Module 3Sexual Behaviors
Chapter ElevenConsensual Sexual Behavior
Introduction   Why do people have sex?       Most species have sex only for        reproduction       Humans have many ...
Introduction   What influences sexual expression?       Biological, psychological, religious, cultural, and social      ...
Solitary Sexual Practices   Masturbation (Most prevalent sexual behavior)     Stimulation of one’s own genitals, which p...
Masturbation   Historical perspectives of masturbation       Masturbation has been considered        dangerous and sinfu...
Erotic Dreams and Fantasy   Brain is described as largest sexual organ       Thoughts can either enhance or diminish sex...
Erotic Dreams and Fantasy   Sexual fantasies:       Most common and private form of sexual expression           Positiv...
Sexual Practices With a Partner   What is sex?       Studies shows that opinions are widely divergent and change over   ...
Sexual Practices With a Partner   What sexual activities are experienced?       Vaginal intercourse           97% of me...
Foreplay   Foreplay       Sexual activity including touching, cuddling, kissing, and        manual and oral sexual conta...
Kissing   The word “kiss” is at least    1,200 years old       The Kama Sutra described 17        different types      ...
Touch   Touch is extremely important       Critical for growth, development, and health       Plays primary role in sex...
Oral Sex   Types of oral sex       Cunnilingus, fellation, sixty-nine, annilingus   Hygiene is very important to preven...
Vaginal Intercourse   Coitus       Erect penis is inserted into vagina           Lubrication is important prior to inse...
Sexual Activity in Childhood   Children show a broad range of sexual behaviors       Biological foundations of sexuality...
Age at First Intercourse   Median age for first intercourse in the U.S. is age    17.7 for boys and 17.4 for girls   Pre...
Age at First IntercourseFigure 11.3 Percentage of women in the United States who lost their virginity before marriage     ...
Age at First Intercourse   Factors that influence intercourse initiation       Factors that increase intercourse initiat...
Age at First Intercourse (cont’d.) Figure 11.4 Parent’s awareness of sex and drug use in children                  Source:...
Sexual Activity in Teens   Sexual behaviors in adolescents       Masturbation is most characteristic       Sex among hi...
Sexual Activity in Teens (cont’d.)Table 11. Changing trends in sexual activity in high school students in the United State...
Sexual Activity in Teens (cont’d.)   Table 11.2 Sexual activity in teens in the United States               Source: Data f...
Sexual Activity in Adults   How often do people have sex?       Sex isn’t equally distributed across population        ...
Sexual Activity Later in Life   Bodies change with age:       Sexual activity declines with age, but more as a factor of...
Sexual Activity Later in Life (cont’d.)Figure 11.6 Percentage of older Americans who are still sexually active, by age
Sexuality and Disability   Most people with mental or physical disabilities have    sexual feelings, but are treated as t...
Communicating With Your Partner AboutSex   Media often portrays sex unrealistically       In reality, connection and int...
Chapter FifteenVariations in Sexual Behavior
Introduction   Paraphilias       DSM-IV-TR           Persistent and atypical sexual interest in nonhuman objects,      ...
Causes of Paraphilias   We have theories, but the cause is not known   Developmental theories       Psychoanalytic theo...
Causes of Paraphilias (cont’d.)       Table 15.1 Courtship disorder theory       Source: Aggrawal, 2009; Freund et al., 1983
Causes of Paraphilias (cont’d.)   Behavioral theories       Childhood experiences influence sexual expression       Cla...
Noncoercive Paraphilias   Paraphilias practiced by individuals privately, or by    willing, adult participants   Include...
Fetishism   Sexually arousing fantasies and    behaviors regarding an inanimate    object, such as:       Lingerie, stoc...
Transvestic Fetishism   Man becomes sexually aroused    by wearing women’s clothing       Different from drag queens and...
BDSM   Acronym derived from terms       Bondage: use of restraints during sex play       Masochism: sexual pleasure is ...
Other Noncoercive Paraphilias   There are many other paraphilias that involve    consenting partners       Urophilia: se...
Coercive Paraphilias   Highly problematic because they involve unwilling    participation of others   Include:       Ex...
Exhibitionism   Exposing genitals to unsuspecting and non-consenting    person for sexual arousal       Most men masturb...
Telephone Scatologia   Sexual arousal through the use of    obscene language to unsuspecting    victims over the phone   ...
Voyeurism   Urge to observe unsuspecting person or persons    while they are naked or engaged in sexual behaviors       ...
Frotteurism/Toucherism   Frotteurism       Rubbing against non-consenting person           Strongly reinforced behavior...
Pedophilia   Adult is preferentially or exclusively sexually attracted to    prepubescent children       Some never sexu...
Other Coercive Paraphilias   Biastophilia       Sexual arousal is dependent on sexually assaulting or raping non-       ...
Treatment of the Paraphilias   People with paraphilias seek treatment for different    reasons       Treatment most succ...
Asexuality   May be considered sexual orientation       Expressed in different ways:           May have sex out of curi...
Hypersexuality   Obsessive and uncontrollable sexual desire       Nymphomania (women) and satyrism (men)           May ...
