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Natural disasters NA1D

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Class Project Let's Save the Planet

Class Project Let's Save the Planet

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  • As a result of the latest incidents in Japan, we could say that it’s better safe than sorry We have splitted this project in three parts. I’ve taken on first part where I’m going to show you some examples of natural disasters and I’ll give you some information about the chosen subject. Afterwards, Gema will explain to you pros and cons of the Nuclear Power Stations and finally Irene will expose to you our conclusions. Aurora for her part, will explain the subject as a doctor.
  • We’re going to speak to you about Natural Disasters and their relation to Nuclear Power Most of the disasters we've highlighted here are caused by nature, and only occasionally helped along by humans. Arguably some of the storms are likely to be bigger due to climate changes that humans have had a hand in causing.
  • What is a hurricane, typhoon, or tropical cyclone? The terms "hurricane" and "typhoon" are regionally specific names for a strong "tropical cyclone" . Hurricanes are huge storms. They are made up of the energy released from warm water and when they come onto land with rain and strong winds damage buildings, trees and cars.
  • Everybody will remember the volcanic eruption in Iceland in 2010 that forced air traffic to close for several days.
  • Earthquakes are shaking, rolling of sudden shock of the Earth’s surface. Earthquakes happen along “fault lines” in the Earth’s crust. They can be felt over large areas although they usually last less than one minute. Earthquakes can not be predicted although scientists are working on it. Earthquakes are sometimes called temblors, quakes, shakers or seismic activity. DEVELOPMENT: Earthquakes are divided into two points: The point where the earthquake originates is called the focus or hypocenter, this can be a maximum of about 700 miles into the earth. The epicenter is the point of the land area closest to the earthquake focus. The vibrations can range from those that are barely noticeable until they reach catastrophic. The process will generate 4 types of shock waves. Two are classified as internal waves (traveling through the interior of the Earth) and the other two are surface waves. The waves are further differentiated by the forms of movement that output at the rock. Internal waves are divided into primary and secondary: the primary or compression waves (P waves) are the particles oscillate back to front in the same direction in which they propagate, while the secondary or shear waves (S waves) vibrations perpendicular to its propagation. P waves always travel at speeds greater than those of S waves, so when an earthquake occurs, are the first to arrive and are recorded in geophysical research stations distributed throughout the world. These stations have a very sensitive instruments called seismographs capable of producing a seismogram, where seismic waves are captured.? There are two types of earthquakes:
  • Tectonic earthquakes are the most devastating. The origin of these earthquakes, is in the pressure generated by the movements of the 17 plates that form the Earth's crust. The majority of tectonic earthquakes recorded at the edges of these plates, in areas where there is a subduction zone or a transform fault. The magnitude and intensity of earthquakes is measured using two scales used for the magnitude of Richer and the Mercalli intensity. The first with a total of ten degrees and the second with twelve
  • c) Volcanic earthquakes rarely reach large magnitudes. Its interest lies mainly in the fact that they herald impending volcanic eruptions, as occurred during the weeks prior to the eruption of Mount St. Helens in northwestern United States in 1980. These earthquakes are caused by the ascent of magma that fills the chambers beneath the volcano. By swell the slopes and summit of the volcano, a series of small earthquakes announces the breaking of rocks under great.
  • Earthquakes occur when instantly released from the stored energy inside the Earth and consequently the ground shakes, and there are different types of waves and earthquakes. The consequences are always negative , major earthquakes can cause considerable damage, as they open large cracks in the ground, knock down and damage buildings, bridges collapse and break water and gas pipes .
  • The San Francisco earthquake of 1906 was a major earthquake that struck San Francisco, California , and the coast of Northern California at 5:12 a.m. on Wednesday, April 18, 1906 The most widely accepted estimate for the magnitude of the earthquake is a moment magnitude (Mw) of 7.,however, other values have been proposed, from 7.7 to as high as 8.25.
