Cloud Computing paradigm
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  • 1. Cloud Computing paradigmBy Vidoushi D. Bahadur-Somrah 1
  • 2. Vidoushi D. Bahadur-Somrah1. AbstractThis report which is based on the Cloud computing paradigm contains researched information on thetypes of cloud computing environments available and the associated advantages and disadvantagesof such a computing style. It also looks into the how Cloud computing works, where the idea originatedand the technological challenges Cloud 2.0 has to face. Cloud 2.0 is the latest release in Cloudcomputing and supports the new technologies we know of today such as touch mobile devices. Thereport also makes note of the potential advantages of Cloud computing within developing countrieswhere IT systems are costly and infrastructures the advance world take for granted such as an internetconnection and electricity are no luxury.2. IntroductionCloud computing is basically the technology of accessing files and use virtual applications over theinternet. The term ‘Cloud’ is a visual representation of the internet-based environment. Cloudcomputing is an improved concept of Grid computing and uses web services as a third-party service toperform computing needs. Traditionally, IT users had to spend huge capital for handling their businessupdates and maintenance. Nowadays the Cloud concept enables users to plug-into the ‘Cloud’ whenneeded to obtain software services. Therefore, users only pay for the amount of computing servicesconsumed. This makes Cloud computing much easier and cost effective to operate than traditionalbusiness hardware-software methods[1, 2].Since cloud computing utilises many modern models such as the internet, it doesn’t have a soleinventor and neither does the internet. The idea of outsourcing computer hardware has existed sincethe 1960s with the time-sharing theory of John McCarthy, an American Computer Scientist. Computerhardware and telecommunication systems back then were incapable of handling the technology[3].Time-sharing is a computer environment that supports multiple user access simultaneously whenmultiple terminals are connected to a single mainframe. The time-sharing system would provide acomplete operating environment, data storage and printing facilities among other resources. Userswere charged rent for the terminal, connection time, processor activity time, and storage usage whichwas an expensive way of delivering computing resources[4].Cloud computing with modern systems and the internet provide a similar computing model with hugeamount of users accessing same servers simultaneously. It is considered to be an evolving paradigmin the computer world with its significant growth in the business world market from small to large sizeorganisations. Cloud has gained popularity such as the recent availability of the Amazon ElasticCompute Cloud (EC2) web service. Yahoo! Mail and Google’s Gmail are examples of cloud computingwhere the server and e-mail management software are in the cloud operated by the providers.Registered users only require internet access to start emailing. Users and businesses benefit from notrequiring individual software licenses, multiple computers and multiple installation of the samesoftware from Cloud based environments[2].3. Cloud TypesThere are several types of Cloud environments and they have similar basic features. The maindifference lies in which user is allowed to access which cloud environment. A brief description is givenbelow together with the benefits and flaws associated to each one.3.1 Public cloudPublic cloud is a cloud where a service provider delivers resources to anyone over the internet. Usersare free to use the cloud whenever desired and are not tied into a contract for usage. This cloudservice may be free or pay-per-usage system such as IBM’s Blue Cloud service[5].Public clouds are therefore easy and inexpensive to use as applications and bandwidth costs arecovered by the service provider and users only pay for what they use. Public cloud do not offer controlover resources and security of confidential data. The cloud can also have network performance issuesduring peak usage times[5]. 2
  • 3. Cloud Computing paradigm3.2. Private cloudUnlike a public cloud, a private cloud operates from a privately-managed data centre from which onlyone organisation can have accessed to. The organisation therefore has more control over the cloudservice quality and level of security of confidential data. The cloud system can be located on thepremises of the organisation and would also benefit from better network performance but theorganisation will then require its own hardware, software and IT support to maintain the cloud which iscostly[6, 7].Private clouds can also operate within a private section of a public cloud. Therefore, an organisationcan obtain all of the benefits of a public cloud together with a level of security and confidentiality inprivate mode[6, 7].3.3 Hybrid cloudA hybrid Cloud is a combination of both the private and public clouds where an organisation makesthe most of both systems. For confidential information, the organisation makes use of the private cloudand the associated benefits that it offers