Chapter SixteenSexual Coercion and Violence
Rape   Sexual assault: sexual contact or activity that occurs    without consent       Encompasses a number of crimes fr...
Incidence and Prevalence of Rape   In 2009, 89,000 women reported being raped in the    U.S.       Most rapes go unrepor...
Theories About Rape   Feminist theory       Rape is a tool used by men in our society to keep women        submissive an...
Rape Myths   False beliefs about rape that deny and justify male    sexual aggression       Women really want to be rape...
Types of Rape   Stranger rape       As few as 17% of rapes against women and 23% of rapes        against men   Acquaint...
Other Types of Rape   Partner rape       Accounts for 25% of all rapes in U.S.           Spousal rape is the least like...
Types of RapeFigure 16.1 Distribution of sexual assault victims by victim-perpetrator relationships                       ...
Other Types of Rape   Rape in prison       Rape of inmates by other prisoners or by staff           21% of prisoners re...
Who are the Rapists?   Difficult to make generalizations because data is    about those who are convicted       Most are...
Effects of Rape on Survivors   Rape is physically, emotionally, and psychologically shattering       After the attack, t...
Prevention   How to protect yourself from rape:       Avoid dangerous situations       Trust your instincts and don’t b...
Societal Factors and Rape   Rape throughout history       First rape laws       Rape during war is seen as both a spoil...
Sexual Abuse of Children   Childhood sexual abuse (CSA)       Inappropriate sexual behavior between child and adult   P...
Typical Characteristics of Child Sex Abusers   Child molesters       Many are trusted relatives, friends, or neighbors o...
Effects of Sexual Abuse on Children andAdult Survivors   No specific symptoms linked with CSA       Some children suffer...
Response to Adult-Child Sex   Punishment       Laws related to statutory rape, sexual assault, crimes against        nat...
Intimate Partner Violence   More than 10% of U.S. population is hurt at home       Intimate partner violence (IPV): patt...
Victims of Intimate Partner ViolenceFigure 16.2 Comparative rates by race (in percentages) of lifetime physical assault by...
Intimate Partner Violence Around the WorldFigure 16.3 Summary data (in percentages) of lifetime prevalence of domestic vio...
Sexual Harassment   What is sexual harassment?       Unwanted sexual attention that interferes with individual’s basic  ...
Chapter Seventeen          Sex for Sale
Sex for Sale   Sex work       Describes sexual services, performances, or the        production of products given in exc...
Pornography   Any sexually explicit material    designed to elicit sexual arousal or    interest       Men consume more ...
What is Pornography?   The definition of    pornography is subjective       Difficult to classify what is porn        an...
Categories of Pornography   Can be categorized in many ways       Hard-core versus soft-core pornography           Hard...
Cultural Considerations of Pornography   History of pornography       Pornography has existed since humans could communi...
Attitudes About Pornography   Three main schools of thought       Anti-pornography           View that pornography is i...
Prostitution   The exchange of sexual access to one’s body for    something of value       Views vary           Immoral...
Participants   Who works as a prostitute?       Reasons why women become prostitutes           Trafficked into it again...
Participants   Male prostitutes       Gigolos: service female clients       Hustlers: solicit male client’s on        s...
Participants   Customers, clients, and johns       Incidence is difficult to ascertain        due to stigma       Sex t...
Sex Trafficking   The recruitment,    harboring, transportation,    or obtaining of a person for    purpose of commercial...
Cultural Considerations of Prostitution   History       Prostitution has been around for years       Prostitution thriv...
Cultural Considerations of Prostitution   Prostitution and the law       About 90,000 people are arrested each year in U...
Commercial Phone Sex   Phone sex       Sexually explicit conversation that        occurs between two people           C...
Strip Clubs   Bars or nightclubs that feature erotic    dancing and entertainment       Two categories           Toples...