  • It ruptured along the San Andreas Fault both northward and southward for a total of 296 miles (477 km). Shaking was felt from Oregon to Los Angeles , and inland as far as central Nevada . The earthquake and resulting fire are remembered as one of the worst natural disasters in the history of the United States alongside the Galveston Hurricane of 1900 . The death toll from the earthquake and resulting fire, estimated to be above 3,000, is the greatest loss of life from a natural disaster in California's history. The economic impact has been compared with the more recent Hurricane Katrina
  • The 1960 Valdivia earthquake or Great Chilean earthquake ( Spanish : Gran terremoto de Chile/Valdivia ) of 22 May 1960 is to date the most powerful earthquake ever recorded on Earth, rating 9.5 on the moment magnitude scale . It occurred in the afternoon (19:11 GMT , 14:11 local time) and its resulting tsunami affected southern Chile , Hawaii , Japan , the Philippines , eastern New Zealand , southeast Australia , and the Aleutian Islands in Alaska . The initial epicenter was near Cañete (see map) some 900 km (435 miles) south of Santiago , with Temuco being the closest large city, while Valdivia was the most affected city. It caused localised tsunamis that severely battered the Chilean coast, with waves up to 25 metres high (82 ft). The main tsunami raced across the Pacific Ocean and devastated Hilo, Hawaii . Waves as high as 10.7 metres (35 ft) were recorded 10,000 kilometres (6,000 miles) from the epicenter, and as far away as Japan and the Philippines . The death toll (and rate) and monetary losses arising from such a widespread disaster are not obvious. Various estimates of the total number of fatalities from the earthquake and tsunamis have been published, with the USGS citing studies with figures of 2,231; 3,000; or 5,700 killed, [3] and another source uses an estimate of 6,000 dead. Different sources have estimated the monetary cost ranged from 400 million to 800 million US dollars (or 2.9 to 5.8 billion in 2011 dollars, adjusted for inflation).
  • The 2010 Haiti earthquake was a catastrophic magnitude 7.0 Mw earthquake , with an epicentre near the town of Léogâne , approximately 25 km (16 miles) west of Port-au-Prince , Haiti's capital. The earthquake occurred at 16:53 local time (21:53 UTC ) on Tuesday, 12 January 2010. By 24 January, at least 52 aftershocks measuring 4.5 or greater had been recorded. An estimated three million people were affected by the quake; the Haitian government reported that an estimated 316,000 people had died, 300,000 had been injured and 1,000,000 made homeless. The death toll has also been suggested to be much lower at somewhere between 92,000 and 220,000, with around 1.5 million to 1.8 million homeless.The government of Haiti also estimated that 250,000 residences and 30,000 commercial buildings had collapsed or were severely damaged.
  • The earthquake that generated the great Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004 is estimated to have released the energy of 23,000 Hiroshima-type atomic bombs, according to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Giant forces that had been building up deep in the Earth for hundreds of years were released suddenly on December 26, shaking the ground violently and unleashing a series of killer waves that sped across the Indian Ocean at the speed of a jet airliner. By the end of the day more than 150,000 people were dead or missing and millions more were homeless in 11 countries, making it perhaps the most destructive tsunami in history.