while for less confidential information, the organisation makesuse of the public cloud which could be free or pay-per-usage. Also, when the private cloud runs out ofresources, the public cloud is used as a reserve to keep performance and service availability tousers[8].3.4 Community cloudA community cloud was created to resolve the privacy issues within public cloud. The communitycloud basically restricts access to a defined set of users which might be direct competitors to anorganisation. Also, as one data server can handle multiple cloud networks for many users, resourcescan unknowingly be shared. The community cloud ensures that unauthorised users cannot see suchresources[9].4. Essential characteristics of cloud computing4.1 On-demand self-service approachCloud computing allows users to interact with easy to use and intuitive user interfaces wheneverrequired which help users to productively manage their business delivery routine. The benefits of self-service are a level of user empowerment, independence and convenience that results in significantbusiness efficiency. These systems require less administrative involvement from the users whichsaves time and money and allows users to work on other important responsibilities. With cloud, userscan directly access a pre-defined state of the application service they need, saving time and improvingefficiency[10, 11, 12].4.2 Broad network accessTraditionally, users had to install, maintain and upgrade software like Microsoft Word or Power-pointon computers to use the program, and generated files could not be accessed on a computer withoutthe necessary programs. With Cloud computing, the files can be easily accessed by users throughinternet enabled computer almost anywhere. Most software or a similar version is available online andcan be used to view or edit the files without the need to rely on bloated programs on a desktop PC[10,11, 12].4.3 Dynamic resource poolingWith current systems and data centres, users have difficulties in pooling resources from the internet asinstitutions rarely share their computing resources. The multi-tenancy rules in Cloud computingprovide users to pool as much computing resources based on their needs and return those resourcesback to the shared pool once their needs are met. Therefore, physical and virtual resources are being 3
  • 4. Vidoushi D. Bahadur-Somrahpooled dynamically by the cloud system on the demand of multiple users. Resources can includestorage, processing, memory, network bandwidth, and virtual machines[10, 11, 12].4.4 Efficient and dynamic infrastructureTraditionally, IT department had to update computer systems to keep up with technology to be able tomeet users’ demand which is a difficult and costly process to undertake. Cloud computing providesways of rapidly upgrading the existing system to meet new customer demands such as if a businessrequires more computing resources. To the business, the service provider appears to be able tosupply an endless availability of computing resources which can be purchased in any quantity at anytime. Also, cloud computing benefits the service providers by being a self-managed and automatedplatform and therefore provide value for money costs on a highly used system[10, 11, 12].4.5 Measured service provisionThe IT department requires several monitoring tools and reporting systems to monitor the network,server, and application usage of a business. Cloud computing however allows both the serviceprovider and customer to monitor usage. Since Cloud providers charge the customers according totheir usage of resources, the customers can scale resources up and down for the efficient andprofitable running of their business based on information gathered by the Cloud providers from themonitoring tools[10, 11, 12].5. Advantages of cloud computing5.1 Reduced hardware costsCloud computing do not require users to have high powered computers to access their resources. Thiseliminates any direct upgrade costs of new hardware/software and any indirect cost of futuremaintenance. Computers running from a cloud network provide better performance by booting andrunning faster as all programs reside in the cloud. Also, latest software updates are automaticallyavailable the next time the user accesses the cloud without the need to upgrade or pay[13].5.2 Unlimited storage and reliabilityCloud computing solves the problem of data storage as data is being stored at the service provider’sdata-centre. The storage capacity within a cloud network is much bigger compared to that of a localPC. This is also more reliable method of storing data as no data lost would occur if the local PC’s drivefailed[13].5.3 Reduced costCloud computing resources are charged according to usage similar to utility bills. Monitoring systemswithin the cloud ensures users are aware of their usage and can help the users lower their usageexpenses. Expensive software are also not required since most cloud applications are totally free[13].5.4 Location independence, availability and compatibilityCloud computing allows users to be completely mobile and still have access to their resources throughany internet enabled devices. Latest revisions of files edited at home are available