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Psych g165 module 3 1-1

  1. 1. Module 3Sexual Behaviors
  2. 2. Chapter ElevenConsensual Sexual Behavior
  3. 3. Introduction Why do people have sex?  Most species have sex only for reproduction  Humans have many motives for having sex  Procreation; pleasure; financial gain; power; stress relief; social and antisocial reasons; etc.  Meston and Buss’ categories:  Physical, goal attainment, emotional, and insecurity  May differ by sex and over the lifespan
  4. 4. Introduction What influences sexual expression?  Biological, psychological, religious, cultural, and social factors  Sexual attitudes and behaviors influenced by:  Physical fitness, hormones, and gender How do you learn about sexual practices?  Parents often talk to children about abstinence, STIs, and contraception, but sexual pleasure is rarely discussed
  5. 5. Solitary Sexual Practices Masturbation (Most prevalent sexual behavior)  Stimulation of one’s own genitals, which produces feelings of pleasure and often results in orgasm  Frequency  influenced by sex, age, race, education, religion and relationships  Therapeutic benefits to self-stimulation  Carries less risk than other sexual practices
  6. 6. Masturbation Historical perspectives of masturbation  Masturbation has been considered dangerous and sinful throughout most of human history  Was once thought to lead to social, physical, and psychological issues  “Cures” developed to eliminate practice  Women: clitoridectomies  Men: straight jacket pajamas, erection alerts, spermatorrhea ring, stapling of foreskin, and castration  Sexual revolution of the 1960s  Masturbation began to be more accepted Religious perspectives of masturbation  No single unanimous position on masturbation Cultural perspectives of masturbation  Masturbation is treated differently in different cultures
  7. 7. Erotic Dreams and Fantasy Brain is described as largest sexual organ  Thoughts can either enhance or diminish sexual arousal and activity  Sexual fantasies  Mental imagery that is sexually arousing  Erotic dreams  Dreams with an erotic content  Some can result in orgasm  Nocturnal emissions or wet dreams (males)  Negatively correlated with frequency of masturbation
  8. 8. Erotic Dreams and Fantasy Sexual fantasies:  Most common and private form of sexual expression  Positively correlated with sexual arousability, orgasm, frequency, and sexual satisfaction  Negatively correlated with sexual dysfunction, dissatisfaction, guilt, anxiety, and intimacy Male and female fantasies:  Women:  Fantasies tend to be more passive and romantic, with a focus on emotional aspects  Men:  Fantasies tend to be more active, visual, and sexually explicit
  9. 9. Sexual Practices With a Partner What is sex?  Studies shows that opinions are widely divergent and change over time  Oral sex, anal sex, vaginal intercourse, manual-genital contact, and deep kissing  Many people hold ambiguous definitions of sex  Inconsistencies between an individual’s definition of sex and their description of their own sexual behavior as sex or not sex
  10. 10. Sexual Practices With a Partner What sexual activities are experienced?  Vaginal intercourse  97% of men and 98% of women  Oral sex  90% of men and 89% of women  Anal sex  44% of men and 36% of women  Orgasm experienced during sexual encounter  Men: 85-95%; women: 64-69%
  11. 11. Foreplay Foreplay  Sexual activity including touching, cuddling, kissing, and manual and oral sexual contact before or without intercourse  Outercourse: sexual activity without penetration  Mutual masturbation, erotic massage, and frottage  Duration of foreplay  Average time was about 12 minutes  Length of duration is positively correlated with percentage of women who experienced orgasm
  12. 12. Kissing The word “kiss” is at least 1,200 years old  The Kama Sutra described 17 different types  Romans described three different types:  Oscula (friendly), basia (romantic), savia (passion)  Lips are one of most sensitive parts of body  Closed mouth kiss, French kiss Cultural perspective:  Kissing is almost universal in Western cultures, but may also be considered dangerous and disgusting
  13. 13. Touch Touch is extremely important  Critical for growth, development, and health  Plays primary role in sexuality  Sexual stimulation of primary erogenous zones Sex toys  Devices used to enhance a person’s sexual pleasure during masturbation or with partner
  14. 14. Oral Sex Types of oral sex  Cunnilingus, fellation, sixty-nine, annilingus Hygiene is very important to prevent:  Intestinal infections, hepatitis, HIV, other STIs Rates of oral sex  Have increased over the years Other forms of intercourse  Femoral coitus  Mammary coitus  Anal intercourse  One of the riskiest sexual behavior  HIV and STIs more easily transmitted due to tearing
  15. 15. Vaginal Intercourse Coitus  Erect penis is inserted into vagina  Lubrication is important prior to insertion  Different preferences  Some may prefer hard fast thrusting, while others prefer slow and intimate intercourse  Most women don’t achieve orgasm from coitus  Vagina is fairly insensitive  Clitoris contains most nerve endings in the vulva Positions limited only by imagination and flexibility
  16. 16. Sexual Activity in Childhood Children show a broad range of sexual behaviors  Biological foundations of sexuality are always there, but influenced by social environment  What may be considered a sexual act among adults may not be sexual for children  Many sexual behaviors in children are more closely linked to sensuality and attachment  Correlation between frequency of childhood sexual behaviors and sexual abuse
  17. 17. Age at First Intercourse Median age for first intercourse in the U.S. is age 17.7 for boys and 17.4 for girls Premarital sex  Modern teens are more likely to report using contraceptives during first intercourse  26% of females and 18% of males aged 15 to 19 use no contraception  Teens are waiting longer to have sex, but some are engaging in coitus at earlier age  10-13% of girls are forced into intercourse  Society views first intercourse differently for males and females