  • On March 11, 2011, an earthquake struck off the coast of Japan , churning up a devastating tsunami that swept over cities and farmland in the northern part of the country and set off warnings as far away the west coast of the United States and South America. Recorded as 9.0 on the Richter scale, it was the most powerful quake ever to hit the country. As the nation struggled with a rescue effort, it also faced the worst nuclear emergency since Chernobyl; explosions and leaks of radioactive gas took place in three reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station that suffered partial meltdowns, while spent fuel rods at another reactor overheated and caught fire, releasing radioactive material directly into the atmosphere. Japanese officials turned to increasingly desperate measures, as traces of radiation were found in Tokyo's water and in water pouring from the reactors into the ocean. A month after the quake, nuclear officials put the crisis in the same category of severity as the Chernobyl disaster. As of April 7, the official death toll had been raised to 12,600, and more than 14,700 people were listed as missing, although there may be some overlap between the two groups. The final toll is expected to reach nearly 20,000. More than 160,000 people remained housed in temporary shelters; tens of thousands of others evacuated their homes due to the nuclear crisis
  • Nuclear power is produced by controlled (i.e., non-explosive) nuclear reactions . Commercial and utility plants currently use nuclear fission reactions to heat water to produce steam , which is then used to generate electricity . Nuclear power provides about 6% of the world's energy and 13–14% of the world's electricity, with the U.S. , France , and Japan together accounting for about 50% of nuclear generated electricity. Also, more than 150 naval vessels using nuclear propulsion have been built. Nuclear power is controversial and there is an ongoing debate about the use of nuclear energy. [ Proponents, such as the World Nuclear Association and IAEA , contend that nuclear power is a sustainable energy source that reduces carbon emissions . [ Opponents , such as Greenpeace International and NIRS , believe that nuclear power poses many threats to people and the environment. Some serious nuclear and radiation accidents have occurred. Nuclear power plant accidents include the Chernobyl disaster (1986), Fukushima I nuclear accidents (2011), and the Three Mile Island accident (1979). [ Nuclear-powered submarine mishaps include the K-19 reactor accident (1961), [ the K-27 reactor accident (1968), and the K-431 reactor accident (1985).International research is continuing into safety improvements such as passively safe plants, and the possible future use of nuclear fusion .
  • The 1986 Chernobyl disaster in the Ukraine was the world's worst nuclear power plant accident, resulting in an estimated 4,056 deaths. Large amounts of radioactive contamination were spread across Europe, and cesium and strontium contaminated many agricultural products, livestock and soil.
  • The accident necessitated the evacuation of 300,000 people from Kiev, rendering an area of land unusable to humans for an indeterminate period.
  • The habitability of the area for animals, however, has been less clear - some researchers have claimed to have detected depressed numbers of insects and spiders, while others have claimed that wildlife has flourished due to the absence of humans.
  • The children didn’t deserve this situation
  • Radiation levels at the stricken Fukushima I power plant have varied up to 1,000 mSv/h ( millisievert per hour), which is a level that can cause radiation sickness to occur at a later time following a one hour exposure. The level of radiation within the 20 km exclusion zone surrounding the power plant is such that people have been advised to evacuate, and people within the 20-30km zone are being advised to stay indoors. Later, the UK, France and some other countries told their nationals to consider leaving Tokyo, in response to fears of spreading nuclear contamination. New Scientist has reported that emissions of radioactive iodine and cesium from the crippled Fukushima I nuclear plant have approached levels evident after the Chernobyl disaster in 1986.
  • A new study has ranked Bangladesh as the world nation most at risk for extreme weather and natural disasters. The Natural Disasters Risk Index (NDRI), released last month by British advisory firm Maplecroft, is calculated by measuring the frequency of natural disasters in a given nation over the past 30 years, as well as their human impact in terms of number of deaths that were caused and the death toll as a proportion of the total population. Developed to identify the vulnerability of a given country to such events occurring, the methodology covers earthquakes, floods, tsunamis, drought, landslides, extreme temperatures and other epidemics. Out of 229 countries surveyed, 15 countries were designated as facing "extreme" risk. The report also ranked France, Italy and the U.S. at "high" risk, the next category down from "extreme." as three G8 member states are rated as "high risk." France (17) and Italy (18) are the most vulnerable countries in Europe; mainly because of the heat waves in 2003 and 2006 where over 40,000 people died, whilst the U.S. (37) is highly susceptible to hurricanes and storms
  • The planet is changing because of us, so we have to take care of her and change some bad habits that we have. Short-term solutions: we have to develop other ways of obtaining energy. We know this process is long so we can start doing things for saving energy, like carpooling or things as easy as switching off the electrical appliances when we are not using them.
  • Solar energy is obtain through sun light and in Spain the sun is shining most of the days so this is a very good alternative for nuclear energy in Spain. To harvest the solar energy, the most common way is to use solar panels. This light can be used to heat water and to produce electric energy. Solar power is the conversion of sunlight into electricity and one of the advantages that it has is that it can save and administrate it in periods without sun.