in the office. Thefiles and applications in the cloud can be read at another location or by another user and thereforehave no compatibility issues. Cloud computing provides flexibility in accessing data wherever,whenever and by whoever required[13].5.5 Easier group collaborationCloud computing is an efficient way for group members working at various business locations to jointlyaccess and develop or share work files to each other in real time. Cloud computing has multi-tenancyrules which enables multiple users to host/access other users’ documents and projects which arestored in the cloud. The stored data can also be accessed anywhere an internet connection isavailable and can be shared among users, which benefits businesses as projects timescales arereduces from collaborative efforts[13]. 4
  • 5. Cloud Computing paradigm6. Disadvantages6.1 Internet connectionCloud computing requires a reliable fast internet connection and without it, users would be unable toaccess files. Slow connections such as dial-up services will render the Cloud experience difficult andmost likely impossible. Also, even with high speed connection, web-based applications require a lot ofbandwidth for large documents and can be slower than if these files were stored locally[14, 15].6.2 Data integrity and securityData accessed from the cloud replicate itself onto the machine being used. If the host data were tobecome corrupted due to cloud server faults, users would have no physical or local data backup toaccess. It is very risky for a business if the cloud service provider does not have appropriate back-upfacilities onboard. Users would also be at risk if the cloud service was suddenly inaccessible due to thebankruptcy of its provider[14, 15].Cloud security is supplied by the providers and relieved their clients of this duty. However, clients areunaware of security levels in place to safeguard their data within the cloud. Cloud providers also storemultiple client data onto single hardware and without appropriate encryption, data could be wronglyaccessed[14, 15].6.3 New technology and incompletenessCloud computing is still considered as new technology although the idea has existed for half a century.The uncertainty in its efficiency and reliability will deter businesses from taking risks to store theircritical information on such an infrastructure. Data unavailable for long periods of time will havedevastating effects on businesses. Also, cloud applications are not full-featured compared to desktopapplications and can deter users from switching just for that reason[14, 15].7. The technological challenges of cloud 2.0 infrastructureCloud 2.0 is the next level in the Cloud computing paradigm and evolves with touch mobile networkedor Wi-Fi enabled devices rather than fixed cable networked computers. It is considered to be a shiftfrom a fixed 4-walled environment to a mobile real-time environment and to provide a faster and moreresponsive service compared to Cloud 1.0. Cloud 2.0 works similarly to the ‘facebook’ applicationwhere messages are instantly updated on touch mobile devices[16].Application usage on mobile devices is increasing in demand due to the popularity of smart-phonesand tablet devices such as the iPhone/iPad. Consequently, there are some challenges facing Cloudcomputing and its nature of relying on internet capable mobile devices which further complicate thedesign of the distribution of resources.7.1 Storage cachingA major problem for Cloud 2.0 providers is supplying their customers with efficient and reliable storageat a competitive price. Traditional storage technologies have not been designed for the newrequirements of Cloud 2.0 systems and fail to deliver because of the responsiveness required, theunpredictable workload, the randomness of disk access and serving number of different applications atonce. Disk manufacturers have tried to solve this problem by increasing the RAM caches but that wasstill inadequate for caching all customer applications within Cloud 2.0. Solid State Drives (SSD)technology aims to support Cloud 2.0 computing and solve this issue[18].7.2 Data transfer speedsCloud 2.0 responsiveness means that existing ‘interconnect’ systems in place cannot handle thetransfer speeds required from the data-centre to the customer. Existing Cloud 1.0 providers wishing toswitch to Cloud 2.0 have to undertake major upgrades to meet the needs of the new infrastructure[18]. 5
  • 6. Vidoushi D. Bahadur-Somrah7.3 Battery life and resources in mobile devicesLimited battery life of mobile devices is a challenge for Cloud 2.0 where frequent charging is requiredbased on level of usage. Battery saving strategies is vital in the design of more sophisticated mobileapplications. With more application execution within the cloud system, the mobile device save batterybut not all cloud execution can be completely transferred to the cloud such as user-facing functionslike data input/display need to be executed on the mobile device[17].Mobile devices are also not as powerful as PCs and this lack of resources/drivers is a challenge inCloud 2.0. For seamless user experiences of advanced mobile applications, resources can be addedto the cloud infrastructure[17].7.4 