  18. 18. Age at First IntercourseFigure 11.3 Percentage of women in the United States who lost their virginity before marriage Source: Whyte, 1990
  19. 19. Age at First Intercourse Factors that influence intercourse initiation  Factors that increase intercourse initiation:  Having older friends; getting low grades; engaging in deviant and sensation-seeking behaviors; listening to sexually degrading music; high-self esteem for boys and low self-esteem for girls; sports participation for boys  Factors that lower intercourse initiation  Being religious; living with both parents and parental supervision; sports participation for girls  Parents aren’t always fully aware of child’s behavior
  20. 20. Age at First Intercourse (cont’d.) Figure 11.4 Parent’s awareness of sex and drug use in children Source: Young & Zimmerman, 1998
  21. 21. Sexual Activity in Teens Sexual behaviors in adolescents  Masturbation is most characteristic  Sex among high school students has decreased since 1991  Dependent on age of teen  Increasingly likely to use contraception  Increase in rates of oral sex  Perception that oral sex is less risky, more prevalent, and more socially acceptable  STIs: gonorrhea, syphilis, and HIV
  22. 22. Sexual Activity in Teens (cont’d.)Table 11. Changing trends in sexual activity in high school students in the United States Source: Eaton et al., 2006, 2010
  23. 23. Sexual Activity in Teens (cont’d.) Table 11.2 Sexual activity in teens in the United States Source: Data from Chandra et al., 2011
  24. 24. Sexual Activity in Adults How often do people have sex?  Sex isn’t equally distributed across population  1/3 of Americans have sex at least twice a week  1/3 have sex a few times a month  1/3 have sex a few times a year or not at all  Factors correlated with frequency of sexual activity  Age, marital status, education, politics, sexual orientation, religion, and free time Length of intercourse:  Average duration: approximately 7 minutes  Both women and men wanted intercourse to last at least twice as long as it actually did Number of partners:  Adult men: 5.1-8 female partners  Adult women: 3.2-4 male partners  Variation in number by ethnicity
  25. 25. Sexual Activity Later in Life Bodies change with age:  Sexual activity declines with age, but more as a factor of overall health  Common problems:  Women: low desire, inability to orgasm, and lack of vaginal lubrication  Men: erectile difficulties  Orgasm spasms become less powerful and fewer in number, but orgasm is still pleasurable  Adults in long relationships report better sex
  26. 26. Sexual Activity Later in Life (cont’d.)Figure 11.6 Percentage of older Americans who are still sexually active, by age
  27. 27. Sexuality and Disability Most people with mental or physical disabilities have sexual feelings, but are treated as though they do not  May face psychological, physical, and social obstacles in achieving satisfying sex life Spinal cord injuries  Loss of voluntary control or sensation; paralysis; alterations in sexual functioning Sex and cancer  Common to lose some sexual desire  Chemotherapy and radiation  Loss of breast or testicle can affect body image Sex and mental disability  People with mental disabilities have sexual feelings, but are treated as asexual, or as if their sexual drives should be discouraged  Most are able to have rewarding, responsible, and loving relationships
  28. 28. Communicating With Your Partner AboutSex Media often portrays sex unrealistically  In reality, connection and intimacy were rated as mostly related to great sex  Depth of connection with partner is most critical  Important to be genuine and honest, to open self up to partner, and to surrender self to moment  Sexual communication is the best predictor of sexual satisfaction
  29. 29. Chapter FifteenVariations in Sexual Behavior
  30. 30. Introduction Paraphilias  DSM-IV-TR  Persistent and atypical sexual interest in nonhuman objects, physically or emotionally painful experiences, or non-consenting or sexually immature individuals  Inclusion of paraphilias in DSM is controversial  What is “normal” sexual behavior?  Standards change over time, and are based on cultural and societal norms  Paraphilias exist on a continuum  Prevalence hard to determine due to stigma  Comes from all religions, races, orientation, occupations, and education  Mostly men who have more than one paraphilia, emotional problems, impulse control disorders, and sexual dysfunctions
  31. 31. Causes of Paraphilias We have theories, but the cause is not known Developmental theories  Psychoanalytic theory (Freud)  Paraphilias are manifestations of unresolved inner conflicts caused by traumatic events in childhood  Lovemaps (Money)  Template for ideal romantic partner and lover  Paraphilia may develop due to redesigning lovemap  Courtship disorder theory  Paraphilias due to disturbed courtship cycle
  32. 32. Causes of Paraphilias (cont’d.) Table 15.1 Courtship disorder theory Source: Aggrawal, 2009; Freund et al., 1983
  33. 33. Causes of Paraphilias (cont’d.) Behavioral theories  Childhood experiences influence sexual expression  Classical conditioning  Nonsexual object or behavior may take on erotic undertones through association with sexual pleasure  Operant conditioning:  Behavior is reinforced by rewarding consequences Biological theories  Neural and hormonal differences may exist in some men with paraphilias  Men with paraphilias show activity in left frontal lobe instead of right parietal lobe  Anatomical differences in parts of frontal and temporal lobes  Alterations in dopamine, serotonin and testosterone levels  Brain lesions, tumors, and epilepsy alter sexual interests Sociological theories  Society we live in influences sexual behaviors and desires  In U.S., we are exposed to hundreds of sexualized images each day  Many paraphilic rituals mirror gender roles and sexual mores that we absorb from society
  34. 34. Noncoercive Paraphilias Paraphilias practiced by individuals privately, or by willing, adult participants Include:  Fetishism  Transvestic fetishism  BDSM  Many others