  • Other good alternative is wind power. Wind power is the conversion of  wind energy  into a useful form of energy, such as using  wind turbines  to make electricity,  wind mills  for mechanical power,  wind pumps  for  pumping water  or  drainage , or  sails  to propel ships. It is very typical in countries like Spain, and it could be the 30% of the total energy of Spain if it was more used. It doesn’t pollute the atmosphere. Wing power can coexist with other uses of the ground.
  • Offshore wind power refers to the construction of wind farms in bodies of water to generate electricity from wind.
  • Medium-term solutions: now the aim is to combine renewable energy with nuclear power. This way we can reduce nuclear waste. Long-term solutions: our goal is to eliminate nuclear energy and to have ensured that renewable energies are the only way to get energy.
  • Spain has eight nuclear reactors producing 20% of the country’s electricity. Spain imports approximately 2% of its energy from France but exports the same amount to Portugal . [2] A nuclear power moratorium was enacted by the socialist government in 1983. [3] For a time the country had a policy of phasing out nuclear power in favor of renewables . [4] The oldest unit (at José Cabrera nuclear power plant ) was shut down at the end of 2006, 40 years after its construction. [5] However, in 2009, the operating permit for the Garoña plant was extended to 42 years. [6] In 2011, the government lifted the 40-year limit on all reactors, allowing owners to apply for license extensions in 10-year increments. [7] Spain has a total of 10 nuclear installations within their mainland, among which are six stations, which are a total of eight nuclear units: Almaraz I and II, Asco I and II, Cofrentes, Santa Maria de Garoña, Trillo, Vandellós I and II. The José Cabrera, better known as Zorita, ceased operations on April 30, 2006. On the other hand, Vandellós I is currently being dismantled. Spain also possesses a nuclear fuel factory in Salamanca (Juzbado) and a storage facility for radioactive waste, low and intermediate level in Córdoba (El Cabril).
  • Renewable energy in Spain represented 12.5% of total energy generation in 2009. Spain has set the target of generating 20% of its energy needs from renewable energy sources by 2020. [1] Some autonomous regions in Spain lead Europe in the use of renewable energy technology , and plan to reach 100% renewable energy generation in a few years (objective " all electricity from renewable sources , AERS). Castilla y León and Galicia are especially near this goal, producing in 2006 70% of their total electricity demand from renewable energy sources, and 5 communities produce more than 50% from renewables. Renewable energy in Spain represented 12.5% of total energy generation in 2009. Spain has set the target of generating 20% of its energy needs from renewable energy sources by 2020. [1] Some autonomous regions in Spain lead Europe in the use of renewable energy technology , and plan to reach 100% renewable energy generation in a few years (objective " all electricity from renewable sources , AERS). Castilla y León and Galicia are especially near this goal, producing in 2006 70% of their total electricity demand from renewable energy sources, and 5 communities produce more than 50% from renewables. Renewable energy in Spain represented 12.5% of total energy generation in 2009. Spain has set the target of generating 20% of its energy needs from renewable energy sources by 2020. [1] Some autonomous regions in Spain lead Europe in the use of renewable energy technology , and plan to reach 100% renewable energy generation in a few years (objective " all electricity from renewable sources , AERS). Castilla y León and Galicia are especially near this goal, producing in 2006 70% of their total electricity demand from renewable energy sources, and 5 communities produce more than 50% from renewables. Renewable energy in Spain represented 12.5% of total energy generation in 2009. Spain has set the target of generating 20% of its energy needs from renewable energy sources by 2020. [1] Some autonomous regions in Spain lead Europe in the use of renewable energy technology , and plan to reach 100% renewable energy generation in a few years (objective " all electricity from renewable sources , AERS). Castilla y León and Galicia are especially near this goal, producing in 2006 70% of their total electricity demand from renewable energy sources, and 5 communities produce more than 50% from renewables. Spain is the world's third biggest producer of wind power, after the United States and Germany . More than 11% of Spain's electricity came from wind power in 2008. Solar power In 2005 Spain became the first country in the world to require the installation of photovoltaic electricity generation in new buildings, and the second in the world (after Israel ) to require the installation of solar hot water systems. [4] With the construction of the PS10 , located near Seville, Spain became the first country to ever have a commercial solar energy power tower. [5]
  • Transcript

    • 1. THERE’S NO TIME LEFT FOR PROCRASTINATION April 2011
    • 2. NATURAL DISASTERS
    • 3. HURRICANES Eye of the hurricane the calmest part
    • 4. VOLCANOES
      • Volcanic disasters are caused by lava flows, triggered by volcanic activities such as eruptions. Covering extensive areas, volcanic disasters can cause a large-scale damages and serious personal injury.
