br />GEC-A (63 units for humanities, social sciences and communications students)<br />GEC-B (51 units for non-HUSOCOM students)<br />
Issues with present GEC<br />Heavier semestral load of students<br />No room for formation subjects<br />Increasing professional subjects<br />The variations in laboratory requirements pose practical problems for smaller colleges with just enough laboratories<br />Students not seeing the relevance of GEC subjects<br />Since only professional courses that need international accreditation are under the Washington and Bologna Accord, some courses should have lesser subjects.<br />
The Challenge<br />Enhanced 10<br />Lessen drop outs<br />Decongest to improve learning<br />RBEC<br />Revised Basic Education Curriculum focused on just<br />English<br />Pilipino<br />Mathematics<br />Science<br />Makabayan<br />But it did not “decongest” the curriculum<br />
The Challenge<br />Challenge for curriculum designers based on real feedback<br />Don’t just push up<br />Reduce – more time for independent work and study<br />
K to 12 Model developed by deped<br />A Comparative Example: Science Conceptual Matrix <br />K to 12 Model<br />Old RSEC<br />
K to 12 Curriculum for Science Grades 7-12<br />
pushed down to Grade 8<br />pushed down to Grade 6<br />pushed up to Grade 9<br />pushed up to Grade 9<br />pushed down to Grade 9<br />OLD RSEC for Science Grades 7-10<br />
Phases of Implementation<br />Universal kindergarten will be offered starting SY 2011-2012.<br />DepEdwill begin unclogging the basic education curriculum in SY 2012-2013.<br />The enhanced 12-year curriculum will be implemented starting with incoming Grade 1 students of SY 2012-2013.<br />Incoming freshmen of SY 2012-2013 will be the first beneficiary of a free Senior High School education that will be made available by DepEd in public schools beginning SY 2016-2017. Electives to be offered in Senior HS (arts, music, tech-voch..etc)<br />Source: Briefer prepared by the Department of Education, November 2, 2010<br />
Workplan of Deped Steering committee for transition (September 5, 2011)<br />
Problems with transition scheme<br />Too late to make transition compulsory. <br />Difficulty to find students who will volunteer to go through Grades 11 and 12. Since this will be in selected pilot schools, they can actually opt to go to College. Why then would they enter a shady Grade 11?<br />Official curriculum is not yet finalized. It is expected on November, but this may be too late to train teachers. <br />
Problems with transition scheme<br />Logistical problems for administrators.<br />Textbooks and other materials are not yet developed and printed for Grades 11 and 12.<br />Increased drop-outs due to perceived irrelevance of going to Grades 11 and 12.<br />
Our proposal<br />Implement K to 12 on our own. Essentially, K to 12 is an addition of 2 years in Basic Education.<br />We plan for the content of K to 12 on our own.<br />We accept that performance standards are based on the:<br />Content of RBEC in 10 years<br />Set of College competencies now being articulated by CHED.<br />Competencies required for specific work. <br />
Our proposal<br />Basically, Br. Armin Luistro, FSC has encouraged CEAP and COCOPEA schools to pilot K to 12 even without legislation, based on global demand. <br />
Career Academy<br />Not just more high school<br />Not just pre-college<br />Sui generis – the last step in basic education<br />Pupils in 17th and 18th years of life<br />Atmosphere of challenge and respect<br />
Choose careers with educational implication<br />Some need two years (Pre-work stream)<br />Some need two years plus college (Pre-college stream)<br />“Minus 2” or “Plus 2”<br />Career Academy<br />
Career Academy<br />“It provides the professional and human education necessary for the practice of chosen careers either immediately after graduation or after further tertiary education, depending on the career chosen”<br />Completion is attested to by a certificate or diploma issued by or with permission of the DepEd<br />
Career Academy<br />Career Tracks<br />Achievement tests advisory<br />Tracks chosen by the pupils and their parents<br />Preparation for life<br />Work<br />Marriage life<br />Atmosphere: Young adults<br />
Schools with grades 11 and 12 curriculum developed<br />Ateneo de Naga University <br />Career Academy for Entrepreneurship Program<br />San Carlos University<br />
An Example: Career Academy for travel and tourism (Work stream)<br />PROGRAM DESCRIPTION: The Certificate of Achievement in Travel and Tourism is a two-year Career Academy program. This program will allow students to exit with knowledge and job skills necessary to qualify for immediate employment in a travel agency, tour company, or airline customer service position, or to continue on to fulfil their bachelor's degree requirements. <br />
An Example: Career Academy for travel and tourism (Work stream)<br />Jesuit Core Courses – 12 units<br />General Education – 24 units<br />Career Specialization Courses – 24 units<br />Career Skills Development Courses – 10 units<br />70 total credit units<br />
An Example: pre-college stream (Curriculum summary)<br />
An Example: pre-college stream (Curriculum summary)<br />
An Example: pre-college stream (Curriculum summary)<br />
An Example: pre-college stream (Grade 11 Curriculum outline)<br />
An Example: pre-college stream (Grade 12 curriculum outline)<br />
Impelled by the catholic educational mission<br />Decide to implement K to 12<br />Work together. Share. Inform. Stay informed.<br />Enhance Basic Education<br />To prepare for Work<br />To prepare for College<br />Contribute to helpful policy formulation<br />
What to gain from the k to 12?<br />Facilitate an accelerated economic growth.<br />Facilitate mutual recognition of Filipino graduates and professionals in other countries.<br />A better educated society provides a sound foundation for long-term socio-economic development.<br />Several studies have shown that the improvements in the quality of education will increase GDP growth by as much as 2%. Studies in the UK, India and US show that additional years of schooling also have positive overall impact on society.<br />
What to gain from career academies?<br />Courses in academic subjects include material specifically related to the academy’s career theme, which makes them more interesting. <br />Student’s interest is further aroused by immediate connections between the program and the real world. <br />Adults working in the field serve as mentors for students, introducing them to settings in which they might work and helping them plan their careers. <br />
What to gain from career academies?<br />Career Academy approach is essentially flexible and adaptable to local needs, capacities and circumstances, rather than rigid and prescriptive, demonstrating that the approach can work in a wide variety of school and community settings. <br />Career Academies would increase the likelihood of students graduating on time. CA will also increase vocational course-taking for these students without reducing their likelihood of completing a basic core academic curriculum. <br />
Challenge to implement k to 12 in CEAP schools<br />With existing colleges or high schools<br />Stand alone<br />Minus 2 would be attractive to many<br />Work would allow them <br />To help their families<br />To earn their way through college<br />
Challenge to implement k to 12 in CEAP schools<br />Plus 2 ensures better college experience<br />Better Tertiary-Level General Education<br />Better Professional Training<br />Will foster learning beyond the four walls of the classroom. Not just theory but applied knowledge. <br />Develop K to 12 curriculum in Basic Education<br />