  35. 35. Fetishism Sexually arousing fantasies and behaviors regarding an inanimate object, such as:  Lingerie, stockings, boots, leather, and rubber  Partialism: fetish involves body part (e.g., feet)  Wide variation in expression  For some, fetish increases arousal; others cannot become aroused without it  Often develop in childhood or adolescence  Most easily explained by classical and operant conditioning theory, but biological factors play role
  36. 36. Transvestic Fetishism Man becomes sexually aroused by wearing women’s clothing  Different from drag queens and transsexuals  Autogynephilia  Man becomes sexually aroused by thought or image of himself as a woman  Transvestites are usually heterosexual men  2/3 begin cross-dressing before puberty  May begin due to early experience in which sexual arousal is associated with women’s clothing
  37. 37. BDSM Acronym derived from terms  Bondage: use of restraints during sex play  Masochism: sexual pleasure is derived from being hurt or humiliated as part of sex ritual  Sadism: sexual pleasure is derived from intentionally hurting or humiliating others  BDSM relationship is based on concept of partners voluntarily taking on deliberately unequal yet complementary roles  Top or dominant partner controls and may discipline submissive partner  Dominatrix: woman who is paid to play dominant role  Bottom or submissive partner is controlled BDSM activities exist on continuum  Rules against activities that leave bruises  “Edgeplay:” more extreme activities may include knives, suffocation, or electricity
  38. 38. Other Noncoercive Paraphilias There are many other paraphilias that involve consenting partners  Urophilia: sexual arousal by contact with urine  Sploshers: sexual arousal by having wet and messy substances smeared on body  Furries: sexual arousal having sex with stuffed animals or people dressed as stuffed animals  Infantalism: sexual pleasure from dressing and acting as an infant
  39. 39. Coercive Paraphilias Highly problematic because they involve unwilling participation of others Include:  Exhibitionism  Telephone scatologia  Voyeurism  Frotteurism/toucherism  Pedophilia  Other coercive paraphilias
  40. 40. Exhibitionism Exposing genitals to unsuspecting and non-consenting person for sexual arousal  Most men masturbate during or shortly after  Flasher: excited in part by power they have by frightening or surprising victims  One of most common paraphilias in U.S.  Accounts for up to a third of al sex convictions in United States, Canada, and Europe  Children and women are frequent targets Characteristics of exhibitionists  Onset is usually before age 18  Tend to be hypersexual  May seek admiration, anger, or disgust  May be caused by courtship disorder and influenced by early conditioning
  41. 41. Telephone Scatologia Sexual arousal through the use of obscene language to unsuspecting victims over the phone  Sexual gratification comes from response  Etiology is unclear; may be:  Form of sexual terrorism against women  Courtship disorders  Callers are typically:  Heterosexual men, with limited social interactions Multiple types of obscene phone callers Among most common sexual offenses; most go unreported
  42. 42. Voyeurism Urge to observe unsuspecting person or persons while they are naked or engaged in sexual behaviors  Excitement comes from non-consent  Most cases go undetected (not illegal)  Possible courtship disorder  Most voyeurs have other paraphilias and are insecure with feelings of social inadequacy
  43. 43. Frotteurism/Toucherism Frotteurism  Rubbing against non-consenting person  Strongly reinforced behaviorally  May be experienced due to courtship disorder Toucherism  When offender touches intimate parts of non-consenting person with his hands Usually happens in crowded places; fairly common
  44. 44. Pedophilia Adult is preferentially or exclusively sexually attracted to prepubescent children  Some never sexually abuse children  Incidence  Estimated that 3-4% of population are pedophiles  95% of the time, molester is known to child  Different from hebaphilia and ephebophilia  Heterosexual males in their 30s and 40s with lower IQ scores and poorer self-esteem Factors linked to pedophilia  Biological  Atypical hormonal and neurotransmitter levels  Neuroanatomical abnormalities  Psychological  Socially inept; relate better to children
  45. 45. Other Coercive Paraphilias Biastophilia  Sexual arousal is dependent on sexually assaulting or raping non- consenting victim  May be result of courtship disorder Zoophilia  Fantasies or urges to have sexual contact with animals; bestiality if contact occurs  More frequently seen in men who were raised in farms; may sometimes be a transitory experience, if human partners are unavailable Necrophiliac  Person wants to have sex with corpses  Three types  Necrophiliac fantasy: fantasize but don’t act on it  Regular necrophiliac: has sex with bodies that are already dead  Necrophiliac homicide: kills to have sex with corpse  Severe psychological problems
  46. 46. Treatment of the Paraphilias People with paraphilias seek treatment for different reasons  Treatment most successful when voluntary, highly motivated and believes change is possible  Less successful when paraphilia had early onset or when patient’s only sexual outlet There is no cure for paraphilias  Treatment aims to change behavior by reducing symptoms and preventing relapse  Treatment is often multifaceted  Individual therapy sessions  Couple therapy sessions  Group therapy with social skills training  Aversion therapy  Orgasmic reconditioning  Pharmacological treatments
  47. 47. Asexuality May be considered sexual orientation  Expressed in different ways:  May have sex out of curiosity or to pleasure partner; may masturbate but report that it doesn’t feel sexual; may have no sex at all  Incidence may be difficult to establish  British study found that approximately 1% of adult population reported never feeling sexual attraction  Biological, psychological, and social factors may play role