Wireless coverage and network delayWireless connectivity is intermittent and results in variable data rates due to changing coverage.Network bandwidth capacity and coverage can vary from factors such as weather, user location anddemands from other users. Mobile broadband networks also generally have longer network delay thanfixed broadband[17].Accessing data over a mobile broadband network can take time if the service distance to access theapplication is long. Application sources are often located far away from end devices due to providersconcentrating data centres at one location and this will result in noticeable network delay whencompared to a fixed network. Also, due to cloud application execution, mobile network delay candegrade user experience for resource demanding applications[17].7.5 TransparencyTransparency is an important factor which maintains trust, good provider-customer relationship andfinancial stability of both businesses. The end customer must have a quantitative model of the cloudsbehaviour which the cloud provider must provide details of somehow. Details must include the innerworkings of the cloud architecture together with expected performance, security, compatibility andbackup systems among others. Transparency must also form part of the billing process and theprovider must bill for the true cost of computing operations executes and clearly breakdown the usageinto cost. However, today’s hardware and management, monitoring and billing software are notdesigned to show this level of information[18].8. Cloud technology in developing nationsIn most developing nations, small and medium businesses suffer from investment and infrastructureissues. The high cost of hardware, software and internet connection together with the lack of reliableinfrastructure pose tremendous problems for these businesses to compete globally. This lack of ITleads to inefficient business processes resulting in major loss of opportunities for affectedbusinesses[19].Even though power and broadband are not very reliable in developing nations, mobile technology hasgained increasing popularity for a long time. Most developing nations rely majorly on mobile phonesfor telecommunication rather than the internet. In countries like Africa, mobile network operators areproviding an opportunity for banking and commodity exchange at a much lower cost leading to anincrease in mobile data users. Similarly in India, the number of mobile users is four times that of PCbased internet users[19].8.1 Benefits of cloud computing in developing nationsCloud computing raises the hope for many developing nations where hardware, software and internetcosts are so high that businesses cannot achieve optimum productivity. Cloud computing can offer aunique opening for the users in these countries through mobile network devices. This Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) facility offers developing world businesses a free or low cost alternative to traditionaldesktop based software applications. Businesses are not required to have expensive office or softwarepackages. To date, many SaaS applications exist and can satisfy business needs in developingnations. By moving data to the clouds, these businesses are not held hostage to frequent power and 6
  • 7. Cloud Computing paradigmbroadband disruptions as easy data access is always available via mobile devices. With theintroduction of low cost smart-phones and net-books with mobile internet capabilities, businesses cannow have an IT infrastructure that can compete against some bigger companies in the advancednations. These businesses would also have the benefit to use customer relationship management(CRM) applications which are expensive software packages[19].The positive impacts of cloud computing in developing nations are productivity gain, ready forbusiness, green IT, cost effective, and aid the development of a skilled nation. These benefits willcreate business growth and help against poverty in developing nations[19].9. ConclusionThe cloud vendor has become a vital part of the end customers business by enabling the latter to gainall of the benefits of cloud computing without the costs of local IT. However, for the success of Cloudcomputing, cloud vendors must be able to provide value to the end customers that convince them outof their data-centres and local IT departments. Also, end customers must demand a combination offast and reliable cloud computing for the services required. As for Cloud 2.0 computing, itshallencompass new technological inventions together with the internet to deliver an even more excitinginfrastructure to customer. 7
