This presentation will focus on strategies to support reading for culturally diverse audiences. However, these strategies will help all learners to process information.
From the National Reading Panel (HCIHD 2000)Four areas of focusPhoneticsVocabularyFluencyComprehensionIn this presentation I will focus on Vocabulary and Comprehension so as to illustrate strategies for visually representing knowledge and information.
Students are predominately visual and kinesthetic learners, so I have chosen to focus my presentation on strategies for representing knowledge and information graphically.
Hyerle says that visual tools illustrate patterns of thinking. Students that use these organizers of information comprehend text better because they are examining processes and interactions. He disparages the ready-made organizers and claims that students retain the information represented longer when they generate their own illustrations.
Visual tools communicate rich patterns of thinking and help students process this knowledge more effectively by understanding: cycles, relationships, hierarchies, and processes
Ellis writes about using graphic organizers for the learning disabled, but the same principles apply to all learning.
Hopkins used this strategy to teach roots and suffixes with his high school juniors and seniors on the Northern Cheyenne Reservation in Montana.
Adapted to a literary term using Gulliver’s Travels to illustrate.
The more we can provide visual representations of interrelated concepts, the easier our learners will grasp them.
Wandersee developed concept circle diagrams (CCds ) for the purpose of helping students clarify their thinking about inclusive/exclusive relationships.
Students often have difficulty understanding that authors combine many elements in their stories to create theme. This is a simple tool for preparing students to focus on the parts so they may see the whole in order to draw conclusions about the author’s view of the human condition (theme).Each element has the same weight of importance when it comes to how it works to reveal a central theme in literature.
Visually represent the hierarchical relationships among the following by placing them in the appropriate circlesReal numbersIrrational numbersNatural numbersRational numbersWhole numbersIntegers
Discussion Webs help structure discussions so that more students have an opportunity to contribute
Discuss webs are graphic aids that presents a central issue or question along with spaces to fill in evidence supporting opposing points of view.
Cubing is a strategy designed to prepare students in reading and writing (Cowan & Cowan, 1980). In reading, cubing can be used to strengthen students' comprehension of a topic or concept and help expand students' understanding of a topic, concept, character, and/or text from various perspectives.
“The Frame” graphic organizer to help students understand and main ideas and essential details associated with thegeneral education curriculum. Use of the technique can be a powerful way to help all students in inclusive settings, and especially those with learning disabilities, understand important information. The device is also an excellent tool for developing reading, writing, and thinking skills.
Graphic organizers are fundamental to thinking and provide opportunities for analysis that reading alone and linear outlining cannot . Especially beneficial to low-achieving students.
Focused strategies for teaching vocabulary and reading comprehension benefit our special populations, but strategies that are research-based, and proven winners for them also raise the levels of our “regular” students too.
Research Based Reading Instruction Support
Research-based reading instruction support for Culturally diverse classrooms<br />Lori VandenBerghe, MEd<br />WTAMU<br />August 2010<br />
Three principles of teaching vocabulary (Stahl & Nagy 2006)<br />Include definitional and contextual information <br />Be active in word learning<br />Provide multiple exposures to the word<br />
Visual – Verbal Associations (Eeds & Cockrum 1985)<br />Sort-out multiple meaning words<br />Make a personal association to their background knowledge<br />Build individualized word banks<br />Rationale:<br />
Cubing<br />Create a six sided cube<br />Describe it<br />Compare it<br />Associate it<br />Analyze it<br />Apply it<br />Argue for or against it<br />Strategy:<br />
Frame Routine (Ellis 2002)<br />Organize key topics<br />Main ideas<br />Details<br />Adaptable to all content areas<br />Rationale:<br />
Text Structures (Jones, Pierce, Hunter 1988)<br />Students can’t see basic structure of text<br />Identify important structural elements<br />Find patterns<br />Rationale:<br />
Procedures for Graphing Text Structures (Jones, Pierce, Hunter 1988)<br />Present at least one good example of a completed graphic outline<br />Model <br />Provide procedural knowledge<br />Coach<br />Practice<br />
Series of events chain<br />Key Frame Questions<br />What is the object, procedure, or initiating event?<br />What are the stages or steps?<br />How do they lead to one another?<br />What is the final outcome?<br />
cycle<br />Key Frame Questions<br />What are the critical events in the cycle?<br />How are they related?<br />In what ways are they self-reinforcing?<br />
Compare/contrast matrix<br />Key Frame Questions:<br />What things are being compared?<br />How are they similar? <br />How are they different?<br />
Cause / effect fishbone map<br />Key Frame Questions<br />What are the factors that cause X?<br />How do they interrelate?<br />Are the factors that cause X the same as those that cause X to persist?<br />
Problem-solution outline<br />Key Frame Questions<br /><ul><li>What was the problem?
Did those attempts succeed?</li></li></ul><li>Conclusion: Who Benefits?<br />English Language Learners<br />Learning Disabled<br />Low Achievers<br />Struggling Readers<br />All students<br />
references<br />Alverman, Donna, Phelps, Stephen, Gillis, Victoria. (2010) Content Area Reading and Literacy: Succeeding in Today’s Diverse Classrooms. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. <br />Block, C., & Pressley, M. (2002). Comprehension instruction: Research-based Best <br /> Practices. Guilford Press: New York, NY.<br />Ellis, E. S. (1998). “Framing Main Ideas and Essential Details to Promote Comprehension.” Retrieved 2008, February 6, from http://www.ldonline.org/article/5765<br />Echevarria, J., Vogt, M., Short, D. (2009) Making Content Comprehensible for English Language Learners: The SIOP Model. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.<br />Fisher, K., Wandersee, J., & Moody, D. (2000) Mapping Biology Knowledge. Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.<br />
References<br />Hopkins and Thomas W. Bean. (Dec., 1998-Jan., 1999) “Vocabulary Learning with the Verbal-Visual Word Association Strategy in a Native American Community”Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, Vol. 42, No. 4 , pp. 274-281.<br />Hyerle, D. (2009) Visual Tools for Transforming Information Into Knowledge. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press.<br />Jones, B.F., Pierce, J. & Hunter, B. (Dec., 1988- Jan.,1989) “Teaching Students to Construct Graphic Representations,” Educational Leadership, 46, 20-25, <br />Stahl, Steven and Nagy, William.(2006) Teaching Word Meanings. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Publishers.<br />