  48. 48. Hypersexuality Obsessive and uncontrollable sexual desire  Nymphomania (women) and satyrism (men)  May compulsively pursue sex; obsessive need for sex may harm health, personal or work relationships, finances, and possible legal issues  May be expressed by compulsive masturbation; anonymous sex with multiple partners; having many extramarital affairs; coercive sexual offenses; dependence on pornography, cybersex, or phone sex  Incidence may be difficult to establish:  Estimated to affect 3-6% of population  80% of those who seek treatment are male  Biological and environmental factors may cause compulsive sexuality  Treatment includes:  Individualized therapy, group therapy, pharmaceuticals, social skills
  49. 49. Chapter SixteenSexual Coercion and Violence
  50. 50. Rape Sexual assault: sexual contact or activity that occurs without consent  Encompasses a number of crimes from unwanted sexual contact to forced intercourse Rape: unwanted sexual penetration of the vagina, mouth, or anus by use of force or threat  Can include forced penetration by objects Between 54% and 63% of rape victims are under the age of 18
  51. 51. Incidence and Prevalence of Rape In 2009, 89,000 women reported being raped in the U.S.  Most rapes go unreported  Estimated rate: between 300,000 and 683,000 women are raped in U.S. each year  Difficult to assess occurrence of rape due to:  Under-reporting: fear, shame, stigma, mistrust of legal system, drug or alcohol use, etc.  Variations in the way data is gathered and reported
  52. 52. Theories About Rape Feminist theory  Rape is a tool used by men in our society to keep women submissive and powerless  Goal of rape is power, dominance, and control  Rape is more prevalent in societies where women occupy a lower status than men  Leaves several points unanswered  Forced copulation is widespread in animal kingdom  Rape occurs in all human cultures Evolutionary theory  Rape is an evolutionary strategy to increase reproductive success of low-status males  Rape is inherent in men’s nature  Rapist may target more attractive women that are in childbearing age  Flaws:  1/3 of victims are under age of 11  Poor benefit-to-risk ratio  Does not account for the rape of males
  53. 53. Rape Myths False beliefs about rape that deny and justify male sexual aggression  Women really want to be raped  Women bring rape upon themselves  “Just world” hypothesis  Men who rape do so because they can’t control their sexual desires  Rape is committed by psychopathic strangers  Only women can be raped
  54. 54. Types of Rape Stranger rape  As few as 17% of rapes against women and 23% of rapes against men Acquaintance rape and date rape  Up to 86% of women who are raped are raped by someone they know  Vast majority are not reported by police  Data rape is seen as a lesser crime than stranger rape, and victim is often blamed  Does not necessarily involve physical force What is sexual consent?  Sexual consent is not usually given directly  Signals are often nonverbal, vague, and ambiguous, and may be misinterpreted  Direct expressions of consent can prevent misunderstandings
  55. 55. Other Types of Rape Partner rape  Accounts for 25% of all rapes in U.S.  Spousal rape is the least likely to be reported and draws the least response from law enforcement  Motives for marital rape include domination and degradation  Women are at particular risk if husband views them as property, if relationship is violent, if they are pregnant or ill, and if they are separated or divorced Gang rape  Rape of single victim by a group of assailants  Tend to be more violent  Even when witnessed by others, may not be reported due to bystander effect Statutory rape  Sexual intercourse with someone who is not a child, but is below age of consent  Age of consent varies by state and ranges between 14 to 18
  56. 56. Types of RapeFigure 16.1 Distribution of sexual assault victims by victim-perpetrator relationships Source: Tjaden & Thoennes, 2006
  57. 57. Other Types of Rape Rape in prison  Rape of inmates by other prisoners or by staff  21% of prisoners reported being victims of coerced or forced sexual contacts  Greatly underreported because of shame and fear  Prison rape is usually about power, not sex Rape on campus  10 out of 40 women will be raped in college Drugs, alcohol, and rape:  Alcohol is one of strongest predictors of acquaintance rape and sexual aggression  Impaired communication; increased risky behaviors; limited ability to consider consequences  Date rape drugs: used to assist in the commission of a sexual assault  Commonly have amnesiac, disinhibiting, and dissociative properties  Rohypnol, GHB, ketamine, Klonipin, and Xanax
  58. 58. Who are the Rapists? Difficult to make generalizations because data is about those who are convicted  Most are single men under the age of 30 who know the victim  No single cause of rape Can rapists be cured?  Rapists may be treated through:  Psychotherapy and group therapy  Unclear to what degree a change in attitude corresponds to a change in behavior  Medications  Depo-Provera temporarily ”castrates” offenders by diminishing production of testosterone, but doesn’t deal with underlying psychological issues  Antidepressants decrease sex drive and can curb compulsive
  59. 59. Effects of Rape on Survivors Rape is physically, emotionally, and psychologically shattering  After the attack, the victim may have bruises, gastrointestinal irritability, headaches, and sleep disturbances  STIs and pregnancies may occur  Rape victims experience depression and post-traumatic stress disorder  More likely to have ever attempted suicide or to have alcohol or drug dependency problems If you know someone who is a survivor:  There is no single “rape syndrome”  Victim may experience anger, fear, humiliation, isolation, and sexual dysfunctions  Puts severe stress on intimate relationships What to do if you have been raped:  Go to hospital for examination; speak to rape crisis counselor; decide if you want to file a police report and press charges (not easy)
  60. 60. Prevention How to protect yourself from rape:  Avoid dangerous situations  Trust your instincts and don’t be nice  Maintain control  Avoid people who treat you badly  Be confident in yourself and recognize your value  Attend a rape awareness seminar or self-defense classes