      • Secondary disasters such as debris flows are often triggered by rainfall after a volcanic eruption.
      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lFOAVVo9zQI
    • 5. EARTHQUAKES
      • Earthquakes, are jerking of the field of variable intensity and short duration, produced in the earth's crust due to the sudden release of energy within the Earth. We perceive it as a tremor or shaking of the ground.
      • Although they may have different causes, most earthquakes are caused by vibrations that occur when large masses of rocks inside the rigid crust abruptly after fracture is subjected to enormous pressures.
      EARTHQUAKES
    • 6. TECTONIC EARTHQUAKE The magnitude and intensity of earthquakes is measured using two scales used for the magnitude of Richer and the Mercalli intensity. The first with a total of ten degrees and the second with twelve
    • 7. VOLCANIC EARTHQUAKE 1. Magma chamber 2. Bedrock 3. Conduit (pipe) 4. Base 5. Sill 6. Branch pipe 7. Layers of ash emitted by the volcano 8. Flank 9. Layers of lava emitted by the volcano 10. Throat 11. Parasitic cone 12. Lava flow 13. Vent 14. Crater 15. Ash cloud
    • 8.
      • CONCLUSION
      • Earthquakes occur when instantly released from the stored energy inside the Earth and consequently the ground shakes, and there are different types of waves and earthquakes. The consequences are always negative, major earthquakes can cause considerable damage, as they make the opening large cracks in the ground, fall and damage buildings, bridges collapse and break water and gas pipes.
    • 9. THE 1906 SAN FRANCISCO EARTHQUAKE
    • 10. THE 1906 SAN FRANCISCO EARTHQUAKE
    • 11. THE 1960 VALDIVIA EARTHQUAKE
    • 12. THE 2010 HAITI EARTHQUAKE
    • 13. THE 2004 INDONESIA TSUNAMI
    • 14. THE MARCH 2011 JAPAN EARTHQUAKE AND TSUNAMI
    • 15. NUCLEAR POWER STATIONS
    • 16. CHERNOBIL 1986
    • 17. CHERNOBIL 1986
    • 18. CHERNOBIL 1986
    • 19.
    • 20. 2011 FUKUSIMA
    • 21. Is Spain a nation at risk for natural disasters?
    • 22. NATURAL DISASTERS MAP
    • 23.  
    • 24. In the early hours of 26 April 1986, one of four nuclear reactors at the Chernobyl power station exploded. Moscow was slow to admit what had happened, even after increased radiation was detected in other countries. The lack of information led to exaggerated claims of the number killed by the blast in the immediate area. Contamination is still a problem, however, and disputes continue about how many will eventually die as a result of the world's worst nuclear accident
    • 25.  
    • 26. The sarcophagus encasing Chernobyl was built in haste and is crumbling. Despite strengthening work there are fears it could collapse, leading to the release of tonnes of radioactive dust. Work is due to begin on a £ 600m replacement shelter designed to last 100 years. This New Safe
    • 27. Confinement will be built on site and then slid over the sarcophagus. The shelter will allow the concrete structure to be dismantled and for the radioactive fuel and damaged reactor to be dealt with. The ends of the structure will be closed-off. Despite the lasting contamination of the area, scientists have been surprised by the dramatic revival of its wildlife. Wild horse, boar and wolf populations are thriving, while lynx have returned to the area and birds have nested in the reactor building without any obvious ill-effects.
    • 28.  
    • 29.  
    • 30.  
