Lori Vanden Berghe, M.Ed.West Texas A&M UniversitySpring 2012
Grammar Translation Method The Direct Method The Natural Approach Audio-Lingual Method Total Physical Response The Silent Way Desuggestopedia Community Language Learning Communicative Language Teaching Participatory Approaches Content Based Task Based Learning Strategy Cooperative Learning Multiple Intelligences
The Grammar Translation The Direct Method: Method: 1. Avoids close association1. Maintains close between the second or association between the foreign language and the foreign language and the mother tongue mother tongue 2. Lays emphasis on speech2. Lays emphasis on speech 3. Follows the child‟s natural3. Follows the adult‟s natural way of learning a way of learning a language language 4. Teaches the language by4. Teaches the language by „use‟ and not by „rule‟ „rule‟ and not by „use 5. Does not favor the5. Teaches formal grammar teaching of formal from the very beginning grammar at the early stage HOME
Krashen and Terrell Emphasis on exposure rather than practice Designed to develop basic communication skills - both oral and written 1. Basic personal communication skills: oral (e.g., listening to announce-ments in public places) 2. Basic personal communication skills: written (e.g., reading and writing personal letters) 3. Academic learning skills: oral (e.g., listening to a lecture) 4. Academic learning skills: writtenHOME (e.g., taking notes in class)
•Develop basic communication skills•Students listen toteacher•Teacher uses picturesand occasional nativelanguage•Just above current levelof proficiency•Low affective filter
Stresses the mechanistic aspects of language learning and language use Drills in the use of grammatical sentence patterns Repetition and imitation Teacher directs and controls the language behavior of students Vocabulary kept to a minimum Click image to view demonstrationHOME
Teaches language through physical (motor) activity. Reduces learner stress and creates a positive mood by involving game-like movements Establishes a memory connection Grammar is taught inductively Learners primary role is listener and performer Click image to view demonstrationHOME
Caleb Gattegno: “to teach means to serve the learning process rather than to dominate it.” Teacher begins with something the students already know. Teacher points and gestures Silence is a tool: the teacher only speaks when necessary Students develop their own criteria for correctness The elements of the language are introduced logically Click image to view demonstrationHOME
Created by Georgi Lozanov Features classroom decoration, furniture, arrangement of classroom so that students feel comfortable and confident. Use of music, Teacher is authoritative figure: “People remember best and are most influenced by information coming from an authoritative source.” Varying tone and rhythm of material presented; dramatizing and emotionalizing gives meaning to linguistic material. 1. Introduction: The teacher teaches the material in “a playful manner” instead of analyzing lexis and grammar of the text in a directive manner. 2. Concert session (active and passive): in the active session, the teacher reads with special intonation as selected music is played. Occasionally, the students read the text together with the teacher, and listen only to the music as the teacher pauses in particular moments. The passive session is done more calmly. 3. Elaboration: The students sing classical songs and play games while “the teacher acts more like a consultantHOME 4. Production: The students spontaneously speak and interact in the target language without interruption or correction.
EXPLANATION: › Students (8 to 12 maximum) sit in a circle. › There is a small portable tape recorder inside Charles Curran the circle. The students determine what is to › The teacher (who is termed the „Knower‟ ) be learned stands outside the circle. The role of the teacher is that of a › When a student has decided on something they facilitator and support want to say in the foreign language, they call the Knower over and whisper what they want to say, in their mother tongue. › The teacher, also in a whisper, then offers the KNOWER equivalent utterance in English (or the target language). › The student attempts to repeat the utterance, with encouragement and shaping from the Knower, with the rest of the group eavesdropping. › When the Knower is satisfied, the utterance is recorded by the student. › Another student then repeats the process, till there is a kind of dialogue recorded. Tape recorder › The Knower then replays the recording, and transcribes it on the board. › This is followed by analysis, and questions from students. In a subsequent session, the Knower may suggest activities springing from the dialogue.HOME › Gradually, the students spin a web of language.
Emphasizes fluency and meaning in concrete terms Learners are introduced to a variety of conversational contexts Target language is the vehicle for communication Students express opinions and ideas Social context provided for communication in cooperative groups or pairs Teacher is facilitator Listening part of authentic communication Grammar and vocabulary learned in situational contextHOME
Paulo Freire Content is based on issues of concern to students Goal to help students understand forces in their lives: › Social › Historical › Cultural Empower decision making Language taught in service to action, experience-centeredHOME
Learners are completing a task with others Work to understand each other and the task at hand Problem-solving tasks provide critical thinking and meaningful interaction through authentic learning opportunitiesHOME
Strategies not taught in isolation Metacognition › Plan › Monitor › Evaluate Hands-on experiences: › Interactive › Manipulative Social/Affective › Interact with others Use: › Self-talk › Cooperation with others Goal: transfer strategiesHOME
Language for both academic and social purposesHOME
Howard Gardner Create activities that draw on all eight intelligences Enable each student to reach their potential over timeHOME
Galloway, Anne. Communicative Language Teaching: An Introduction And Sample Activities.Center For Applied Linguistics. June 1993. Web.Johnson, Roger T. and David W. “An Overview of Cooperative Learning.” Creativity and Collaborative Learning; Brookes Press, Baltimore, 1994. Print.Lakota Lesson 1: The Silent Way. YouTube. 2009. Video.Larsen-Freeman, Diane. Techniques and Priciples in Language Teaching, 2nd Ed. Oxford University Press, 2000. Print.The Audio Lingual Method. YouTube. 2011. Video.TPR.Teacher Training Video. Cambridge UPELT.Youtube. 2010. VideoRichards, Jack C. and Theodore S. Rodgers. Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching, 2nd Ed. Cambridge University Press, 2001. Print.