  61. 61. Societal Factors and Rape Rape throughout history  First rape laws  Rape during war is seen as both a spoil of war and as an act of aggression designed to dominate and humiliate enemy Rape and society  Societies with less rape  Women are treated with respect and there is little interpersonal violence  “Rape-prone” societies  Characterized by male dominance and interpersonal violence, especially toward women  US - one of highest rape rates among industrialized countries  gender roles and violence Rape in the media  Images of sexual violence are prevalent in the media, and many of these presentations support rape myths  Popular music can be characterized by violent and often degrading lyrics  Television often associated violence with passion  In films, rape is often eroticized  In network news, female victim is vilified  Exposure to media influences our views
  62. 62. Sexual Abuse of Children Childhood sexual abuse (CSA)  Inappropriate sexual behavior between child and adult Prevalence is widespread  Estimated that 20-25% of women and 16% of men were sexually abused as children  Hard to determine due to underreporting  Incest (20-24% experience incest)  Sexual contact between people who are related by blood, adoption, or stepparents
  63. 63. Typical Characteristics of Child Sex Abusers Child molesters  Many are trusted relatives, friends, or neighbors of victim  Not all are pedophiles  Have lower IQ, poorer social skills, lower-self esteem, are more religious, and conservative  Information comes from those who were caught  Most are heterosexual males  Take advantage of victims’ innocence
  64. 64. Effects of Sexual Abuse on Children andAdult Survivors No specific symptoms linked with CSA  Some children suffer emotional, psychological, social, and sexual problems, and other seem to experience no harm  Consequences are more serious if abuse goes on for a long period and involves a close relationship, such as a father or stepfather  Many experience abuse as traumatic in adulthood  Survivors of CSA are more likely to suffer from PTSD, depression, and drug or alcohol problems “Child molester” is one of the most stigmatized labels a person can have  However, this was not always the case  Changing status of childhood  Child labor laws and compulsory education have lengthened childhood until at least age of 16  Generation of “sexually mature legal minors”  Double standard concerning adult-child sex when the minor is a boy
  65. 65. Response to Adult-Child Sex Punishment  Laws related to statutory rape, sexual assault, crimes against nature, and defilement of a minor  Maximum penalty: life imprisonment without possibility of parole Treatment  No single cause; therefore, not one treatment  Psychotherapy, group therapy, and pharmaceutical treatments aid in reduction of recidivism rate Prevention  Megan’s Law: informal name for laws in U.S. regarding registration and public notification about sex offenders  Community notifications differ from state to state  More than 674,000 Americans are on sex-offender registries  Have trouble finding a job and buying a house  Educating parents and children
  66. 66. Intimate Partner Violence More than 10% of U.S. population is hurt at home  Intimate partner violence (IPV): pattern of abusive behaviors by one or more partners in an intimate relationship, including:  Physical abuse  Sexual violence  Psychological abuse  Economic abuse Prevalence of IPV  Estimates suggest that intimate partners commit 20% of all nonfatal violent crimes against women and 3% against men  Underestimated due to underreporting Forms of IPV  Conflict escalates out of control  One person in relationships consciously uses violence to control and intimidate the other
  67. 67. Victims of Intimate Partner ViolenceFigure 16.2 Comparative rates by race (in percentages) of lifetime physical assault by an intimate partner Source: U.S. Department of Justice, 2000
  68. 68. Intimate Partner Violence Around the WorldFigure 16.3 Summary data (in percentages) of lifetime prevalence of domestic violence around the world Source: Garcia-Moreno et al., 2006; Kapoor, 2000; Krug et al., 2002
  69. 69. Sexual Harassment What is sexual harassment?  Unwanted sexual attention that interferes with individual’s basic right to employment or education; most widespread of all sexually coercive behaviors  Quid pro quo type  Hostile environment type Sexual harassment is pervasive  Between 40% and 60% of women affected  Most likely to occur in nontraditional gender jobs  80% of incidents are peer-to-peer  Victims may experience both physical and psychological symptoms  Headaches, sleeplessness, depression, PTSD, anger, anxiety, guilt, betrayal, and insecurity
  70. 70. Chapter Seventeen Sex for Sale
  71. 71. Sex for Sale Sex work  Describes sexual services, performances, or the production of products given in exchange for material compensation  Includes:  Pornography, prostitution, exotic dancing, commercial phone sex, and other occupations  Americans pay between $9 billion and $14 billion a year for sexually explicit materials
  72. 72. Pornography Any sexually explicit material designed to elicit sexual arousal or interest  Men consume more pornography than women  Men showed more activity in the emotional areas of the brain than women when watching porn  U.S. produces much of world’s pornography
  73. 73. What is Pornography? The definition of pornography is subjective  Difficult to classify what is porn and what is not, even by Supreme Court  Some people also differentiate between:  Pornography: about violence, domination, and conquest; sole purpose is sexual arousal  Erotica: works of art that are sexually stimulating, but whose sole purpose is not sexual arousal