    • 31. The disaster released at least 100 times more radiation than the atom bombs dropped on Nagasaki and Hiroshima. Much of the fallout was deposited close to Chernobyl, in parts of Belarus, Ukraine and Russia. More than 350,000 people resettled away from these areas, but about 5.5 million remain. Contamination with caesium and strontium is of particular concern, as it will be present in the soil for many years. After the accident traces of radioactive deposits were found in nearly every country in the northern hemisphere. But wind direction and uneven rainfall left some areas more contaminated than their immediate neighbours. Scandinavia was badly affected and there are still areas of the UK where farms face post-Chernobyl controls.
    • 32.  
    • 33. The number of people who could eventually die as a result of the Chernobyl accident is highly controversial. An extra 9,000 cancer deaths are expected by the UN-led Chernobyl Forum. But it says most people's problems are "economic and psychological, not health or environmental". Campaign group Greenpeace is among those to predict more serious health effects. It expects up to 93,000 extra cancer deaths, with other illnesses taking the toll as high as 200,000. The most obvious health impact is a sharp increase in thyroid cancer. About 4,000 cases of the disease have been seen, mainly in people who were children or adolescents at the time. Survival rates are high and only 15 people are known to have died. But Greenpeace says there could eventually be 60,000 cases of the disease, among 270,000 cases of all
    • 34.  
    • 35. Japan is beginning the cleanup after Friday’s deadly earthquake and tsunami. The death toll is currently at 573 with hundreds more people missing. Most of the people died in the massive tsunami, which was up to ten metres high. Japan’s Fire and Disaster Management Agency says the number of destroyed buildings has reached 3,400, but that is expected to rise. In the quake-hit areas, around 5.57 million households currently have no electricity, while more than one million homes have had their water supply cut off.
    • 36.  
    • 37. The mega-earthquake is the seventh largest ever recorded. It hit northeast Japan at 2:46 p.m. with a magnitude of 8.9 on the Richter scale. It was felt as far away as Beijing, China. The following tsunami has completely washed away large parts of Japan’s north. The damage is in tens of billions of dollars. Fifty-three countries in the Pacific Rim were put on tsunami alert. Japan’s Prime Minister Naoto Kan said his main focus now is to stop a nuclear power plant from overheating. Scientists released radioactive steam from the plant to reduce the pressure inside it. A second explosion has occurred at the nuclear power plant that was damaged in Friday ’ s catastrophic earthquake and tsunami. Nuclear reactor 3 from the Fukushima plant suffered a similar explosion to that which hit reactor 1 on Saturday. Officials say the blast did not damage the casing which houses the uranium fuel rods in the reactor ’ s core. Experts believe the latest explosion was caused by a build-up of hydrogen in the building that covers the core. Japan ’ s prime minister Naoto Kan has told people there is no danger of a radioactive leak, but warned the situation to cool the reactors is still critical. He described recent events as "the biggest crisis Japan has encountered in the 65 years since the end of World War II".
    • 38.  
    • 39.  
    • 40. Japan is beginning to understand more details of its tragedies. The death toll is slowly rising. Police found over 2,000 bodies on the coastline of Miyagi prefecture on Monday and at least ten thousand people are missing in the port town of Minamisanriku. Tens of thousands of people have been evacuated from a 20-km radius of the Fukushima nuclear power plants – many fear they will never see their homes again. More than 22 Fukushima residents are being treated for the effects of exposure to radiation. The whole of Japan is extremely concerned about the ongoing crisis at the power plants. Experts say a disaster on the scale of Chernobyl is highly unlikely. Nevertheless, the quiet fear and panic experienced by the Japanese raise questions about nuclear safety.