  • 8. Vidoushi D. Bahadur-Somrah10. BibliographyThis report has been compiled by information retrieved from online journals, magazine articles,corporate websites and IT resource websites such as blogs. The Vancouver style referencing systemhas been used in the report and all reference information together with internet hyperlinks of thewebpage which have been referred to are listed below:[1] NetworkWorld.com [Magazine homepage]. Article: What is cloud computing? Authors: Steve thTaylor and Jim Metzler. Published: 19 May 2009. Accessed on 25/10/2010 athttp://www.networkworld.com/newsletters/frame/2009/051809wan1.html.[2] MANJULA KARTHIKEYAN, Department of IT, Kannur University, India. Journal Article: CloudComputing – A Paradigm Shift. Global Journal of Computer Science and Technology, North America. thPublished: 10 July 2010. Accessed on 25/10/2010 athttp://computerresearch.org/stpr/index.php/gjcst/article/view/279/252.[3] Multicians.org (Online IT history resources homepage). Article: The IBM 7094 and CTSS.Author: Tom Van Vleck. Accessed on 26/10/2010 at http://www.multicians.org/thvv/7094.html.[4] PCMAG.com [online homepage]. Article: Time-Sharing. Accessed on 12/10/2010 athttp://www.pcmag.com/encyclopedia_term/0,2542,t=timesharing&i=52923,00.asp,][5] SearchCloudComputing.com [Corporate website]. Article: Public cloud. Author: TechTargetTechnology Media Company. Accessed on 12/10/2010 athttp://searchcloudcomputing.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0,,sid201_gci1356516,00.html.[6] thecloudview.com [Corporate website]. Article: Private Cloud: Author: Steve Brobrowski, UStechnologist computing consultant, The Cloud View Cloud. Accessed on 12/10/2010 athttp://thecloudview.com/cloud-computing-defined/.[7] Datamation Online News and IT Analysis website. Article: Private Cloud. Author: SerdarYegulalp, former senior technology editor in Windows Magazine, Windows 2000 Power UsersNewsletter and currently writing technology columns for TechTarget family of websites. Accessed on10/10/2010 at http://itmanagement.earthweb.com/netsys/article.php/3882516/Private-Cloud.htm.[8] Focus Research website (network of world class business and technology experts). Article:Hybrid Cloud. Accessed on 10/10/2010 at http://www.focus.com/briefs/cloud-computing/cloud-computing-models-public-vs-private-vs-hybrid/.[9] Datamation Online News and IT Analysis website. Article: Community Cloud. Author: TimJones. Accessed on 10/10/2010http://itmanagement.earthweb.com/netsys/article.php/3905901/Cloud-Computing.htm. [10] National Institute of Standards and Technology, Information Technology Laboratory. Journalarticle: The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing Characteristics of cloud computing. Authors: PeterMell and Tim Grance. Published version 15 dated 10-07-09. Accessed on 15/10/2010 athttp://csrc.nist.gov/groups/SNS/cloud-computing/cloud-def-v15.doc.[11] Educause.edu (Online homepage). Magazine article: Cloud computing explained. Author:Rosalyn Metz. Publication: Volume 33, No.2, 2010. Accessed on 09/10/2010 athttp://www.educause.edu/EDUCAUSE+Quarterly/EDUCAUSEQuarterlyMagazineVolum/CloudComputingExplained/206526.[12] ZDNet.com (Online IT community homepage). Article: The five defining characteristics ofcloud computing. Author: Dave Malcolm. Published: April 9, 2009. Accessed on 18/10/2010 athttp://www.zdnet.com/news/the-five-defining-characteristics-of-cloud-computing/287001.[13] InformIT.com (Online technology publishers homepage). Journal Article: Advantages of cloudcomputing. Author: Michael Miller. Book: Web-Based Applications That Change the Way You Workand Collaborate Online. ISBN-10: 0-7897-3803-1. Published Aug 11, 2008 by Que. Accessed on11/10/2010 at http://www.informit.com/articles/article.aspx?p=1324280. 8
  • 9. Cloud Computing paradigm[14] InformIT.com (Online technology publishers homepage). Journal Article: Disadvantages ofcloud computing. Author: Michael Miller. Book: Web-Based Applications That Change the Way YouWork and Collaborate Online. ISBN-10: 0-7897-3803-1. Published Aug 11, 2008 by Que. Accessed on11/10/2010 at http://www.informit.com/articles/article.aspx?p=1324280&seqNum=2.[15] BrightHub.com (Online IT community experts homepage). Article: Disadvantages of cloudstorage security. Author: Karishma Sundaram. Published: May 18, 2010. Accessed on 18/10/2010 athttp://www.brighthub.com/environment/green-computing/articles/71546.aspx.[16] ERPandMore.com (Online IT resource homepage), Article: Cloud 2.0 is Here. Entry postedonline on 19/04/2010. Accessed on 12/10/2010 at http://www.erpandmore.com/2010/04/19/cloud-2-0-is-here/.[17] Alcatel-Lucent TechZine (Online Technology and Research Electronic Magazine homepage).Article: Mobile Cloud Computing Challenges. Author: Kyung Mun, Corporate Technology Strategist forAlcatel-Lucent and editor at TECHzine. Published: 21/09/2010. Accessed on 13/10/2010 athttp://www2.alcatel-lucent.com/blogs/techzine/2010/mobile-cloud-computing-challenges/.[18] Communications of the ACM (Associations for Computing Machinery) (Online Magazinehomepage), Article: Why Cloud computing will never be free. Author: Dave Durkee, founder andtechnical director of ENKI, Cloud service provider. Publication: Vol.53, 2010 No.5, Accessed on14/10/2010 at http://cacm.acm.org/magazines/2010/5/87259-why-cloud-computing-will-never-be-free/fulltext.[19] CloudAve.com (Online IT resources homepage) Article: Cloud Computing and DevelopingCountries Part 1 & 2. Author: Krishnan Subramanian, Industry Analyst and Editor of CloudAve.com.Published on 24/09/2008. Accessed on 15/10/2010 at http://www.cloudave.com/2880/cloud-computing-and-developing-countries-–-part-1/ for Part 1 and at http://www.cloudave.com/2876/cloud-computing-and-developing-countries-–-part-2/ for Part 2 of the Article. 9