  74. 74. Categories of Pornography Can be categorized in many ways  Hard-core versus soft-core pornography  Hard-core pornography: features explicit sexual acts, including penetration  Soft-core pornography: may depict nudity, but not penetration or other sexually explicit acts  By genre  Sexual orientation, physical characteristics, number of participants, type of acts, and fetishes Sexual media  Pornographic or adult magazines  Hentai (seijin manga): sexually explicit Japanese comics  Pornographic movies  Internet  Online sexual activity (OSA): use of the Internet for any activity that involves sexuality  Cybersex: use of computerized content for sexual stimulation and gratification  Videogames
  75. 75. Cultural Considerations of Pornography History of pornography  Pornography has existed since humans could communicate  Sexual images in cave walls, in ancient Roman ruins, and in Kama Sutra  Gutenberg’s printing press allowed for pornography to flourish  19th century: first obscenity laws in U.S.  Stanley v. Georgia (1968): U.S. Supreme Court allowed private possession of obscene material Pornography and the law  Legal status of pornography varies by country  Most countries allow some form of pornography, and almost all have laws against child porn  United States  1842 first anti-obscenity laws  Stanley v. Georgia (1968)  Allowed private possession of obscene material  Miller v. California (1973)  Legal definition of obscenity
  76. 76. Attitudes About Pornography Three main schools of thought  Anti-pornography  View that pornography is immoral or demeaning towards women  Anti-censorship  View that repressing pornography is the first step on a slippery slope to censorship  Pro-sexuality  View that pornography has potential benefits Possible benefits of pornography  Enhancement of sexual pleasure and relaxation  Sexual education and information  Safety Possible harmful aspects of pornography  Degradation and objectification of women  Produces skewed views of reality Does pornography promotes violence against women?  Some studies suggest that after viewing pornography, viewers are les sympathetic to female rape victims, show increased hostility and aggression toward women, and may be more inclined to agree with rape myths  Others suggest that pornography may decrease violence by creating a “safety valve”
  77. 77. Prostitution The exchange of sexual access to one’s body for something of value  Views vary  Immoral and harmful to family  Natural and necessary  Some think it oppresses women, while others think it empowers them  Most Americans think prostitution is morally wrong Prostitutes face many physical and emotional health risks  Exhaustion, frequent viruses, STIs, depression, PTSD, heightened risk of cervical cancer, violence, assault, murder, and rape  Homicide rate for prostitutes is 204 for every 100,000  highest risk of occupational mortality of any group of women  Legal recourse for these women is lacking
  78. 78. Participants Who works as a prostitute?  Reasons why women become prostitutes  Trafficked into it against their will; feel they have no options; independence and flexibility  Economically deprived upbringing is most common factor for women entering prostitution  Many have history of childhood sexual abuse  Learned to treat sex as commodity and to separate emotions from sexual activity  Way to reclaim control over sex  Estimated to be close to 1% of American women  Prostitution is not present in every society  More common in countries characterized by “poverty, gender inequality, and cultural norms that limit women’s legitimate employment opportunities”  Religion and fear of AIDS may lower incidence
  79. 79. Participants Male prostitutes  Gigolos: service female clients  Hustlers: solicit male client’s on streets, internet, or other public places  Safe sex is not practiced with regularity Transgendered prostitutes  Male-to-female sex workers occupy lowest rung on hierarchy Pimps, panderers, and madams
  80. 80. Participants Customers, clients, and johns  Incidence is difficult to ascertain due to stigma  Sex tourism  Travel undertaken with the specific motivation of engaging in sexual activity  Customers of prostitutes are not significantly different than other men  Reasons why men visit prostitutes include:  Social inhibition, convenience, risk and illicitness, emotional boundaries, and companionship
  81. 81. Sex Trafficking The recruitment, harboring, transportation, or obtaining of a person for purpose of commercial sex act  There are 200,000 sex slaves worldwide  Difficult to gauge exact number due to illegality  Physical and psychological costs  Rape, battery, STIs, broken bones, depression, panic attacks, and post-traumatic stress disorder
  82. 82. Cultural Considerations of Prostitution History  Prostitution has been around for years  Prostitution thrives in periods of change  In ancient Greece, Rome, and middle ages  Protestant Reformation of 16th century: courtesans  Industrial revolution of 19th century  Prostitution was legal until 20th century in U.S.  Mann Act of 1910 Prostitution and the military  Prostitution has always boomed around military posts  High rates of STIs in these locations  Contagious Diseases Act (1864) in the U.K.  During American Civil War, many women who lost their husbands, homes, loved ones, and means of support turned to prostitution
  83. 83. Cultural Considerations of Prostitution Prostitution and the law  About 90,000 people are arrested each year in U.S. for violations of prostitution laws  90% are prostitutes and 10% are customers  Three main positions on prostitution  Abolition, legalization, and decriminalization  Prostitution is legal is some countries, but is illegal in most U.S. states
  84. 84. Commercial Phone Sex Phone sex  Sexually explicit conversation that occurs between two people  Can take place between two people in a relationship, or may involve commercial phone sex business Sexting  Sending sexually explicit messages or images by cell phone or other electronic media  Can be aggravated or experimental
  85. 85. Strip Clubs Bars or nightclubs that feature erotic dancing and entertainment  Two categories  Topless  All-nude clubs  Many rules both for customers and dancers  Gray area between performance and prostitution  Many reasons for visiting strip club, including:  Relaxation, partaking in masculine activity, to see women’s bodies, and to break routines

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