    • 41. GRAPH OF THE EVOLUTION OF NET COMSUPTION OF ELECTRICITY IN SPAIN Evolution of the power of the energy in Spain Años Millones de Kwh Tasa de variación % 1960 14.625 8,4 1970 45.300 10,4 1980 92.006 4,6 1985 105.579 2,9 1990 129.161 3 1991 138.046 6,9 1992 139.426 1 1993 139.065 -0,3 1994 145.033 4,3 1995 150.289 3,6 1996 154.928 3,1 1997 162.338 4,8 1998 173.906 7,1 1999 185.611 6,7 2000 196.421 5,8
    • 42. TEN LARGEST CONSUMER COUNRIES NUCLEAR POWER COUNTRY UNITS TOTAL OF MW(e) Estados Unidos 109 99.784 Francia 56 58.493 Japón 59 38.875 Alemania 21 22.657 Federación de Rusia 29 19.843 Canadá 22 15.755 Ucrania 15 12.679 Reino Unido 12 11.720 Suecia 12 10.002 República de Corea 10 8.170 Total 335 297.978 GLOBAL CONSUMER 432 340.347
    • 43. FIGURES INTERPRETATION
      • In 2008, 50% of the energy produced in Spain was of nuclear origin (15,368 ktoe or thousands of tonnes of oil equivalent), 15% came from coal, 6% hydro and 29% of other renwables .
      • Renewable energy, Spain is the largest producer of solar and wind power the third world in 2009. After the "boom" of installing photovoltaic panels in Spain in 2008, the real power of solar energy production could reach 3,130 MW, surpassing Germany was the leading producer, according to the National Energy Commission (CNE) .
    • 44. FIGURES IINTERPRETATION
      • In recent years, Spain is higher theoretical capacity of generating wind power than nuclear, with 16,740 MW installed in 2008.
      • In 2003 Spain became the world's largest producer, but it is expected that the U.S., Germany and China are ahead in 2010.
      • Spain and Germany in 2005 they produced more electricity from wind farms that from hydroelectric plants.
    • 45. NUCLEAR ENERGY ARGUMENTS FOR VS AGAINST NUCLEAR ENERGY DEBATE: ARGUMENTS FOR AGAINST Renewables do not produce all the electricity needed now Just a positive impact on climate change because the main source of emissions is road transport Countries such as France, Finland and the United States opt for this alternative United States, France, Japan, Germany, Russia and South Korea (75% nuclear power in the world) have a persistent public opposition Ensure power supply in Spain to operate the reactor 9 24 hours a day 365 days a year In the above countries, for example, to keep constant the number of operating reactors should be built 80 new reactors in the next ten years Is a clean energy, avoiding the emission of 60 million tonnes of CO2 per year Even with 1,000 or 1,500 plants in the next 50 years, global electricity coverage would not reach the 20% and reducing CO2 emissions would not reach 10% It is economical because the kWh produced at reasonable cost Is not competitive. If one wanted to produce all the world's electricity by nuclear means would have to build 2 plants each week for 50 years. And their high capital costs account for 75% of the total cost of the nuclear kWh Guaranteed Security Obvious security now increased international terrorism. Besides the problems that generate waste and nuclear proliferation that would require use plutonium as fuel
    • 46. THE WORST ACCIDENTS AT NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS HAVE RESULTED IN SEVERE ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION.
    • 47. RISK OF CANCER
      • There have been several epidemiological studies that claim to demonstrate increased risk of various diseases, especially cancers, among people who live near nuclear facilities. Among recent studies, a widely cited 2007 meta-analysis of 17 research papers was published in the European Journal of Cancer Care . It offered evidence of elevated leukemia rates among children living near 136 nuclear facilities in the United Kingdom, Canada, France, United States, Germany, Japan, and Spain. [15] Elevated leukemia rates among children were also found in a 2008 German study that examined residents living near 16 major nuclear power plants in Germany. These recent results are not consistent with many earlier studies that have tended not to show such associations. But no credible alternate explanations for the recent findings have so far emerged
    • 48. SAVING ENERGY
      • YouTube - Energy, let's save it!
    • 49. SOLAR ENERGY
    • 50. WIND POWER
    • 51. OFFSHORE WIND POWER
    • 52. Our goal is to eliminate nuclear energy
    • 53. What are we going to do?
      • The earth is warning us with natural disasters, so why do we continue maltreating her? We think that is easier to leave the job to next generations, but do we want our children to suffer the consequences that we have caused?
    • 54. ENERGY LET’S SAVE IT (aquí va el video con hipervinculo)
    • 55. 8 NUCLEAR UNITS WORKING NUCLEAR POWER STATIONS IN SPAIN
    • 56.  
    • 57. Thank you and take care!